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Museum of Comparative Zoology 

/- ^ 


Volume 78 

f . ( '- 

Ottawa Ontario 


im 2 6 1964 





Bird and Mammal Observations at Hazen Camp, Northern EUesmere Island, in 1962 

D. B. O. Savile and D. R. Oliver 1 

Pseudofossils near Old Chelsea, Quebec Donald D. Hogarth 8 

Birds of Kleena Kleene, Chilcotin District, B.C., 1959-1962 W. Adrian B. Paul 13 

Territoriality among Wintering Snowy Owls Lloyd B. KLeith 17 
Spring and Summer Phenology at Baker Lake, Keewatin, N.W.T., during 1959-62 

Charles J. Krebs 25 
A Distributional Summary and some Behavioral Notes for Smith's Longspur, 

Calcarius pictus Emerson Kemsies and Worth RA>nDLE 28 
Flower Variation of Epilobium angustifolium L. growing over Uranium Deposits 

Hansford T. Shacklette 32 

An Extension in the Breeding Range of Brewer's Blackbird in Ontario O. E. Devitt 42 

Report of Council 47 

Statement of Financial Standing 51 

Reviews 52 

Never Cry Wolf — Wildlife's Ten-Year Cycle — The Birds — Principles in Mammalogy — The 
Monarch of Mularchy Mountain — A Sharing of Joy 


Common Egrets Nesting near Amherstburg, Ontario Winnifred Smith 59 

A Breeding Record for the Bobolink in Prince Edward Island Stanley E. Vass 60 

A Spadefoot Toad from Manitoba Franos R. Co6k and David R. M. Hatch 60 

A Weevil in the Ear of a Child at London, Ontario William W. Jxtod 61 

Mass Mortality of Gulls at Rondeau Park, Lake Erie Douglas D. Dow and M. Anne Daw 62 

Three New Bird Records for Prince Edward Island Willett J. Mills 62 

An Eastern Spiny Soft-shelled Turde from Quebec Province Joseph Lovrity and Norris Denman 63 
Breeding Record for the Bufflehead West of the Coast Range in British Columbia 

David A. Hancock 64 
A Northern Range Extension for Bufo americanus with Notes on B. americanus and Rana sylvatica 

Franos R. Cook 6S 

Can. Field Nat. 

Vol. 78 

No. 1 

p. 1^6 

Ottawa, January-March 1964 


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Autiborized as second-class mail by the Post Office Department at Ottawa, Ontario 

The Canadian Field'Naturalist 

Volume 78 JANUARY-MARCH 1964 Number 1 


D. B. O. Savile and D. R. Oliver 

Plant Research Institute and Entomology Research Institute, Research Branch, 

Canada Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, Ontario. 

In 1962 THE Entomology Research Institute, Canada Department of Agricul- 
ture, initiated a biological study project at Hazen Camp, a station established 
by the Defence Research Board on the northwest shore of Lake Hazen at 
8i° 49' N, 71° 18' W. This project, largely concerned with the ecology of 
arctic insects, is expected to continue for several years. Oliver reached Hazen 
Camp on June 6 and Savile on June 16. We both left on August 23. In the 
course of making botanical analyses of most actual or potential study sites 
within several miles of camp and doing other botanical and mycological work, 
Savile traversed most of this area at frequent intervals and thus was able to 
assess the breeding bird population in some detail. 

The main purpose of this paper is to present this quantitative information, 
which is of potential significance in the general ecological picture. Some 
observations were made at distances up to eight miles or more from camp, but 
an area of 8.6 square miles, which was covered in adequate detail, was used for 
the breeding census. This area, stretching from Blister Creek to Snow Goose 
River and from the lake shore to the steep talus of Mt. McGill, was pre- 
dominantly dry ground, but included several marshes and many small ponds. 
Some observations were made by Oliver in 1961, but he did not arrive until 
July 7, and other work made detailed observations of vertebrates impossible. 
He did, however, secure enough hatching dates in each year to allow a com- 
parison of the two seasons. 

Behavior notes are excluded from this report, but data on several species, 
notably the Ruddy Turnstone and Knot, are on file in our notes. 

Lake Hazen has a dry, sunny summer, with temperatures higher than at 
many stations 8-10° further south. This benign summer climate, which is due 
to the dynamic warming of winds coming over the adjacent high mountains, 
results in an unusually varied flora and insect fauna. Actual population 
densities of many organisms are, however, limited by the generally negligible 
summer rainfall. Mesic habitats are scarce except on springy mountain slopes. 
In the lowlands one passes almost at a step from marsh to semi-desert. The 
proportion of arid land is high, but is difficult to assess accurately, partly because 
of variations in the level and course of water on the extensive deltas of the 
glacial streams. The summer of 1962 was unusually warm, with a July mean 

**An investigation associated with the program Studies on Arctic Insects, Entomology Research In- 
stitute, Canada Department of Agriculture (Paper No. 4). 

Mailing date of this number: March 20, 1964 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

of 46.7°F; whereas 1961 was quite cool at Hazen, as elsewhere in the high arctic, 
with a July mean of 42.4°F. In 1958 the July mean was 43.8°F, which may be 
close to an average figure. The available data do not make it clear whether 
the summer temperature affected nesting success; but the late, cool season of 
1961 certainly delayed nesting, as comparable figures for several species show. 

For conformity with future publications, ponds are denoted by numbers 
allotted to them in connection with entomological studies. 


Gavia stellata Red-throated Loon 

One pair nested at pond 34 ("Skeleton 
Lake"), which was clear of ice on July 2. 
The young hatched on late 20 or early 21 
July; both were approaching full size by 
August 13, although stiU partly downy and 
with short bills. A pair nested at this pond 
in 1961, when it became ice-free on July 16, 
and both young hatched on July 29 or 30. 
A second pair nested in 1962 much later at 
pond 30, two miles northeast of the first pair, 
the young hatching between August 5 and 
10, probably about August 8 to judge from 
their size on August 10. This pond is about 
500 feet above pond 34; it is long and nar- 
row, and shallow at the ends. It is doubtful 
whether the chicks could have been fledged 
before it became ice-covered. 

Chen hyperborea atlantica Snow Goose 

One to four adults were seen occasionally 
near camp from June 18 onward. A pair 
nested at pond 10, a mile north of camp, 
hatching five young slightly before July 17. 
Four young, nearly fuU grown, survived at 
the last sighting on August 20. In 1961 seen 
only in mid-August; definitely not breeding 
in study area. Tener (MS) saw young in 
1958 only at the west end of Lake Hazen. 

Clangula hiejnalis Oldsquaw 

One or more, male and female, frequently 
visited pond 1, at camp, early in the summer. 
Two females nested in the census area, at 
ponds 10 and 30 (one and two miles north 
of camp), with broods of eight and six. 
Hatching dates were about July 16 for the 
former and probably slightly earlier for the 
latter. An unmated female attended the 
former brood until they left the home pond 
on August 6. In 1961 adults were occasionally 
at ponds 1, 10 and 34, but no young were 
seen. Tener (MS) noted two pairs at Hazen 
Camp, but no sign of nesting. 

Somateria spectabilis King Eider 

A pair were seen across the lake near 
Ruggles River on June 18. A pair appeared 
at pond 1 ("Camp Pond") on June 23. The 
female nested on the edge of an adjacent 
small pool (No. 38), hatching a brood of 
five on July 18. The brood was moved from 
pond to pond over an area of several square 
miles. The half-grown young often swam 
near the edges of ponds in shallow water 
with heads below the surface, apparently 
feeding largely on the abundant Lepidurus 
arcticus. All five young were seen on August 
12, but one was lost shortly afterwards. The 
female and surviving four nearly grown 
young were seen near camp on our last day, 
August 23. Adults were seen at ponds in the 
study area in 1961, but no young were fovmd. 
Tener (MS) noted the species at several 
places in the Lake Hazen region, but saw 
no evidence of breeding. 

Lagopus mutus rupestris Rock Ptarmigan ■ 
Two pairs nested in the study area, hatch- 
ing broods of eight and ten chicks before 
July 15. Ten fully grown young were seen 
as late as August 20, which may have been 
the residue of the two broods, for both 
broods seemed to have lost some members 
by early August. None were seen in the 
area in 1961. Tener (MS) saw only four birds 
in 1958. 

Grus c. canadensis Sandhill Crane 

Although none were seen, on June 24 the 
distinctive tracks of a crane (with large, 
straight and widely divergent toes and no 
mark of the hind toe) were seen in delta 
mud two miles southwest of camp, mixed 
with goose tracks. The clearest print was 
photographed and measured. The lateral 
toes were 7 and 8 cm long and the center 
one 10 cm long (all measurements to the mid 
point of the back of the impression). Mr. 


Savile and Oliver: Observations at Hazan Camp 

W. Earl Godfrey finds the length of the 
center toe to be 10.0 and 10.7 cm in two 
mounted birds at the National Museum of 
Canada. The species breeds on Devon Island, 
so that strays may be expected in EUesmere, 
although they do not seem to have been 

Arenaria i. inter pres Ruddy Turnstone 

This was apparently the most abundant 
breeding species; but only three nests were 
seen, and the birds often flew about in small 
groups rather than staying within, and de- 
claring, their territories. One bird, surprised 
on the nest, gave a brief injury display, but 
usually there was no clear reaction to one's 
approach to nest or young. The number of 
breeding pairs in the census area Avas esti- 
mated to be thirty on the basis of the birds 
being about fifty per cent more abundant 
than the Knot. The numbers of young seen 
after mid-July suggested that this estimate 
was fairly reliable. Almost all broods seemed 
to have hatched by July 8. By August 3 al- 
most all adults had left. A migrating flock 
of juveniles flew east past the camp on 
August 10, the voices still somewhat higher 
pitched than those of the adults. A few were 
seen at camp until August 18. Two nests 
were seen in 1961, both clutches hatching 
between July 9 and 12. Tener (MS) in 1958 
first noted flying young on August 3. In 
1962 a few young were just flying (and 
giving a high-pitched fwit-twit-twit call) on 
July 20, and by July 25 most young were 
flying easily. 

Capella gallinago Common Snipe 

The surprise of the season occurred on 
July 31 when a snipe was flushed at close 
range from the marshy edge of pond 34. 
The bill and back pattern were clearly seen, 
and the bird called repeatedly, eliminating 
any possible doubt of its identity. The site 
was visited daily by one or both of us in the 
hope of collecting the bird, but it was not 
seen again. Although it is probable that this 
bird belonged to the North American race, 
delicata, it is to be noted that the A.O.U. 
Checklist (1957) reports both gallinago and 
faeroensis as casual in East Greenland. The 
bird was presumably a wind-blown stray, 
possibly brought in on the gale of July 23. 
This occurrence makes somewhat more 
plausible the record from Repulse Bay, 
which Snyder (1957) treated with under- 
standable misgiving. 

Calidris c. canutus Knot 

In June and early July the birds spent 
much time circling and calling at up to more 
than 1000 feet, singly or in small groups, 
making the location of territories difficult. 
After about July 5, as the eggs were be- 
ginning to hatch, territories were readily 
marked by the birds giving continuous alarm 
notes at one's approach. Within a few days, 
as the young began to move about freely, 
"rodent run" distraction displays were per- 
formed long before the young could be seen, 
greatly helping in the counting of broods. 
Twenty pairs estimated to have bred in the 
census area. By August 1 most young were 
independent, although an adult was found 
guarding a single late chick, still partly 
downy, on August 11. Most birds had left 
by August 6. A flock of more than seventy- 
five passed northeast over the camp on 
August 5, suggesting that this population 
flies north of the Greenland ice-cap to north- 
western Europe. Young were first seen in 
1961 on July 9. 

Erolia bairdii Baird's Sandpiper 

Single birds were seen on June 18 and 19. 
A few were seen with other waders at a 
pond behind a barrier beach on June 24; and 
two were seen at the same place on June 28. 
None bred in the study area, however, 
despite suitable marshes; and the species was 
next recorded on August 6 when two flew 
overhead, calling. Three were seen at Blister 
Creek delta on August 9, and eight on August 
11. Tener (1961) records an adult with a 
chick a mile north of Hazen Camp. 

Crocethia alba Sanderling 

First definitely seen on June 21. First in- 
dication of breeding was obtained w^hen a 
pair gave "rodent run" displays on June 25 
at the Snow Goose River delta li miles 
northeast of camp. Four scattered pairs 
nested in the study area on sandy or gravelly 
sites near the lake shore. Young barely flying 
were seen near camp on August 3. Last seen 
on August 11, but work at camp prevented 
later observations at favored sites. Tener 
(MS) noted an adult with four small yotmg 
on July 30, 1958 at Blister Creek, where one 
of the 1962 pairs nested. 

Stercorarius longicaudus Long-tailed Jaeger 

Six pairs nested in the census area. Eggs 

hatched between July 9 and ca 12. Both eggs 

hatched in each nest, the second often a 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

full day after the first. With lemmings very 
scarce, the adults took appreciable numbers 
of young Knots and Ruddy Turnstones. In 
most pairs of young marked size differences 
were soon apparent, the smaller one evi- 
dently failing to survive more than two 
weeks. Presumably, with food scarce, the 
stronger chick obtained most of what the 
parents brought in. This behavior may be 
adaptive, for equal division of the food 
might have left both chicks undernourished 
and incapable of flying before cold weather 
set in. One half -grown chick walked out on 
brash ice at the lake edge in search of in- 
sects, slipped through and drowned. The 
most advanced young started to fly about 
August 3. Most flew strongly by August 11, 
although the parents were still moderately 
attentive. Several birds were still about the 
camp on August 23. In 1961 no nests or 
young were seen and Oliver was subjected 
to no attacks, which suggested absence of 
breeding in the camp area. It is not clear 
whether the relatively late spring or the 
almost complete lack of lemmings was 
responsible for this breeding failure. Al- 
though the summer was a cool one, it was 
still much warmer than that at Isachsen in 
1960 where the species nested successfully 
when lemmings were plentiful. However, 
delayed snow-melting in spring might make 
nesting impossible until the birds were past 
breeding condition. Lemmings were still 
scarce in 1962, but evidently more abundant 
than in 1961. Tener (MS) noted some nest- 
ing in 1958, despite a scarcity of lemmings. 

Larus hyperboreus Glaucous Gull 

Single adults were seen on June 19, June 
24 and July 13. No good nest sites occur 
close to Hazen Camp. Oliver saw no birds 
after his arrival in July 1961, but other mem- 
bers of the party reported several in June. 
Tener (MS) saw several in 1958 but had no 
evidence of breeding. 

Sterna paradisaea Arctic Tern 

First seen on June 16. One pair nested on a 
sandy point near camp and a second on a 
similar site two miles southwest. Both eggs 
of one nest hatched between July 13 and 16. 
The first &^^ in the second nest hatched on 
July 17 and the second a day or so later. All 
four young were raised successfully, starting 
to fly about August 8. Last seen by P. S. 
Corbet on August 19. In 1961 there was a 
nest on the sandy point near camp, in which 

the eggs hatched on July 30. In 1958 Tener 
(MS) saw flying young on August 1, which 
indicates an early nesting. 

Nyctea scandiaca Snowy Owl 

Not seen in 1962. In 1961 one was seen on 
August 15, flying south near Hazen Camp. 
Tener (MS) saw widely scattered individuals 
in 1958, but no evidence of breeding. 

Acmithis h. horneiiianni Hoary Redpoll 

Date of arrival uncertain but evidently 
early. Flying young were seen on June 27, 
still attended by parents. Young and adults 
were seen up to over 2500 feet on Mt. Mc- 
Gill on June 29. On July 5 a flock of about 
fifteen seemingly independent young was 
seen at the foot of Mt. McGill talus. An 
adult seen closely on July 17 was evidently 
molting into winter plumage. Most had left 
by July 31, but one was seen on August 4. 
One pair nested in a hummocky Dryas- 
covered gully near camp. All other nests 
were apparently in crevices of the talus slope 
of Mt. McGill. Parmelee and MacDonald 
(1960) found the species nesting in this 
habitat in the Eureka Sound area. Twelve 
breeding pairs were estimated for the census 

Calcarius I. lapponicus Lapland Longspur 

A single male was seen briefly in a gully 
near camp on July 20. It gave a two-noted 
call several times, but did not sing. De- 
finitely did not breed in or near the study 
area in 1962, but Tener (1961) records a 
female feeding a single flightless juvenile 
three miles northeast of camp in 1958. In 
1961 a single male was seen a few miles west 
of camp, up Blister Creek, on August 5. 

Plectrophenax n. nivalis Snow Bunting 

Evidently arrived early but did not nest 
as promptly as the Hoary Redpoll. Crevices 
in the talus slope were the preferred nest 
sites; but a scattering of nests occurred in 
mud cracks and other cavities in the alluvial 
lowlands. One nest near camp was in the 
slightly enlarged entrance of a lemming bur- 
row. The eggs in this nest hatched on July 2. 
Within a few days adults were seen carrying 
food into several cavities, indicating that this 
was a representative hatching date. The 
young from the lemming burrow nest flew on 
July 13. By late July flocks of juveniles oc- 
curred increasingly around the camp, seem- 
ingly attracted as much by cover as by food. 
By August 15 some young were nearly into 

1964 Savile and Oliver: Observations at Hazan Camp 5 

winter plumage, but others were still very on July 16. In 1958 Tener (MS) noted 

gray. A few were seen as late as August 18. migrating flocks passing through camp from 

A nest found on July 13, 1961 contained five August 15 to 20. In 1962 it was estimated that 

nearly fledged young; and young were flying twenty-five pairs nested in the census area. 

Breeding Bird Density 

It was estimated that in 1962 there were, in all, 107 breeding pairs of birds 
in the study area of 8.6 square miles. This figure yields a density of 12.5 
pairs per square mile, 1.94 pairs per 100 acres, or 0.39 individuals per 10 acres. 
This is about 2.5 times the density found for a colder and much more sparsely 
vegetated area at Isachsen (Savile, 1961); but it is about 1/10 to 1/20 of various 
estimates published for low-arctic tundra (Hickey, 1943; Savile, 1951). It is 
also appreciably lower than rough estimates (Savile, 1959, p. 961) for all but 
the most sterile parts of Somerset Island, which has a lower summer temperature 
and a somewhat smaller flora than Lake Hazen. It appears that the extreme 
aridity of many sites at Hazen Camp must markedly Umit the breeding popula- 
tion, by restricting plant growth and, consequently, insect abundance. 

It is perhaps significant that the Turnstones, Knots, Sanderlings and Snow 
Buntings fed extensively in July and August on chironomid midges, which 
were washed ashore and on to the melting ice of Lake Hazen. The lake is 
perhaps an important source of food in this arid region. It is possible that far 
from the lake the breeding density would have been substantially lower. 


Alopex lagopus Arctic Fox fresh remnants of a lemming deep in a bur- 

An adult was seen on July 3 being chivied row. Typical, fresh and reasonably clear 

by a pair of jaegers near Blister Creek. On tracks were seen m dry sand near camp on 

July 8 a den was found, four miles from August 10. Tener (MS) found the species 

camp, with two well-grown cubs. By July scarce in the region m 1958. 
30 the cubs had left the den, but one was 

seen a few hundred yards away. The den Lepiis arcticus Arctic Hare 
is evidently very old, with twenty^iwo open- One to three adults were seen periodically 

ings in an area 24 x 18 feet. on the slopes and gullies of Blister Hill near 

the camp. P. S. Corbet saw two adults, pre- 

Canis lupus Wolf sumably different animals, two-thirds up the 

One, or at most two, were seen near camp northeast slope of Mt. McGill. On August 

periodically in June and early July; and fresh 20 Corbet saw three playing on a ridge near 

tracks were often seen, once right through camp that may have been young, but no 

camp. One was evidently attracted, like the definite proof of breeding was obtained. In 

jaegers, by food scraps. In 1961 wolves were summer the hares tend to feed on the tops 

much commoner locally, as many as six often of tall grasses and other herbs in the gullies, 

being seen around camp. On August 19, 1961 They spend enough time in some favored 

two dead wolves were found between camp spots to cause local nitrification and lush 

and the Snow Goose delta. Both had died growth in gullies where moisture is not a 

recently and had clearly been gored by limiting factor. In one such spot Poa hartzii, 

musk-oxen. Tener (MS) saw eleven near which usually has the aspect of a typical 

camp in May 1958, but saw few in the re- desert bunch-grass with glaucous and in- 

gion during the rest of the summer. volute leaves, had flat, green leaves and a 

lax habit, and somewhat resembled P. arctica. 
Mustek erminea Ermine In 1958 Tener (MS) found hares widespread 
Apparently very scarce. None was actually but not numerous and saw no sign of breed- 
seen, but on August 4 R. B. Madge found ing. 

6 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

Dicrostonx groenlandicus Collared quite weathered. The species does occur in 

Lemming the Lake Hazen valley, however, for Tener 

None were seen in 196L Recovery from (^S) saw one at the camp and one eight 

the crash had evidently started in 1962. J. A. ^1^^ north, and reports that R. L. Christie 

Downes saw two in early July, and R. B. ^aw four about thirty miles east of the lake. 

Madge saw one taken by a jaeger on July 9. Q^ihos moschatus Musk-ox 

W. H. Forrest caught a iuvenile in late July. „ • n u n • j- n 

,,. J J • -T u r J One or occasionally two bulls periodically 

We saw a dead luvenile at the rox den on , j • u u 

T , ,^ ^T •" , 1, • •, appeared near camp during the summer, but 

July 30. Oliver caught a small luvenile on f^ j i ii ■ j 

■'. ■' ,- J c -1 u T-u n the cows and calves generally remained some 

August 12 and bavile saw another, ihus all -i rr i • i u n 

, ° , , . .,.,.. miles oil on the mountain slopes, where small 

those seen closely were luveniles, indicating . ,, ^ 

u J- T- /A^c\'j-^ groups were occasionally seen. In imd- 

active breeding. Tener (Mb) indicates a ° ^ • j u 

1 • ,r,r-7 u • u J- • August, as snow cover increased on the 

peak in 1957, a crash in the succeeding win- ° '. . , j • u 

^ J . . i„;.o mountains, more ammals appeared in the 

ter, and great scarcity in 1958. , , , Vu \,- \, I u^ • j 

' ° ^ lowlands. The highest count was obtained 

on August 20 when fourteen adults and six 
Rangifer tarmidus Caribou calves were seen within a mile of camp. 

None were seen near the camp in 1961 or Tener (MS) recorded a total of eighty-six 
1962 and all shed antlers examined were animals in the lake region in 1958. 


The scarcity of lemmings in 1962 unquestionably diverted predation 
against some species of birds to an appreciable extent. The Long-tailed Jaegers 
certainly took substantial numbers of young Knots and Ruddy Turnstones 
(perhaps nearly tvventy-five per cent of the total) and at least one adult Knot. 
The effects of foxes, wolves and ermine were much less apparent, but were 
probably appreciable. None of these mammals were abundant enough to exert 
an overwhelming effect; and there was no such disastrous nesting failure as 
MacDonald (1961) reported for Ellef Ringnes Island when lemmings were 
scarce. A possible reduction of young ptarmigan in the census area from 
eighteen to ten in a month was, if actual, the most severe loss of predation. 
One young out of five was lost by both the Greater Snow Geese and King 
Eiders. Loss, if any, by the Oldsquavvs was light despite several long marches 
from pond to pond. The substantial loss of Long-tailed Jaeger chicks seems 
to have been due more to starvation and accident than to predation. The wolf 
seemed little disturbed by the attacks of the jaegers and terns, and was a 
potentially successful predator against these species although all tern chicks in 
our area were fledged successfully. The fox seen was so terrified by the attacks 
of the jaegers that it was probably ineffective against the young of this species 
or the terns. The foxes may have raided some nests of Knots and Ruddy 
Turnstones. Most nests of Hoary Redpolls and Snow Buntings were safe from 
any predator but an ermine. 

With both greater diversity of species ( 1.5: 1) and a greater density (2.5: 1) 
of breeding birds at Hazen Camp than at Isachsen (Savile, 1961), it is possible 
that predation does not fluctuate as violently; but many more observations are 
needed before any positive conclusions can be drawn. 

It seems remarkable that the carnivores were able to survive the winter 
at Lake Hazen with lemmings so scarce. The foxes certainly take a few hares 
(one hare foot was seen at the den). The wolves pull down an occasional 
isolated musk-ox, with some casualties to themselves. The foxes scavenge the 

1964 Savile and Oliver: Observations at Hazan Camp 7 

musk-ox carcases, for bones of various ages are to be seen at the den. Whether 
the ermine also scavenge the carcases is not known. 

Our thanks are due to the Defence Research Board for their faciUties and 
co-operation; to Dr. J. S. Tener, Canadian Wildlife Service, for the use of his 
manuscript notes on observations made in 1958 when Hazen Camp was in 
operation as an I.G.Y. station; to A4r. W. Earl Godfrey for information on the 
Sandhill Crane; and to Dr. P. S. Corbet and Mr. J. A. Downes for various 
observations and suggestions. 


American Ornithologists' Union. 1957. Savile, D. B. O. 1951. Bird observations at 

Check-list of North American birds. 5th Chesterfield Inlet, Keewatin, in 1950. 

ed. American Ornithologists' Union, Balti- Canadian Field-Naturalist 65: 145-157. 

more. . 1959. The botany of Somerset 

HicKEY, J. J. 1943. A guide to bird watch- Island, District of Franklin. Canadian Jour- 

ing. Oxford University Press, London, nal of Botany 37: 959-1002. 

New York and Toronto. . 1961. Bird and mammal observa- 

MacDonald, S. D. 1961. Report on bio- tions on EUef Ringnes Island in 1960. 

logical investigations at Isachsen, EUef National Museum of Canada, Natural 

Ringnes Island, N.WT. National Museum History Papers 9: 1-6. 

of Canada Bulletin 172: 90-97. Snyder, L. L. 1957. Arctic birds of Canada. 

Parmelee, D. F. and S. D. MacDonald. University of Toronto Press, Toronto. 

1960. The birds of west-central EUesmere Tener, J. S. 1961. Breeding range exten- 

Island and adjacent areas. National Mu- sions of two EUesmere Island birds. 

seum of Canada BuUetin 169: 1-103. Canadian Field-Naturalist 75: 51. 

Received for publication 20 March 1963 


Donald D. Hogarth 

Department of Geology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario 

The problem of evidence of life in rocks of Precambrian age has long been of 
interest to geologists. In Quebec the subject was introduced when J. W. 
Dawson (1865) described Eozoon canadense from a locality thirty-five miles 
northeast of Ottawa. Vigorous discussions ensued for a number of years on 
the status of this structure but today few geologists believe that Eozoon is of 
organic origin. 

Recently structures superficially resembling the larvae of monarch butter- 
flies and others resembling crinoid stems were discovered during geological 
mapping. These structures are composed of fine-grained quartz (jasper or 
chalcedony) at two localities (Figure 1 ) : a single occurrence on the Gatineau 
Parkway about li miles southwest of Old Chelsea and a group of occurrences 
centred about one mile north northeast of Old Chelsea 

Jasper and chalcedony occur in a variety of rocks (Figure 1). The 
most common types are feldspathic quartzite, biotite gneiss, marble and calc- 
siHcate rocks derived from marble. The calc-silicate rocks include the well- 
known metamorphic pyroxenite of the Ottawa Valley, quartz-tremolite, 
quartz-dopside and calcite-pyroxene varieties. Jasper also is found in peg- 
matite on the Gatineau Parkway near the Dunlop Road and in talc-rich quart- 
zite on the Chelsea Brook a mile south of Chelsea. It may be significant that, 
only those occurrences with chalcedony or jasper in marble or calc-silicate 
rocks disclosed organic-like textures. 

Parkway Occurrence 

During the construction of the Gatineau Parkway a chalk-white mineral 
was revealed in a rock-cut about 2300 feet south of the Kingsmere road. The 
exposure is now covered with earth. The mineral occurred in a mica vein and 
was shown by X-ray diffraction to be fine-grained quartz (chalcedony). An- 
other mica vein, about a mile northeast, held a mineral of similar appearance 
but which, on examination, proved to be feldspar (microcline). 

Masses of chalcedony were found in veins which cut metamorphic pyrox- 
enite. The pyroxene has been largely altered to coarse-grained actinolite. 
The chalcedony occurred principally in two places about fifteen feet apart and 
in masses two feet across. It is found with relatively coarse-grained quartz 
and plums of pink barite. Orange jasper was occasionally seen as small iso- 
lated flecks in chalcedony. 

Under the microscope the chalcedony was observed as concentric bands 
and whisps. It was white in reflected light but brown to transmitted light. 
Coarse quartz occurred in interstices but sometimes within the chalcedony 
masses. The unusual crinoidal or worm-like shapes were often seen in this 


Hogarth: Pseudofossils near Old Chelsea 

Figure 1. Map of the Old Chelsea district showing generalized geology and occurrences 
of jasper and chalcedony. 

10 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

rock. Associated minerals were phlogopite, sphene, apatite, pyrite, hematite, 
tourmaline, calcite, chalcopyrite and molybdenite. 

Various stages of replacement of mica (phlogopite) by quartz have been 
observed. Initially chalcedony entered between sheets of phlogopite causing 
exfoliation (Figure 2a). This was apparently accomplished without loss of 
birefringence in the mica and therefore without vermiculitization. Then com- 
paratively coarse quartz replaced phlogopite. Some partially replaced sheets 
have been seen. At a more advanced stage phlogopite may have been com- 
pletely replaced producing the segmented shapes illustrated in Figure 2b. 
Finally barite and a little calcite filled the open spaces and replaced some of 
the worm-like structures leaving only traces of the original forms. 

Occurrence North of Old Chelsea 

Jasper has long been known at the Scott Mine just west of the Tenaga 
road (Figure 1). Textures and mineralogy have been described by Hannah 
(1952), Tanton (1953) and Hogarth (1962). Recent work by the writer has 
shown that the jasper occurrences are distributed throughout an area at least 
1400 feet wide and 3500 feet long. 

Spheroidal structures similar to those described by Hannah and Tanton 
were seen at most occurrences. These were often composed of radiating in- 
dividuals occasionally showing concentric zones rich in dusty hematite. Some- 
times jasper has been fractured and a later generation of quartz or chalcedony 
was deposited in voids (Figure 2c). This late quartz seems to be free of 
hematite. Other late vein-forming minerals are calcite, barite, fluorite and 

Segmented worm-like shapes were found in most deposits in marble or 
calc-silicate rock (Figure 1). A complete series of stages of development was 
observed identical to that described from the Parkway occurrence. Well- 
formed quartz pseudomorphs after phlogopite were observed in "worms" at 
occurrence No. 4. 

Morphology of pseudofossils 
The size of these forms varies considerably. The largest is 4 inches long 
and 0.7 inches wide (occurrence No. 2). Most are less than i inch long. An 
average length-to-width ratio of 8 well-formed specimens is 6.4:1. 

Figure 2a. Photomicrograph in polarized light of mica (light grey in centre of photograph) 
exfoUated and filled with chalcedony (dark grey). Locality No. 1. 

b. Photomicrograph in ordinary light of a worm-like structure composed of chalcedony 
and quartz (dark grey). A later generation of quartz (light grey) veins and surrounds 
the structure. Locality No. 1. 

c. Photomicrograph in polarized light of a typical veinlet of late chalcedony. Locality No. 3. 

d. Coiled and segmented structures of chalcedony. Black patches are cavities partially 
filled with barite. Photograph of a freshly broken surface from locality No. L 

e. Ribbed "crinoidal" growths of chalcedony in cavities. Locality No. L 

f. Pairs of replaced mica "books" enclosing a layer of white chalcedony which simulates the 
digestive tract of an organism. Photograph of a freshly-broken surface from locality 
No. L 


Hogarth: Pseudofossils near Old Chelsea 


12 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

In outline the structures show certain regularities. Most specimens taper 
at both ends although a few are abruptly terminated. Some are distinctly 
coiled (Figure 2d). This is especially true of larger individuals which, in rare 
instances, turn through a complete circle. They do not appear to be branched 
or intertwined. 

External forms are often well-developed on individuals in cavities (Figure 
2e). Sharply-divided segments of the type described above are common. In 
addition individuals may be roughly hexagonal in cross section but distinctly 
ribbed along their length. This ribbing is presumably due to groups of parallel 
crystals continuous along the prism axis. Similar composite crystals may be 
seen in unaltered phlogopite in many places in the Old Chelsea district. 

Pairs of parallel, replaced mica books may only be separated by a narrow 
layer of chalcedony simulating a digestive tract in long section (Figure 2f). 
In cross section the "worms" are structureless. 

Summary of Origin 

Worm-like forms at both the southern and northern localities appear to 
have originated in the following manner. 

1. Siliceous dolomites were metamorphosed to calc-silicate rocks composed 
of pyroxene, phlogopite and calcite. Rocks were intensely deformed at a 
temperature of about 1100°F and a pressure of 100,000 pounds per square 
inch. It is unlikely that any fossils could have survived these conditions. 

2. Chalcedony or jasper penetrated between sheets of mica causing exfolia- 
tion. Textures suggest that this silica was deposited as a gel at low tem- 
perature (Hannah, 1952). 

3. A4ica was replacd by quartz containing only small amounts of iron oxide. 
The resulting structure simulated a segmented organism. A later gener- 
ation of chalcedony may have been added at this stage. 

4. Jasper was cut by calcite-barite veins locally carrying quartz, fluorite, 
chalcopyrite and sphalerite. 

One may theorize on the date of the jasper and calcite-barite mineraliza- 
tion. Calcite and barite are known to be late in the geological sequence in 
this region. Veins of barite cut all Precambrian formations. They even fill 
breccias in Paleozoic limestones just south of Fairy Lake and 1000 yards south- 
east of the intersection of the Notch and Mountain Roads. In the localities 
considered the calcite has not reacted with quartz and therefore may postdate 
the regional metamorphism. It is thus possible that calcite-barite and the 
associated jasper are not older than Ordovician. 


The pseudofossils were discovered in 1961 during geological mapping 
sponsored by a grant from the Geological Society of America. Professor D. 
M. Baird of the University of Ottawa and Dr. D. J. McLaren of the Geological 
Survey of Canada kindly read the manuscript and made helpful suggestions. 


Hogarth: Pseudofossils near Old Chelsea 



Dawson, J. W. 1865. On the structure of 
certain organic remains in the Laurentian 
limestones of Canada. Part 2. Quarterly 
Journal of the Geological Society of Lon- 
don 21: 51-59. 

Hannah, G. J. R. 1952. The origin of the 
metasomatic iron formation at Old Chel- 
sea, P.Q. M.Sc. Thesis, Laval. Abstract in 
Canadian Mining Journal, 1957, 126. 

Hogarth, D. D. 1962. A guide to the ge- 
ology of the Gatineau-Lievre district. 
Canadian Field-Naturalist 76: 1-55. 

Tanton, T. L. 1953. Orbicular jaspillite, 
Hull township, Quebec. Proceedings of 
the Geological Association of Canada 6 
(pt. 1): 75-79. 

Received for publication 13 May 1963 



W. Adrian B. Paul 

Kleena Kleene, British Columbia 

The following list supplements the paper published previously by the writer 
(Paul, 1959). It adds 38 species to the list and gives additional information 
on 35 others. 

Aythya valisineria Canvasback. Breeds. 
May 6, 1962, eight males and some females; 
May 20, 1962, three pairs; June 7, 1962, one 
female; July 27, 1960, downy young near 
Nimpo Lake. 

Fhalacrocorax auritus Double-crested 
Cormorant. May 17, 1960, one reported, 
twice seen on float on One Eye Lake. 

Anas carolinensis Green-winged Teal. 
Breeds. July 27, 1960, six young two weeks 
old near Nimpo Lake. August 8, 1962, six 
young three-quarters grown. 

Anas discors Blue-winged Teal. Proba- 
bly breeds. May 6 1962, one pair; May 13, 
1962, three pairs; May 25, 1961, six pairs in a 
flock; June 7, 1962, one pair; June 13, 1962, 
one pair; June 17, 1961, four males and three 

Anas cyanoptera Cinnamon Teal. Pro- 
bably breeds. May 16, 1962, two pair; June 
8, 1961, one pair; June 20, 1962, one pair. 

Spatula clypeata Shoveler. Probably 
breeds. May 15, 1961, one pair; May 30, 1962, 
one pair and one male; June 8, 1961, two male 
and one female; August 28, 1961, three seen. 

Melanitta deglandi White-winged Scoter. 
M. perspicellata Surf Scoter. These are 
migrants and may be seen from time to time 
in spring and early fall on Clearwater Lake, 
in flocks up to about thirty. The two species 
are sometimes difficult to distinguish at a 
distance. April 29, 1961 and May 16, 1962, 
one pair of Surf Scoters. October 25, 1960, 
three White-winged. 

Oxyura jamaicensis Ruddy Duck. Breeds. 
May 6, 1962, four males and some females 
June 17, 1961, four males and one female 
June 13, 1962, six males and two females 
July 7, 1962, one pair; July 27, 1960, seven 
downy young near Nimpo Lake. 

Accipiter gentilis Goshawk. Breeds. July 
5, 1959, three fledghngs; May 7, 1960, one 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

seen; September 10, 1960, September 12, and 
October 10, 1962, one immature. 

Accipker striatus Sharp-shinned Hawk. 
Noticed only in the fall. August 27, 1961; 
October 12, 1962; and October 26, 1960, one 
mature seen; September 15, 1962, one im- 

Accipker cooperii Cooper's Hawk. July 
31, 1962, and August 4, 1962, one mature 
seen; August 17, 1962, one immature. 

Buteo jamaicensis Red-tailed Hawk. Aii- 
grant. May 14, 1960; May 18, 1962, and May 
28, 1961, one seen; August 4, 1962, one 
sitting on a haycock. 

Buteo swainsoni Swainson's Haavk. Be- 
lieved seen on May 17, June 24 and Septem- 
ber 26, 1961. 

Falco peregriniis Peregrine Falcon. Mi- 
grant. May 2, 1962; May 3, 1961; May 5, 
1960; September 6 and October 10, 1962, one 

Falco columbarius Pigeon Hawk. No- 
ticed several times in spring of 1961. April 
29, one pair, observed to mate; May 4, one 
seen; May 27, one pair. 

Forzana Carolina Sora. May 13, 1962, one 
seen, confirming information by long-time 
residents that this species seen or heard oc- 

Charadrius vociferus Killdeer. Regular 
summer residents. Eggs laid in early June. 
June 8, 1959, four eggs near Tatla Lake. 

Capella gallinago Common Snipe. Arrive 
in April. Mating displays through May and 
June. July 10, 1959, a flock of eight in a 
barnyard; July 18, 1962, three flying in a 

Actkis macularia Spotted Sandpiper. Com- 
mon summer resident. Eggs hatch in early 
July. July 14, 1961, one-third grown. 

Erolia minutilla Least Sandpiper. August 
6, 1962, six feeding in a flock; August 29, 
1962, one seen. 

Ereunetes mauri Western Sandpiper. 
August 15, 1962, twenty-five feeding in a 
flock; August 22, 1962, twelve feeding in a 
flock; August 29, 1962, six seen. 

Steganopus tricolor Wilson's Phalarope. 
Present from late May to October. Breeds. 
June 17, 1961, three males and three females. 
Distraction displays June 17, 1961; July 19, 
1961; July 11, 18 and 25, 1962. August 4, 

1961, three seen in a flock. August 22, 1962 
and October 14, 1961, one seen. 

Lams calif ornicus California Gull. July 
19, 1962, one mature and one second year 

Cblidonias niger Black Tern. Estimated 
numbers of pairs nesting at Brink Ranch at 
Kleena Kleene, twenty-five pairs in 1961, 
fourteen pairs in 1962. First young seen in 
flight in 1961 on July 19, in 1962 on July 18. 
On three occasions, late July and early 
August, seen carrying fish. 

"Zenaidura inacroura Mourning Dove. 
May breed at Dowling Ranch; June 4, 1961, 
two seen; September 13, 1961, one mature 
and two immature (short tails) . 

Bubo virginianus Great Horned Owi,. 
Breeds. Seen or heard in every month of the 
year. June 4, 1962, two fledglings. 

Glaucidium gnotna Pygmy Owl. June 13, 

1962, one found dead, completely dehy- 
drated, confirming local information to ef- 
fect that they are present (both summer and 
winter), and sometimes die of starvation. 

Asio otus Long-eared Owl. May 18, 1961 
and September 14, 1961, one seen. 

Selasphorus riijiis Rufous Hummingbirb. 
Present May through August. Males last seen 
June 22, 1961; females last seen September 
1, 1960; August 24, 1961, one female with one 

Stellula calliope Calliope Hummingbird. 
Males observed at three locations between 
May 30 and June 20, 1961; and at two loca- 
tions between June 6 and 19, 1962. Un- 
doubtedly nesting. 

Sayorms saya Say's Phoebe. April 29, 
1961, one seen. 

Empidonax trailii Traill's Flycatcher. 
Breeds. Sings during June and July. Last seen 
September 2, 1962. 

Empidonax rmnimus Least Flycatcher. 
Believe one seen May 20, 1961. 


Paul: Birds of Kleena Kleene 


Empidonax havmiondii Hammond's Fly- 
catcher. Breeds. Heard and seen during 
June and July. Young left a nest on July 22, 

Empidonax dificilis Western Flycatcher. 
Are usually represented locally and appear 
to breed but were noticably absent in 1962. 
May 20, 1961, one seen. September 9, 1961, 
one seen. 

Contopus sordidulus Western Wood 
Pewee. Arrives about mid-May. Breeds. 

Nuttallornis borealis Olive-sided Fly- 
catcher. May breed. June 12 and 18, 1962, 
one seen; August 6 and 11, 1962, one seen; 
August 19, 1962, two seen. 

Eremophila alpestris Horned Lark. Usu- 
ally a flock of about two hundred present in 
early May. The flock breaks up and all in- 
dividuals disappear before the end of the 
month. Never noted in the fall by this ob- 

Tachycineta thalassina Violet-green Saval- 
Low. Begin to arrive about mid-April and 
stay about three and a half months. Egg 
laying dates vary. A few hatch around June 
1, while others are still feeding nestlings up 
to the last week of July. All disappear in 
early August. 

Iridoprocne bicolor Tree Swallo'w. Ar- 
rive in second half of April, usually hatch 
about mid-June. During August they move 
about in flocks and are usually last seen in 
early September. September 30, 1962, three 

Riparia rip aria Bank Swallow. Arrive 
in late April and some start to lay a month 
later. Nesting is usually completed about end 
of July, after which they are seen no more. 

Stelgidopteryx ruficollis Rough-winged 
Sw^ALLO^v. Arrival and nesting dates are the 
same as for Bank Swallows. They are less 
plentiful than any local species except the 
Bam Swallow. 

Hirundo rustica Barn Swallow. Arrive 
in early May and stay about four months; 
may often be seen about September 1 in 
company with Tree Swallows. June 23, 1960, 
a nest with one egg; August 29, 1962, fledg- 
lings being fed by parents; September 12, 
1962, two seen. 

Fetrochelidon pyrrhonota Cliff Swallow. 
Arrive about the same time as Barn Swallows. 
Mostly they build under the roofs of bams 
or other buildings but small colonies may be 
noted on cliff^s. If all goes well they hatch 
about the end of June but where nests col- 
lapse there may be hatches late in July. All 
go south in August. 

Troglodytes troglodytes Winter Wren. 
Present in April and September but observed 
at no other time. 

Hylocichla guttata Hermit Thrush. June 
12, 1962, one seen. 

Hylocichla ustulata Swainson's Thrush. 
May breed. Seen June 1, 1962; June 18, 1962 
a pair; June 30, 1961 a pair; July 17, 1962. 

Hylocichla fuscescens Veery. Breeds. 
Singing from mid-May until end of June. 
July 16, 1962 a fledgling seen that was being 
fed by a parent. 

Anthus spinoletta Water Pipit. Flocks up 
to fifty present at 3000 feet throughout May 
and often seen in September. August 1, 1962 
a few seen including immatures. 

Lanius excubitor Northern Shrike. Single 
birds observed in April and October only. 
October birds sometimes immature plumage. 

Sturmis vulgaris Starling. Locally little 
increase during past few years. June 20, 1962 
young left nest in woodpecker cavity. Octo- 
ber 3, 1962, forty in a flock. 

Vireo olivaceus Red-eyed Vireo. Migrant. 
Noted for first time in 1962. June 16, one 
singing; and June 17 in same location two, 
both singing about fifty feet apart; June 21, 
one singing about eight miles from above. 

Vireo philadelphicus Philadelphia Vireo. 
May 31, 1962, one of this species believed 
seen and heard. 

Vireo gilvus Warbling Vireo. Sings 
throughout June. July 2, 1959, a nest with 
young; July 27, 1960, seen carrying food. 
August 25, 1962 one seen. 

Vermivora celata Orange-crowned War- 
bler. Are here singing at end of April and 
may be seen feeding amongst aspen catkins 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

in early May, in association with kinglets 
and/or chicadees. Singing continues until 
early July. Soudibound migration apparently 
starts in mid-August. Last seen August 11, 
1959; September 6, 1958. 

Dendroica petechia Yui.i.ow Warbler. Ar- 
rive in mid-May and sing during May and 
June; their numbers vary considerably from 
year to year. Very seldom seen later than 
July. September 2, 1962, one seen. 

De7idroica iiJai!,volia Magnolia Warbler. 
Observed only once. Seen and heard singing 
June 25, 1959. BeUeve heard once in 1960. 

Dendroica audnboni Audubon's Warbler. 
Arrive in second half of April. Singing is 
heard intermittently until July. Flocks up 
to twenty may be noted throughout Septem- 

Dendroica townsendi Townsend's War- 
bler. Migrant. Single birds noticed June 3, 
1962; June 16, 1962; August 18, 1961; August 
20, 1961. September 8, 1959, six seen. 

Sieurus ?iovehorace/isis Norihern Water- 
thrush. Arrive the last week of May and 
continue to sing tlirougli June. August 18, 
1962, one singing. 

Oporornis tolmiei Maccu.uvrav's War- 
bler. Arrive last of May and sing until mid- 
July, remaining in vicinity until mid-August. 

Geotblypis trichas Yeelqw-throat. Ar- 
rive about May 25 and sing well into July. 
July 21, 1957, a fledghng just left nest. Not 

Wilsonla pttsilla Wilson's Warbler. Usu- 
ally arrive early May and sing until about 
June 1. After end of June arc not seen until 
fall migration in mid-August. 

Setophaga ruticilla American Redstart. 
Arrive at end of May and sing for about 
three weeks, remaining in vicinity until end 
of August. 

Xantbocephalus xanthocephalus Yellow- 
headed Blackbird. Estimated thirty pairs 
nesting at Brink Ranch in 1961 and 1962. 
First fledglings observed June 17, 1961 and 
June 27, 1962. 

Molotbriis ater Brown-headed Cowbird. 
Immature birds often seen with livestock in 
July and August; July 25, 1960 a fledghng; 
July 4, 1961 a fledgling about a week from 

Hesperiphono vespermia Evening Gros- 
beak. Rarely seen. April, 1960, twelve re- 
ported; October 13, 1959, six seen. 

Carpodacus mexicamis House Finch. 
Single pairs present and singing on at least 
two occasions during first half of June 1961. 
None seen in 1962. 

Spimis pifius Pine Siskin. Small flocks 
noted throughout the summer; indications of 
nesting very slight. September 12, 1962, sixty 
seen. October 13, 1962, ten seen. 

Vasscrc'uhis savdwicbensis Savannah Spar- 
row. Breeds. May 6, 1961, eight seen; May 
25, 1961, forty seen; October 10, 1962, thirty 

Zonotricbia leucopbrys White-crowned 
Sparrow. Breeds. Sings from arrival in late 
April until July, sometimes August. A flock 
of twenty-five immature plumage seen at 
Tatla Lake Septmeber 28, 1960. 

Passerella iliaca Fox Sparrow. September 
23, 1961, one found dead. 


Paul, W. Adrian B. 1959. The Birds of 
Klcena Kleene, Chilcotin District, British 
Columbia, 1947-1958. Canadian Field-Na- 
turalist 73(2):83-93. 

Received for publication 22 October 1962 


Lloyd B. Keith 
Department of Wildlife Management, University of Wisconsin 

This paper is primarily concerned with territorial behaviour of some Snowy 
Owls, Nyctea scandiaca, which spent the winter of 1960-61 at Horicon Marsh, 
Wisconsin. My observations began on November 18 when the first bird was 
seen; and field work was terminated on April 15 when a thorough coverage 
of the Marsh by boat confirmed that the owls had departed. The Horicon 
data will be augmented to a limited extent by observations made elsewhere in 
southern Wisconsin during the same period. 

I should like to acknowledge the invaluable assistance of Frederick and 
Frances Hamerstrom, D. D, Berger, and H. C. Mueller who introduced me to 
the art of owl trapping, and who initially caught three of the six birds that 
were later kept under close scrutiny. 1 am grateful also to H. A. Mathiak 
and others who contributed sight records of marked owls. R. A. AlcCabe 
and J. T. Emlen read the manuscript and made helpful suggestions and 


Through the fortunate combination of an early freeze-up and little snow, 
all parts of the 30,000 acre Horicon Marsh were accessible by truck from the 
third week of December until the last week in February. During January- 
February, at least one full day each week was spent on the Marsh trapping and 
observing Snowy Owls. Owls were live trapped with a bal-chatri (Berger and 
Mueller, 1959; Berger and Hamerstrom, 1962), using starlings, Stumus vulgaris, 
and pigeons, Columba livia, as bait (Figure 1). A quick-drying aerosol paint 
(Blair "Spray-Hue") was utilized for colour marking; it proved convenient 
and effective. 

Territorial Behaviour 

The early works of Manniche (1910) and Pleske (1928), and the more 
recent studies of Pitelka et al. (1955), Sutton and Parmelee (1956), Watson 
(1957) and Hagen (1960) have provided a wealth of data on the breeding 
biology and nesting behaviour of the Snowy Owl. However, information 
concerning wintering populations of this species in southern Canada and the 
northern United States is largely confined to (1) the periodicity of major 
invasions, (2) estimates of numbers and distribution of individuals involved, 
and (3) food habits (see Deane, 1902, 1907; Gross, 1927, 1931, 1944, 1947; 
Snyder, 1943, 1947, 1949; and others). Relatively little is known about the 
sex and age structure, movements, and behaviour of such populations. 

Perhaps one of the earliest comments about wintering Snowy Owls restrict- 
ing themselves to a specific area was made by Hicks (1932) who stated: "In 


18 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

1930-31 a large number of the records listed were of birds reported to have 
been present in some particular locality for from t\vo to nine weeks. . . ." 
Meade (1948) likewise declared: "There is evidence . . . that once incursive 
birds have reached a certain locality they tend to remain there for extended 
periods." His correspondents had noted two owls remaining for forty-one 
days, two others for approximately seventy-five and ninety days, and a fifth 
which was shot after ninety-eight days. Referring to two Snowy Owls that 
had wintered on an Ontario farm, iUitchell (1947) wrote: "All winter they 
have had quite well defined territories about half a mile apart. . . ." Keith 
(1960), working in Manitoba, maintained: "Soon after Snowy Owl observa- 
tions began at Delta, it became apparent that some birds had settled in the 
district and were restricting their daily movements to rather limited areas which 
I have interpreted as hunting ranges." 

The first account of territorial behaviour (in the sense of defending an 
area) among wintering Snowy Owls seems to be that given by Gillese (1960) 
in a popular article describing the work and observations of A. Oeming of 
Edmonton, Alberta: "A Snowy Owl doesn't even like another Snowy invading 
its territory. Four times, from a ringside seat in the snowdrifts, Al has seen 
two birds do battle — swooping low, then suddenly rising high, bodies crashing 
in mid-air, . . ." 

Ten owls were caught and colour-marked at Horicon Marsh during the 
present study. Four of these, along with two untrapped but easily recognized 
individuals, were repeatedly noted on the Marsh and provided most of the 
information on territoriality. The unmarked birds were a large darkly barred 
female, and a small very white male. All but three of the ten colour-marked 
owls were reobserved at least once. 

The distribution of sight records of six Snowy Owls (Figure 2) strongly 
implies that mutually exclusive territories had been established. That these 
were indeed defended areas is indicated by the following witnessed conflicts — 
seemingly provoked by the presence of our baited traps: 

(1) January 14: At 4 p.m. a trap was set out on the Main Ditch between, 
and in full view of two birds. All Blue and Dark Unmarked. They were 
about three-quarters of a mile apart at the time. Within a few minutes. 
Dark Unmarked flew northward and alighted beside the trap. All blue 
then immediately flew south towards Dark Un?mrked, uttering a high 
piercing cry. All Blue alighted on the ditch about 200 yards from Dark 
Unmarked, who responded by flying towards All Blue and alighting about 
thirty yards from her. All Blue immediately flew back northward to her 
initial perch, and Dark Unmarked returned to the trapsite. 

(2) January 21: A trap was placed near Light Un?narked at 5 p.m. After 
approximately half an hour, he flew over and landed beside the trap. 
About a minute later Light Unmarked suddenly flew rapidly away; another 
(unidentified) Snowy Owl appeared before he had gone more than forty 


Keith: Territoriality Among Snowy Owls 


Figure 1. Extricating the feet of a large female Snowy Owl from the nylon nooses of a 

yards, and both clashed heavily about fifty feet above the ice. It was 
almost dark by this time, aiid neither bird was seen again that day. The 
second owl seemed to have been the aggressor. 

(3) February 11: A trap was set near Dark Umnarked just at dusk. She 
flew to it almost immediately, but shortly afterwards rose quickly to meet 
another Snowy Owl which approached from the direction of All Blue's 
territory (it was too dark to identify colour markings). About five 
minutes of aerial gymnastics ensued, during which these two birds clashed 
again and again in mid-air. One of the owls then returned to the trap. 

(4) February 11: At about 9 a.m. Light Unfnarked and Orange Right Wing 
(both males) were noted sitting on the ice approximately 250 yards apart, 
but hidden from each other's view by emergent vegetation. As we were 
watching, a cottontail rabbit, Sylvilagus florid anus, suddenly appeared and 
was seen by Light Untnarked, which flew after it. Orange Right Wing 
apparently saw Light Unmarked and commenced to chase him for about 
two minutes. Both owls then settled down in roughly their initial positions. 
(Unbeknown to us the rabbit had just been released by H. A. Mathiak 
when we and the owls saw it.) 

20 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

The response of the marked owls to a captive individual was also tested. 
On the breeding grounds, Watson (1957) had been unable to evoke any reaction 
to a flat life-sized model. I employed a live male Snowy Owl, acquired from 
the Wisconsin Conservation Department. Four of the Horicon owls were 
confronted with this captive bird, and reacted as follows: 

(1) February 11: The captive owl was jessed and set on the ice about 150 
yards from All Blue, within what I believed was the latter's territory. Our 
truck had scarcely pulled away before All Blue viciously attacked the jessed 
bird; there was much physical contact involving chiefly the wings and 
feet. All Blue was seemingly oblivious to us during the fight, as we 
watched from a distance of not more than thirty yards. We terminated 
the experiment after several minutes because of the beating the captive 
was taking. 

(2) February 20: In mid-afternoon a trap was placed about 200 yards from 
Light Unmarked who was sitting on the ice near some cattails. During 
the next hour, he moved in several short flights to within five yards of the 
trap, but would approach no closer. The captive owl was then set out in 
a wire cage within seventy-five yards of the trap; Light Unmarked still 
did not move. From the beginning. All Orange, a large female, had been 
perched in a tree 0.7 miles distant. Approximately ten minutes after the 
caged owl was put out. All Orange flew directly to it; as All Orange 
approached. Light Ufimarked flew off. All Orange landed near the caged 
owl, walked around it, and during the next ten minutes struck at the captive 
bird several times. She then flew over to the trap and was immediately 

(3) February 20: In late-afternoon. Dark Umnarked made one pass at the 
caged owl set out near a baited trap. As a result of our numerous unsuccess- 
ful attempts to catch this bird, she was becoming very trap-shy, and this 
may have explained her apparent lack of interest in both the trap and the 
captive owl. 

What was evidently a natural clash between Green Right Wing and All 
Orange was mentioned to H. A. Mathiak by a muskrat trapper. This conflict 
occurred in mid-January. 

The approximate areas of five territories, as measured by sight records 
(Figure 2), were between 0.2 and 1.0 square miles, while their greatest lengths 
ranged from 1.0 to 1.6 miles (Table 1). Orange Right Wifig was not included 
here because he was seen only four times. Territory sizes on the breeding 
grounds have been variously estimated at about one mile in diameter (Sutton 
and Parmelee, 1956), and one to four square miles depending on prey abundance 
(Watson, 1957). Pitelka et al. (1955) found nesting pairs spaced one to four 
miles apart, and Hagen (1960) reported that distances between nests ranged 
from 0.8 to 2.3 miles, with 1.3 miles being the mean. Thus, as best I can judge 
at present, the size of winter and breeding territories is comparable. 

Keith: Territoriality Among Snowy Owls 


Figure 2. A portion of the south end of Horicon Marsh, Wisconsin, showing observed 
positions of six Snowy Owls during January-February, 1961. 

22 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

Our knowledge of how and when winter territories are established and 
later abandoned is still very scanty. The observations of others, as well as my 
own, suggest that the owls tend often to arrive from the North in groups, and 
many have been seen together at such times (Stoner, 1943; Gross, 1947). Yet, 
even during this same period some overt antagonism may be displayed, as 
Keniston's (1927) remarks attest: "Snowy Owls are interesting to watch on 
account of their fights over food. . . . They would sit by the hour side by side, 
and seemed very loving except at meal time. In the evening and at meal-time 
they uttered a shrill squeal, evidently a fighting-note." According to Oeming 
(as reported by Gillese, 1960), "[Snowy Owls] arrive from the north in groups, 
as early as the first week of September. Oddly, they are lethargic and sluggish 
at first, uninterested in food, spending their days dozing in the late fall sun. 
They disperse, and then set up their 'territory,' defending it jealously against 
intruders." On November 26 and December 2, before the freeze-up, two 
snowy o^vls were observed together on farmland bordering Horicon Marsh. 
Plumage differences indicated that they were a male and a female. These birds 
were frequently within a few yards of one another, and when flushed several 
times during photographing, they alighted on adjacent fence posts. No 
antagonism was witnessed during the period of observation. 

February 25 was the last day that I saw colour-marked owls at Horicon. 
My next visit was on March 11, at which time I snowshoed the area shown in 
Figure 2; there were numerous open leads in the Marsh, and many waterfowl, 
but no owls could be found. Whether the birds had gone North, or had simply 
moved to higher ground, I cannot say. The former would appear more 
probable, since the Marsh was still largely covered with ice and snow, and 
food was more abundant than ever with the return of the ducks. Keith (1960) 
quoted H. A. Hochbaum as saying that at Delta, Manitoba, Snowy Owls shifted 
their roosts during the spring thaw to the vicinity of remnant snow patches. 
Mitchell's (1947) description of the behaviour of tu'o Snowy Owls suggests that 
the onset of the reproductive urge may be involved in breaking down winter 
territories and prompting the return flight north. She stated that after main- 
taining separate territories all winter, the male and female were found together 
one evening towards the middle of March. They rose in the air together, 
engaging in what Mitchell implies may have been courtship "fighting", then 
flew off northward side by side. 

Other Behavioural Traits 

While the pattern of territoriality exhibited by Snowy Owls at Horicon 
iMarsh seems clear, I do not wish to intimate that wintering owls behaved only 
in this manner. In all likelihood, those birds which settled in open farmland 
did; for instance, one that I caught and marked on the Arlington Prairie, north 
of Aiadison, was routinely spotted on the same square-mile area for at least a 
month. Keith's (1960) observations on the Portage Plains near Delta, Manitoba, 
implied similar behaviour. 

What appeared to be a significant deviation from this pattern was displayed 
by that portion of the wintering population which frequented many of the 
larger lakes and lake shores. These birds could be seen on pressure ridges 


Keith: Territoriality Among Snowy Owls 


Table 1. — Summary of data on size of Snowy Owl territories at Horicon Marsh, Wisconsin, 

January-February, 1961 

Description and Sex 
of Owls 

Period Owls Under 
Observation (Days) 

Maximum Distance 

(Miles) Between 


Approximate Area 

(Sq. Mi.) Outlined 

By Observations 

All Orange (female) 
All Blue (female) 
Green Ring Wing (male) 
Light Unmarked (male) 
Dark Unmarked (female) 





during the day, often a mile or more from shore; they probably hunted over 
adjacent uplands at dawn and dusk. H. C. Mueller (pers. conmi.) noted such 
movements on several occasions. This was probably the same type of behaviour 
reported to me by H. A. Hochbaum (Keith, 1960). The stomach of a male 
Snowy Owl that was accidentally killed after being trapped on Lake Mendota 
contained the remains of five mice, which could hardly have been taken on 
the lake ice. 

During the weekly traverses of Horicon Marsh, it was noticed that owls 
tended suddenly to become conspicuous about an hour before sunset. This 
trait had earlier been mentioned to me by F. N. Hamerstrom. Their increased 
conspicuousness at this time was due to the utilization of trees as hunting 
perches or observation posts. During mid-day, most owds roosted on the ice 
or upon muskrat houses. The above behavioural pattern was most pronounced 
on clear sunny days. I spent too little time on the Marsh in the early morning 
to say for sure that high perches were used then also, but I suspect they were. 

The only vocalization that I heard from Snowy Owls was a cry reminiscent 
of a Red-tailed Hawk, Buteo jamdcensiis; only higher in pitch and not so loud. 
One bird that I attempted to trap on a building in Madison made numerous 
strikes at the trap without getting caught, and on landing nearby uttered a 
shrill "kreee" over and over again. 

Rough-legged Hawks, Buteo lagopus, were very common at Horicon during 
the winter of 1960-61, and frequently attacked Snowy Owls. The hawk was 
the aggressor in all conflicts witnessed by me. Such attacks were neither 
persistent nor intensive like those reported on the breeding grounds (Sutton 
and Parmelee, 1956), amounting usually to no more than one or two dives at a 
perched owl. Both species, of course, tend to invade southern regions in large 
numbers during the same winters (Speirs, 1939). 

Reference is often made to the shyness of Snowy Owls and the difficulty 
with which they are generally approached (outside the nesting season), both 
in the North and during their southern invasions. My own experience tends 
mainly to support this contention, thus the behaviour of the owl previously 
referred to as All Blue may be of interest. This individual's chief perches 
were situated along the Main Ditch (Figure 2) near a favourite ice-fishing area 
in the Federal Refuge. Within a week after fishing began. All Blue seemed 
completely conditioned to the presence of human beings. She would sit for 
hours not more than thirty to forty feet above the fishermen. On one occasion 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

three of us were looking for pellets beneath a tree that she was perched in. 
After watching us intently for several minutes, she flew to another tree about 
one hundred yards away, but shortly thereafter returned and perched only 
twenty feet above us. 


1 . Territorial behaviour of Snowy Owls at Horicon Marsh, Wisconsin, during 
the winter of 1960-61 is described. 

2. Territories were defended against other snowy owls wintering in the area, 
and a captive owl that was placed within three different territories was 

3. The observed size of five territories ranged from 0.2 to 1.0 square miles; 
their maximum lengths were 1.0 to 1.6 miles. 

4. Other aspects of behaviour displayed by wintering Snowy Owls are dis- 

Berger, D. D. and F. Hamerstrom. 1962. Manniche, A. L. V. 1910. The terrestrial 

Protecting a trapping station from raptor 
predation. Journal of Wildlife Manage- 
ment 26(2): 203-206. 

Berger, D. D. and H. C. Mueller. 1959. 
The bal-chatri: a trap for the birds of 
prey. Bird-Banding 30(1): 18-26. 

Deane, R. 1902. Unusual abundance of the 
snowy owl (Nyctea nyctea) in New 
England and Canada. Auk 19(3) :271-283. 

. 1907. The snowy owl (Nyctea 

nyctea) not generally abundant in the 
winter of 1906-07. Auk 24(2) :217-219. 

Gillese, J. P. 1960. White raider from the 
North. Weekend Magazine 10(3) :9, 27. 

Gross, A. O. 1927. The snowy owl migra- 
tion of 1926-27. Auk 44(4) : 479-493. 

. 1931. Snowy owl migration — 

1930-1931. Auk 48(4) :501-511. 

1944. Food of the snowy owl. 

Auk 61(1): 1-18. 

. 1947. Cyclic invasions of the 

snowy owl and the migration of 1945-1946. 
Auk 64(4): 584-601. 

Hagen, Y. 1960. The snowy owl on Har- 
dangervidda in the summer of 1959. Papers 
of the Norwegian State Game Research, 
2nd Series, No. 7. 25 pp. 

Hicks, L. E. 1932. The snowy owl inva- 
sion of Ohio in 1930-31. Wilson Bulletin 

Keith, L. B. 1960. Observations on snowy 
owls at Delta, Manitoba. Canadian Field- 
Naturalist 74(2): 106-112. 

Keniston, a. 1927. Trapping and banding 
owls during their migration. Bulletin of 
the Northeastern Bird-Banding Associa- 
tion 3 (2): 39-42. 

mammals and birds of north-east Green- 
land. In Denmark-Ekspeditionen til Gr0n- 
lands Nord0stkyst 1906-1908. Meddelelser 
om Gr0nland 45:1-200. 

Meade, G. M. 1948. The 1945-46 snowy 
owl incursion in New York State. Bird- 
Banding 19(2):51-59. 

Mitchell, M. H. 1947. Snowy owls in 
Peel Co., Ontario. Canadian Field-Natura- 
list 61 (2): 68-69. 

Pitelka, F. a., p. Q. Tomich and G. W. 
Treichel. 1955. Breeding behavior of 
jaegers and owls near Barrow, Alaska. 
Condor 57(1): 3-18. 

Pleske, T. 1928. Birds of the Eurasian 
tundra. Memoirs of the Boston Society of 
Natural History 6(3) :lll-485. 

Snyder, L. L. 1943. The snowy owl migra- 
tion of 1941-42. Wilson Bulletin 55(1): 

. 1947. The snowy owl migration 

of 1945-46. Wilson Bulletin 59(2):74-78. 

. 1949. The snowy owl migration 

of 1946-47. Wilson Bulletin 61(2) :99-102. 

Speirs, J. M. 1939. Fluctuations in num- 
bers of birds in the Toronto region. Auk 

Stoner, D. 1943. The 1941-42 snowy owl 
incursion in New York State. Bird-Banding 

Sutton, G. M. and D. F. Parmelee. 1956. 
Breeding of the snowy owl in southeastern 
Baffin Island. Condor 58(4) :273-282. 

Watson, A. 1957. The behaviour, breed- 
ing, and food-ecology of the snowy owl 
Nyctea scatzdiaca. Ibis 99(3) :419-462. 
Received for publication 18 March 1963 


Charles J. Krebs 
Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.* 

There are very few phenological records for the Canadian arctic taken at the 
same place over a series of years. The following observations were made at 
Baker Lake (64° 19' N, 96° 02' W) in central Keewatin during a four-year 
study of lemming populations sponsored by the Arctic Institute of North 


Table 1 summarizes the temperature and rainfall data for 1959-62 as 
gathered by the Baker Lake Meteorological Station. There was considerable 
variation between these four summers. In temperature they ranked: 1960 
(warmest) > 1961 > 1962 > 1959 (coldest), and in rainfall 1959 (wettest) 
> 1962 > 1960= 1961 (driest). 

Table 1. — Temperature and rainfall data during the summers of 1959-62 
at Baker Lake, and the mean values for 1950-60. 




Mean Monthly Temperature (°F) 

















Mean 1950-60 




Total Rainfall (in.) 

















Mean 1950-60 





Figure 1 presents data on eleven physical and biological events of the spring 
and summer phenology in the Baker Lake area. Most of these events are self 
explanatory. Pedicularis lanata is usually the first flower of the season and 
Epilobium ladfoliwn is usually the last plant to bloom (excluding grasses, sedges 
and willows). Plants in unusual situations were disregarded in determining the 
dates when blooming began. 

"Present address: Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of California, Berkeley. 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

Comparison of Growing Seasons 

Information on the amount of standing forage in sedge marsh habitats at 
the end of each summer's growing season was gathered on paired enclosed and 
open quadrats in order to measure the effect of lemmings on their forage. 
These data, reported in detail elsewhere (Krebs, 1963), show a steady increase 
in forage produced from 1959 to 1962 in both the open and enclosed quadrats: 

1959 1960 1961 1962 

Enclosed 100% 139% 168% 175% 

Open 100% 124% 150°% 192% 

The reasons for this steady increase in production remain unknown. The 
yields are poorly correlated with temperature and rainfall, cannot be attributed 
to the grazing effects of lemmings (which peaked in 1960), and are not due to 
changes in techniques. 


Bruggemann and Calder (1953) have pointed out that spring phenology 
appears to be later as one moves north to about Baker Lake and Chesterfield 
Inlet, but in the high arctic above this latitude spring comes slightly earlier. 
Savile (1959) has supported this observation, and the data presented here also 
seem to fall into this pattern. 

Table 2 summarizes the reported dates of first flowering for two species 
which occur at many of the localities studied, and shows that the high arctic 
stations have as early or earlier springs as Baker Lake. 

There is some difficulty in comparing dates of first flowering for all these 
different areas because it is not always clear whether this refers to the earliest 
date the species was found in flower in the most favorable situations (e.g. on 
the south side of a large rock in dark soil) or the earliest date the species was 
found in flower in a normal, open tundra situation. I have used the latter 
meaning. For the species from Baker Lake discussed here these two dates 
would differ only sHghtly; in other situations these dates could differ by as much 
as two weeks. 

Table 2. — Phenological comparison of eastern arctic stations. 

Date of first flowering 

Saxifraga oppositifoUa 

Dryas integrifoUa 

Alerts 1951 

8 June 

1 July 

IsachsenS 1954 

20 June 


18 June 


Chesterfield InletS 1950 

22 June 

6 July 

Frobisher BavS 1948 


22 June 

Baker Lake, 1959 

6 July 

10 July 


14 June 

16 June 


24 June 

27 June 


30 June 

4 July 

^Bruggemann and Calder, 1953. 
^Savile, 1961. 


Krebs: Phenology at Baker Lake 














Figure 1. Spring and summer phenology at Baker Lake, Keewatin, 1959-62. 


L Four years' data on eleven physical and biological events of the spring and 
summer phenology at Baker Lake, N.W.T., show wide variation between 

2. There is also great variation in the amount of standing forage produced in 
wet habitats, and this does not seem to correlate well with temperature, 
rainfall, or with the season's phenology. 

3. The evidence presented seems to support the observation of Bruggemann 
and Calder (1953) that high arctic stations have earlier springs than do low 
arctic stations like Baker Lake. 


Bruggemann, P. F. and J. A. Calder. 1953. of Arctic Institute of North America, 
Botanical investigations in northeast Elles- February, 1963. 

mere Island, 1951. Canadian Field-Na- Savile, D. B. O. 1959. The botany of 

turalist 67:157-174. 

Krebs, C. J. 1963. The lemming cycle at 
Baker Lake, N.W.T., during 1959-62. Sub- 
mitted for publication in Technical Papers 

Somerset Island, District of Franklin. 
Canadian Journal of Botany 37:959-1002. 

1961. The botany of the north- 

western Queen Elizabeth Islands. Canadian 
Journal of Botany 39:909-942. 

Received for publication 8 April 1963 


Calcarius pictus. 

Emerson Kemsies and Worth Randle 
University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Since publication of the Fifth Edition of the A.O.U. Checklist of iSiorth 
American Birds the winter distribution of Smith's Longspur has been more 
accurately defined by an increase in pubHshed observations. These observa- 
tions have appeared in such journals as the Auk, Wilson'' s Bulletin, the Migrant 
(Tennessee), the Texas Ornithological Society Newsletter, and Mid-South Bird 
Notes. Other records, the authors have garnered from direct correspondence 
with such well-known ornithologists as Ben Coffey in Tennessee and Tom 
Imhof in Alabama. A brief summary of records, other than for Ohio which is 
summarized separately, will indicate the present distributional status. Begin- 
ning in 1951, Smith's Longspurs began to turn up at Lonoke, Arkansas, where 
fifteen were identified on December 24. Since that time Ben Coffey, et al, 
working nine airports and a few pastures, have compiled a number of records 
ranging from the latter part of November to early March. As many as 155 
were seen at Ft. Smith Airport on November 26, 1955, and 110 the next day at 
Hot Springs Airport, but totals dropped considerably thereafter until Aiarch 
11. He has recorded varying numbers up to 1960. Coffey and his colleagues 
working in nearby Mississippi, located eleven Smith's Longspurs at Sanders 
Field on November 29, 1953, the first record for the state. Subsequently, and 
up to 1960, this species was discovered at four other airports throughout the 
entire winter; they were in small flocks of not more than fifteen birds. In 
Tennessee on November 22, 1953, Ben Coffey found the first state record for 
the species at the Memphis Penal Farm; on November 28 he counted a flock of 
twenty-seven Smith's. In two other places in Tennessee Coffey reported this 
Longspur in small numbers intermittently through 1959, extending from the 
latter part of November through mid-March. Meanwhile, Horace H. Jeeter, 
working in Louisiana, discovered the first state record of this longspur on an air- 
port north of Shreveport, on December 13, 1952. On January 25, following, 
Jeeter counted 46 individuals in the same place. He noticed that these birds 
always occurred in the same patch of a characteristic grass which was later iden- 
tified as of the genus Aristida. (In two birds collected by Coffey, one in 
Tennessee and one in Aiississippi, seeds of this same grass were found.) As in 
the other Southern States, Jeter's records show a numerical dechne during 
February; while 100 were still present on March 1, none were found on March 8. 
In Alabama, Tom Imhof found the first Smith's Longspur for that state on an 
abandoned Birmingham airport on December 5, 1955. One was still there on 
January 17. Another was found on pastureland near Marion in December of 
1957 and two more near Montgomery feeding on waste grains of wheat in 
December of 1958. 


1964 Kemsies and Randle: Smith's Longspur 29 

Although Ridgway (1901) Hsts northwestern Indiana and Illinois in his 
distributional summary for pictiis at the turn of the century and the authors 
have made several recent observations and collected two specimens from Jasper 
County, Indiana, in April of 1955, the first conclusive record of Smith's Long- 
spur for Ohio was not established until April 18, 1949, at the Miama University 
Airport, near Oxford in Butler County, when four specimens were collected, 
all males in advanced molt (Kemsies, 1950). Since that date, the species has 
been found there regularly each spring and once in the fall. There is an old 
record of two specimens of C. pictus reportedly taken by Clark P. Streator 
at Ravenna in northeastern Ohio on January 29, 1888 (Jones, 1904). In the 
original note, no mention was made of the disposition of the specimens. Exten- 
sive search by Kemsies has failed to locate them. Streator's date of late January 
is amazing in light of Ohio observations in the past twelve years, inasmuch as 
this species has not been seen at Oxford before March 15 in spring and only 
once in fall, on November 15. These birds have usually appeared during the 
last week of March and have departed by late April. At least one specimen 
has been taken during each of the first ten years of observation; these are in the 
University of Cincinnati Collection. 

Elsewhere in Ohio, records may be summarized quickly: Arthur B. Wil- 
liams (1950) lists two possible sight records for May 8 and 24, 1924; Irving 
Kassoy and Donald Smith found an estimated flock of 250 in Walnut Town- 
ship on April 15, 1956 (Pickaway County); Milton B. Trautman saw three on 
April 16 in the same general area, 150 on April 19, fifty on April 22, thirty on 
April 23 (he collected one on this date), and two on May 1 (in the company 
of Edward S. Thomas of the OSU Museum). On April 3, 1954, Trautman and 
Kemsies collected one in Auglaize County at the State Fish Hatchery. From 
April 15 to 29, 1956, Neil Henderson recorded a flock of about twenty- 
five Smith's Longspurs at the Cuyahoga County Airport; he saw one or two 
here in March and April of 1957 and April of 1959, also. 

The regular occurrence of this species at Oxford Ohio Airport every year 
in rather large numbers poses many interesting questions concerning its distri- 
bution and migration. Although as many as 250 individuals have been noted 
at one time at the airfield, it is not known how many birds pass through the 
area nor the length of time individuals remain. A summary of banding records 
emphasizes a general paucity of information concerning this species. Previous 
to 1958 only five Smith's Longspurs had been banded — all juvenals at Churchill, 
/Manitoba. A. V. Harper banded three on July 15, 1933, and G. B. Happ banded 
two on July 17, 1941. After several unsuccessful attempts due to strong sea- 
sonal winds, Ronald Austing and Edward Johnstone trapped and banded the 
first adults, two males and a female at the Oxford Airport on April 14, 1958. 
Using mist nets set at places preferred by the longspurs, the three birds were 
"herded" with considerable difficulty to within twenty feet of the nets and 
then quickly flushed into them. The following year, 200 pounds of cracked 
corn were used as bait, and the birds were quick to find it. From March 28 
to April 23, thirty-nine Smith's Longspurs were caught and banded. Five were 
retraps — two of the birds banded on April 4 M^ere retaken on April 10, six 
days later; another banded on x\pril 4 was retaken on April 23, nineteen days 

30 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

later; one banded on April 10 was recaptured on April 18, eight days later; and 
another banded on April 10 was retaken on April 23, thirteen days later. In 
1960, cracked corn was tried again, but the birds showed no interest in it. 
Additional bait — seeds of clover, orchard grass, and lespedeza — was tried 
without success. Six birds were eventually banded at a nearby puddle of water 
where seventy to eighty came regularly just before noon to drink and bathe. 
Again unfavorable winds prevented the capture of more longspurs. Thus, a 
total of forty-eight were banded during the three-year effort. 

On November 15, 1958, Jay M. Sheppard (1959) collected two Smith's 
Longspurs from a flock of thirteen birds seen at the Oxford Airport. These 
specimens are in the University of Cincinnatti Collection and mark the only 
fall date for Ohio. Professor W. D. Klimstra of Southern Illinois University 
examined the crops of both specimens. He writes, "We have examined the 
crops of the two Smith's Longspurs. In the case of both there were two species 
of plants represented: Sporobolus vaginiflorus and Digitaria ischaeimim. In 
both cases Sporobolus represents over ninty-nine per cent of the seeds. I 
would not stake my life on the species identification; however, I am reasonably 
sure that it is correct." It is interesting to note that no seeds of the genus 
Aristida were discovered in the crops of these two birds although Aristida grass 
occurred in the field where they were collected. 

Detailed information about this species' general habits and behavior is 
meager. Birds at the airport are often very unwary and may be approached to 
within fifteen or twenty feet. When first flushed they are likely to fly close 
to the ground for a distance of only twenty or thirty yards. Repeated flushing 
usually results in the birds spiraling high, occasionally out of sight, and remain- 
ing aloft for several minutes. The rattling call notes are commonly given as 
the birds take wing, but are also heard on the ground. These notes are similar 
to those of the Lapland Longspur, but some observers believe that they can 
detect a difference in quaUty between the two species. A group of birds calling 
overhead may induce others on the ground to join them in flight, or vice versa. 

In August, 1958, Kemsies had the opportunity to visit Churchill, Manitoba, 
to see the species on its breeding ground. Through the kindness of A4rs. H. 
L. Smith, he was able to visit four areas where the Smith's Longspur occurs. 
At one location a male flew up from the tundra and perched in a black spruce, 
about eight feet from the ground, giving the alarm rattle steadily. A few 
minutes later two nearly full grown young and a female flew up from the 
ground near the base of the spruce. The elevated perch of the male astonished 
Kemsies, who had previously seen the species only on the ground. 

According to our observations at the airport and in northwestern Indiana 
fields. Smith's Longspurs do not associate with the Laplands, Calcarhis lap- 
ponicus, unless they are forced into close proximity by such circumstances as 
a general disturbance of migratory concentration or by crowding during the 
peak of the massive migration of lapponicus. Mrs. Smith mentioned that she has 
recorded lapponicus at her feeding station in spring, when both lappojiicus and 
pictus are present in the area, but that she has never seen pictus anywhere in 
town. She also indicated that, usually, most of the Smith's departed before the 

1964 Kemsies and Randle: Smith's Longspur 31 

end of August. In the spring, both birds are found around Churchill for a 
short period, but they apparently never associate. 

In 1959 and 1960, Kemsies undertook a taxonomic study of the species to 
determine whether there might be subspeciation as with lapponicus. From an 
examination of 240 specimens, the species pictus was subdivided into three races 
—an Ontario race breeding along the Hudson Bay coast, a Churchill race breed- 
ing north and west from that place, and a Central Alaskan race (Kemsies, 1961). 
So far it would appear that birds migrating as far east as Ohio come from 
both Alaska and Churchill. There is only one migratory record of the Ontario 
race and this is from Kansas. 

The authors hope that with increasing observation of the Smith's Long- 
spur more data may be compiled to present a more detailed map of the distribu- 
tion of the species and its races and to gain further knowledge of its behavior. 


Coffey, Ben B., Jr. 1954. Smith's Long- . 1961. Subspeciation in the 

spur in the Mid-South. The Migrant 25(3) Smith's Longspur, Calcarius pictus. The 

46. Canadian Field-Naturalist 75(3): 143-149. 

- ^^ ^^ o • 1 , T RiDGWAY, Robert. 1901. Birds of North 

Jeter, Horace H. 1953. Smith s Longspur: and Middle America, Part L The Fringil- 

an addition to the Louisiana hst. The Wil- y,^^^ (Finches) Bulletin of the United 

son Bulletin 65(3) :212. St^^^s National Museum 50(Pt. 1) 715 pp. 

Jones, Lynds. 1904. An addition to the Sheppard, Jay M. 1959. Sprague's Pipit and 

Birdsof Ohio. The Wilson Bulletin 16(3) Smith's Longspur in Ohio. The Auk 

85_ 76(3): 362-363. 

Williams, Arthur B. 1950. Birds of the 

Kemsies, Emerson. 1950. Smith's Long- Cleveland Region. Cleveland Museum of 

spur in Southwestern Ohio. The Wilson Natural History, Scientific Publication 10. 

Bulletin 62(1) :37. 215 pp. 

Received for publication 20 May, 1963 

FLOWER VARIATION OF Epilobiwn angustifolium L. 

Hansford T. Shacklette 
United States Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado 

Flower color variation in fireweed, Epilobium migustifoliu?n L., is known 
throughout the wide range of this common species. In its North American 
range Anderson (1959, p. 350) describes the color as "petals . . . rose-purple 
or occasionally white or pink." Fernald (1950, p. 1058) states, "petals 
magenta or pink (rarely white)," and lists two color forms as being "occa- 
sional" and "local." Hulten (1947, p. 1146) says, "The whiteflowered type 
with white sepals, f. albi'jlormn (Dum.) Hausskn. is not rare, nor is f. spectahile 
(Simmons) Fern, with white flowers and red sepals. Specimens with more 
or less striate or darkveined petals also occur." These forms mentioned by 
Hulten were discussed in more detail by Fernald (1918, p. 4). Gleason (1952, 
p. 586) gives the flower color as "petals purple, varying to white" and adds, 
"Numerous varieties and forms have been described, but the variants within 
our range seem to be environmental rather than genetic." 

The experience of the writer has been that the species, from a numerical 
standpoint, shows a remarkable uniformity of color throughout a great variety 
of habitats. The plant is so common in the north temperate to arctic regions 
that it often forms a blanket of color over vast areas, particularly on disturbed 
sites where logging, road building, or fires have produced an ecological dis- 
turbance. Yet in all this abundance of flowering specimens, variations in color 
from the usual magenta were seldom found. Certain ecological forms may 
have somewhat more intense color in an adverse environment, such as in over- 
drained, poor soil or at their altitudinal limit. Reduced sunlight tends to in- 
hibit color development, thus paler forms are often found on shaded sites. 

In Alaska this plant often assumes "aspect dominance" along the high- 
ways during its flowering season, frequently growing on the road shoulders 
through areas where it is unable to grow elsewhere. It is classified as a nitro- 
philous species by Braun-Blanquet (1932, p. 239), its occurrence on disturbed 
soil apparently being related to the more rapid nitrification in such soil. 
Analysis of this plant as found growing under natural conditions in Alaska 
reported by Sweetman and Bundage (1960, p. 4) show it to have an 
unusually high protein content (average 19.4 percent of dry weight), which 
indicates that it most probably has a high nitrogen requirement for optimum 
development. If the hypothesis of Sutcliff^e (1962) is correct, viz., that the 
protein molecule is the principal "carrier" of ions from the soil solution 
across the cytoplasmic membrane and into the cytoplasm and central vacuole, 
plants with a high rate of protein synthesis should be especially active in 
absorption of salts from the substrate. Sutcliffe says (1962, p. 163), "Salts 
diffuse across the cellulose cell wall ... to the surface of the cytoplasm where 

^Publication authorized by the Director, United States Geological Survey. 


1964 vShacklette: Flower Variation of E. cmgiistifolhmi 33 

they become attached to protein molecules located in the surface membrane . . 
. . As a result of protein synthesis, new sites are created to which salts may be 
bound, and uptake from the medium continues as long as newly synthesized 
protein is being exposed at the external surface." From this it appears that 
plants having a high rate of protein synthesis and the accompanying increase 
in salt absorption may be more affected by unusual substrate chemical com- 
position than are those having a low rate. 

The writer, in driving over the highways of Alaska, British Columbia, and 
Yukon Territory, has scanned the roadsides for the occurrence of abnormally 
colored flowers of this species. On the Haines Highway near Dezadeash Lake, 
British Columbia a variant was found which was easily seen from a consider- 
able distance. Closer examination showed the variation to be limited to a large, 
many-stemmed clone, in which the sepals and petals were almost pure white 
with only a touch of pale pink near their bases. In the summer of 1960 six clones 
of light pink variants were observed, all in the vicinity of Circle Hot Springs, 
interior Alaska. No other color variants were seen during three summers of 
field work in many areas of Alaska having extremely diverse habitats. 

Field studies of this species were made by the writer in 1948 while he was 
a member of the Port Radium Expedition of the Botanical Gardens, University 
of Michigan, for the Detection of Hereditary Mutations in Plants, an expedi- 
tion supported by the Office of Naval Research, U.S. Navy. The principal 
areas of study were in the vicinity of Port Radium, at Sawmill Bay, and at 
Dease Arm, all on Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories, Canada, although 
observations were also made at Coppermine on Coronation Gulf, and at Great 
Slave Lake. Fireweed was found in profusion in all these areas and was one 
of the plants under close observation for variation in color or other character- 
istics. No variation was seen until a study was made of this species growing 
in the vicinity of uranium ore at Port Radium. Here immediately adjacent to 
the "glory hole" (the site of the original uranium ore discovery and from which 
ore had been removed by surface mining) and in the small drain leading there- 
from to the bay was a colony of fireweed having great variation in color. The 
variants occurred as individual clones, each having uniformity of color within 
the clone. Eight of these were selected for study, and descriptions of flower 
color were made before the specimens were dried in the plant press. A com- 
parison of these clones is given in Tablue 1. It should be noted at this point 
that quite near the site of these Epilohiinn variants were found the clones of 
Vaccmhnfi iiliginosiifn L. which exhibited a remarkable diversity in fruit shapes 
(Shacklette, 1962). 

In regard to the six clones of fireweed having pale pink petals mentioned 
earlier, it is noteworthy that in this part of Alaska there is greater-than-average 
ground radiation associated with the localized intrusive granitic rocks. In dis- 
cussing radioactive deposits in the Circle Hot Springs area Nelson, West, and 
Matzko (1952, p. 15) conclude that there is httle hope of discovering commer- 
cial concentrations of uranium in this area by the use of portable survey meters 
because of the widespread cover of vegetation, soil, and disintegrated bedrock; 
but they add "On the other hand, this area, particularly the watershed of Port- 
age Creek, cannot be ruled as unfavorable for the occurrence of uranium in 

34 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

lode deposits, because of the relatively high uranium content of water and the 
presence of uranothoriate in concentrates from Portage Creek. Prospectors . . 
. . will probably find that geochemical methods of prospecting, such as water, 
soil, and vegetation sampling, would be the best techniques to use in the search 
for uraniferous lodes in the area." A description of the color variant found 
here (clone No. 9), as well as of a "typical" plant of this species from this 
region (clone No. 10) is given in Table 1, and the two forms and their pollen 
are illustrated in Figure 1, A, B, D, and E. 

Mr. Robert M. Chapman, Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey, reports in 
correspondence (College, Alaska, February 21, 1963) the occurrence of a 
single group of white-flowered fireweed near the Richardson Highway in the 
vicinity of Paxon, Alaska. He writes that although no anomalous areas of 
radiation are known to occur near here, "There is some mineralization of gold, 
copper, and some other metals, and the possibility that this particular fireweed 
might have been subjected to more than normal radiation cannot be entirely 
ruled out." 

A specimen of white fireweed has been kindly sent the writer by Mrs. 
Florence R. Weber, Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey, College, Alaska, who 
collected it "east of Fairbanks International Airport, elevation 435 ft., side of 
small road, open woods, on silty soil of the Tanana River floodplain, June 20, 
1959." She states in correspondence that it "was the only white one amidst a 
group of normal colored plants ... it is the only white fireweed I have ever 
seen." The dried herbarium specimen (Figure 1, C), which is in full flower, 
shows no trace of anthocvanin in any of its parts, the leaves are much narrower 
and shorter (maximum, 4.7 cm long, 6 mm wide) than usual for the species, and 
the entire plant has a slender aspect. The flower parts are smaller than those 
of typical plants. The locality and substrate from which this specimen came do 
not suggest any unusual environmental conditions. 

While examining the field notebooks (lent me by Dr. Howard A. Crum, 
National Museum of Canada) written by the late Dr. Louis H. Jordal during 
his botanical explorations on the south side of the Brooks Range, Alaska, the 
following entry was found: "Wiseman, Alaska, June 21, 1949 . . . The people 
have been commenting on a peculiar Epilobiinn angnstijolhim which is said 
to have arisen on some heaps of mine diggings at Nolan. It is reported to have 
greenish flowers, not to spread, and never set seed. The kids brought over a 
couple of clumps of these to my cabin, where I dug them in along the north 
wall. Maybe they'll revive." A later entry (Wiseman, July 18, 1949) is as 
follows: "2328, Epilobium angustifolmm i. albiflorum (Dum.) Hausskn. Albino. 
Only local stand, around old cabin whereto once brought from dump of mine 
tailings at Nolan where this variant is said to have occurred spontaneously only 
once. Does not spread, and perhaps not produce viable seeds. Flowers pure 
white." This specimen (No. 2328) presumably is from the clumps trans- 
planted to his cabin as mentioned in his first entry, and is preserved in the 
Herbarium, University of iMichigan. In addition to this specimen there is 
another variant of this species, referrable to E. angustijolimn f. spectabile (Sim- 
mons) Fern., in this same herbarium, and which is recorded in his field notebook 
(Wiseman, July 18, 1949) as follows: "2326. Epilobhim angiistifalhnn L. In 

Shacklette: Flower Variation of E. angustifoliu?n 


















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36 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

more or less dense stands, in drained open situations. Petals pale, sepals deep 
purple. Wiseman." 

From the evidence presented above it appears that the color variants of 
iireweed, although generally rare, are frequently (but not invariably) associated 
with the occurrence of substrates having unusual properties. This observation 
prompts a closer examination of the nature of this variation, with a search for 
causal relationships. First, a genetic evaluation of this plant will be suggested, 
although Michaelis ( 1954, p. 294) says, "A complete genetic analysis in Epilo- 
biinn is not yet possible . . ." Most research on inheritance in this genus has 
been done with species other than E. angustifoliimi. Schwemmle (1924) states 
that all Epilobimn species have the same number of chromosomes, that is, n = 
18. However, abnormalities in the genome complement of pollen are known, 
resulting in hypohaploid and hyperhaploid conditions. Michaelis (1954, p. 
293) writes that the normal haploid pollen grain in the Onagraceae family has 
three large germ pores, the hypohaploid pollen has only one or two germ 
pores, and the hyperhaploid pollen has more than three germ pores. Air. John 
R. Keith, Department of Botany, University of Michigan has kindly examined 
pollen of my specimens No. 6405 (f. spectabile) and No. 6406 (f. "typicinn"), 
both from Alaska, and the Alaskan specimen (f. albijlonim) of Mrs. Weber 
(Figure 1). He reports (in correspondence): "Basically, all three forma have 
the same type of pollen, as described in your iViichaelis reference; that is, the 
pollen is essentially all haploid. The occurrence of the diploid grains in 
'typicum' indicates no unusual irregularity, from the standpoint of percentage 
of normal grains. For a more statistically valid account I made observations 
of 387 grains of your ''typicinii' sample, of which only 2 were diploid. To 
obtain a correlation for this figure, I counted 243 grains from a slide of E. 
angustifoliimi from Isle Royal, iMichigan, in the University of Michigan refer- 
ence collection, and obtained 43 diploid grains. I do not know why this re- 
ference specimen should have a much higher percentage of diploid forms than 
your 'ty picimf' —perhaps it is actually some sort of variant . . . Measurements of 
these grains give the following sizes (across body only, pores not included): 
albijlorum, 62 microns; spectabile, 60 microns; Hypiciim'' haploid, 59 microns; 
'typicimf diploid, 61 microns." 

From these studies it appears that color differences in these forms are not 
related to different conditions of ploidy in the male gametophyte. It should 
be added that dwarfing or heterosis, which are often associated with abnormal 
ploidy, were not found by field observations at Great Bear Lake to distinguish 
the color variants from the normal plants, although Mrs. Weber's pure white 
form from Alsaka (Figure 1, C) was somewhat reduced in size of its parts. This 
suggested genome stability may favor an increased rate of radiation mutations, 
as concluded by Nilan ( 1956, p. 156) who reports, "Thus ... it has been gener- 
ally accepted that polyploidy influences [reduces] the apparent frequency of all 
mutations in a similar vein. Furthermore, it has been held that reduplication of 
genes confers a buffering ability which enables the polyploid to tolerate greater 
X-ray damage and to exhibit fewer mutations than the diploid." 

Michaelis ( 1954) presents abundant evidence of cytoplasmic inheritance by 
means of postulated "plasmons" in Epilobimn which act in concert with, or 


Shacklette: Flower Variation of E. cmgustijoliuni 


Figure 1. Plants and pollen, Epilobium angustijoliwn forms. A, plant and D, haploid 
pollen of f. ''typicu7n'\ B, plant and E, haploid pollen of f. spectabile. C, plant and F, 
haploid pollen of f. albiflorum. G, diploid pollen of f. "typicu??!". 

38 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

antagonistic to, certain genes in producing phenotypic expression of character- 
istics. He says, in speaking of the plasmon of E. hirsutiim Strain Jena (1954, 
p. 307) that a large number of Fi crosses and backcrosses show that the cyto- 
plasms are not all alike, and that their differences can be transmitted over an 
indefinite number of generations. These cytoplasmic differences, however, 
cannot be associated with certain phenotypes. The observed phenotypes, ex- 
pressed as distorted leaves, stunted or heterotic growth forms, abnormal occur- 
rence of, or lack of, anthocyanin, and so forth are believed by Michaelis to be 
due to disturbances of the gene-cytoplasm relations. He further holds that 
these cytoplasmic factors (plasmons) can change in a manner at least analogous 
to mutations, which he prefers to call "alterations." They are reported (1954, 
p. 298) to "maintain their reaction norm even while subject to the influence 
of a foreign nucleus for as long as 24 generations." Exposures of the plants to 
radiation (lOOOr to a sublethal dose) and fertilizing the plants with radioactive 
phosphorus and sulfur produced no unquestioned cytoplasmic alterations. 
However, among the phenotypic effects produced were growth stimulation at 
low doses, fine spotting of leaves, anthocyanin formation in the vegetative 
zone but not in the inflorescence, and transformation of flower buds to vegeta- 
tive buds (1954, p. 351-352). 

An explanation of this cytoplasmic-nuclear interaction is offered by the 
hypothesis of Ross (1948) that disharmonious interaction between gene and 
cytoplasm may disturb the enzyme balance in varying degrees, and may be ex- 
pressed, for example, by inactivation of oxidative enzymes thus making the 
anthocyanins disappear. Treatment with heteroauxin, reduction of respiration 
by low temperatures, cultivation under short-day conditions, and excess car- 
bohydrate accumulation diminish these disturbances, whereas high temperatures 
or long-day conditions tend to increase them (Michaelis, 1954, p. 307-308). 
These reported differences in response may oft'er a partial explanation of the 
changes in E. angustijolmm discussed in this paper, for the observed variations 
were all in an environmental of long-day growing season, and at least in some 
habitats occasional high temperatures during this season in the individual 
microhabitats. Michaelis (1954, p. 309) states, ". . . [cytoplasmic] differences 
were found even among strains that lived distances of only 0.5 to 3 km. apart. 
The cytoplasm of strains that lived in the same geographical area, but in differ- 
ent ecological niches— for example, in dry ground or moist ground, turned out 
to be different." 

A rather special type of "inheritance" in this genus, the transmission of 
plastids through the pollen tube and their incorporation into the new zygote, is 
reported by Michaelis (1954, p. 295) to result in paralbomaculate plants. In 
his experimental plants it occurred only rarely, and could not be produced by 
X-ray radiation (2000r to 9000r). However, this phenomenon may be the 
explanation of the "more or less striate" petals mentioned by Hulten (1947). 

Whether the variations reported in this paper are produced by cytoplasmic 
or nuclear alterations, the variants described in Table 1 can be discussed in 
traditional heredity terms. From this table it is apparent that the color of the 
various flower parts is inherited separately (not linked). For example, the 
clone (No. 4) with the palest petals has the reddest filament bases, whereas the 

1964 Shacklette: Flower Variation of E. angustijoliuni 39 

clone (No. 6) having the most intense magenta flowers had filaments that were 
white throughout. The range of colors through the anthocyanin series seems 
to indicate a cumulative color effect; in the absence of breeding experiments, it 
is suggested that this range may be due to multiple genes existing as three or 
more pairs of alleles. The color series shown by the anthers, i.e., both antho- 
cyanin and xanthophyll, may indicate that this inheritance is determined by 
multiple alleles, with either the gene for anthocyanin or the gene for xantho- 
phyll production occurring in an individual clone. There could also exist at the 
same time the condition of multiple genes, which would explain the anthocyanin 
range of variation; variation in xanthophyll, however, was not observed. 

These postulated multiple alleUc mutations are of a type that can be caused 
by ionizing radiation mutagens (in the Port Radium location, alpha, beta, and 
gamma radiations from the uranium ore). The low level of radiation provided 
these plants in this natural habitat during the long period when plant occupancy 
of this site was possible is believed to be sufficient to have caused the variations 
that occurred. In this matter Sparrow and Pond (1956, p. 135-136) state that 
exposure of flowering plants to low levels of chronic gamma radiation did result 
in an increase in the number of somatic mutations, and conclude, "... muta- 
tions are produced to a significant degree with low dose rates, a nonlinear re- 
lationship has frequently been found to exist between the number of induced 
mutations and the dose rate, and seasonal and biological variations affect the 
degree and nature of the radiation effect." 

Nilan (1956, p. 158), in discussing the effects of temperature on plant 
radiosensitivity, says, "Less extreme temperatures have also been effective in 
altering the radio-sensitivity of plant tissues. Generally speaking, tissues 
irradiated in temperatures ranging from 0°C. to 20°C. are more sensitive than 
when the radiation is conducted at temperatures slightly above or below this 
level." It should be noted that in the regions considered in this paper a fair 
estimate of ambient temperature range during the growing season is just that 
mentioned by Nilan above. 

Mutations of a single gene are expected to produce changes in one factor 
in differing degrees, or less commonly, to affect different characters (Snyder 
and David, 1957, p. 352). These authors (1957, p. 353) further point out, "Two 
identical genes at corresponding loci mutate independently, just as different 
genes do." The resulting heterozygosity in respect to these alleles normally 
would segregate and recombine in succeeding generations, thus producing 
genotypic variants which could reproduce indefinitely by vegetative means, and 
which would result in clones of specific and uniform phenotype. 

The variation of the flower parts considered together demonstrates the 
fact that the cause of mutations, whatever it may be, is not a gross environmental 
cause affecting all genes alike. It is suggested that here the long exposure of this 
genetic stock of fireweeds to a radioactive substrate has provided sufficient time 
for many such mutations to have occurred, and that these mutations have been 
preserved in the offspring to be phenotypically expressed according to the well- 
known principles of heredity. 

From these observations it is apparent that the comment of Gleason (1952) 
—that in the range of his study the variations are environmental, not genetic— 

40 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

does not agree with the conclusions regarding variants in the area of this study. 
Throughout this area examples of variation were rare, even in very diverse 
habitats. The occurrence of occasional isolated variants as mentioned in the 
literature cited and as observed by the writer could be caused by "normal" 
mutagenic processes to which organisms everywhere are exposed. Their rare 
and isolated appearance is the situation to be expected; it is not necessary to pos- 
tulate an abnormal environment as the causative agent. Deposits of radioactive 
minerals constitute "environment" in a very special dual sense. The effects of 
radiation on the organism may in certain cases be only physiological, e.g., 
inhibition of normal growth and development or even favoring growth as 
reported by Cannon (1957, p. 475, 481), Sparrow and Pond (1956, p. 132), 
and others. This effect results in the production of transient forms that may be 
equated with ordinary climate or edaphic variant forms which are not within 
the scope of taxonomic consideration. On the other hand, the variants produced 
by natural radiation mutagens resulting in genetic change are not in the same 
category as the former, but could be considered for taxonomic recognition of 
a low rank. 

Isolated variants are expected to be the result of recessive mutant genes, 
which in a population of normal dominant alleles would attain phenotypic ex- 
pression only rarely until sufficient time had elapsed to permit the recessive 
mutant gene to be widely distributed through the population. This is a slow 
process, for even though the mutation does not reduce the competition potential 
of an individual, the disparity in proportion of diaspores of normal versus mu- 
tant forms increases greatly with the distance from the original mutant. Thus 
the mutant form would tend to be "smothered" by the predominant normal 
form by sheer force of numbers of new seedlings in the restricted areas avail- 
able for invasion and ecesis that occur in an essentially "closed" community. 
It can scarcely be imagined that the type of variation discussed in this study 
could give a competitive advantage to those individuals having it. 

The great variability within the limited area of the Port Radium uranium 
deposits can be explained by the increased mutation rate due to more radiation 
dosage than at other sites having only "background" dosages. The possibility 
of identical gene mutations having occurred at different times is not remote, for 
mutations occur more often in some directions than in others. It is known that 
many genes mutate to a certain allele more frequently than to another. This 
accumulation of numbers of mutant recessives greatly increases the chance of 
large numbers of homozygous recessives appearing in the population and of 
the mutant genes being rather quickly dispersed throughout this area of very 
limited extent. These individuals may soon outnumber the normal dominant 
homozygous types. A colony of clones could therefore be produced which 
would show the areal intensity of variation observed in the Port Radium 
colony, and be perpetuated indefinitely by clonal offshoots. 

The concentration of variants found here definitely indicates the location 
of the radioactive ore that is present. Geobotanical interpretation of variation 
in a species must depend on the greater-than-average frequency of occurrence 
in a localized area, and is thus analogous to geochemical evaluations which de- 
pend on anomalous values based on an established background value. Therefore 

1964 Shacklette: Flower Variation of E. angustifolium 41 

the geobotanical prospector must have a conception of variation frequencies of 
a certain species, even though it may not be possible to reduce it to quantitative 
values because of the vast range of many species, and insufficient observations. 
These variations, however, can be adequately expressed by rather subjective 
terms such as "rare," "infrequent," "common," or "abundant." Where fre- 
quency of occurrence of variants begins to become apparently greater than this 
conception of normal frequency, environmental factors may be causative sus- 
pects. Where frequency of occurrence is areally concentrated far in excess of 
the conceptual norm, edaphic pecuHarities are strongly indicated. Where 
variants of a definite character are produced experimentally by definite edaphic 
modifications, the geobotanical relationship is proven. This latter procedure 
was followed by Cannon (1957, p. 415) in "salting" soils with radioactive 
agents. Naturally occurring variation in a species can be of use to geo- 
botanical prospecting only if these relationships are properly evaluated. 

Numbered specimens referred to in this paper were presented to the 
Herbarium, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. The writer wishes to ac- 
knowledge the encouragement and helpful criticism of the late Professor H. H. 
Bartlett, Department of Botany, University of Michigan, who was the director 
of the Port Radium Expedition. He also wishes to express appreciation for the 
advice and assistance of Dr. William C. Steere, the leader of the field party on 
this Expedition. The support given by the Office of Naval Research, U.S. 
Navy, is gratefully acknowledged. Appreciation is extended to the Director, 
U.S. Geological Survey, for permission to use material acquired while the 
writer was employed by this agency. Dr. William S. Benninghofi^, Department 
of Botany, Dr. Rogers McVaugh, Curator of Phanerogams, and Mrs. Jennie V. 
A. Dieterle, Herbarium Botanist, all at the University of Michigan, are also 
thanked for their assistance in this study. 


Anderson, J. P. 1959. Flora of Alaska and Hulten, Eric. 1947. Flora of Alaska and 

adjacent parts of Canada. Iowa State Uni- Yukon. Lunds Universitets Arsskrift, new 

versity Press, 543 pp. series, section 2, 43 (1): 1069-1200. 

Braun-Blanquet, J. 1932. Plant sociology. iMicHAELis, P. 1954. Cytoplasmic inheri- 

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439 pp. nificance, ifi Advances in Genetics 6: 287- 

Cannon, H. L. 1957. Description of indi- 401. Academic Press, New York. 488 pp. 

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cal Survey Bulletin 1030-A4, pp. 399-516. Geological Survey Circular 348. 21 pp. 

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dora 20: 1-10. Agriculture, pp. 151-162. United States 

. 1950. Gray's manual of botany, Atomic Energy Commission. Government 

eighth edition. American Book Company, Printing Office, Washington. 416 pp. 

New York. 1632 pp. Ross, H. 1948. Uber die Verscheidenhei- 

Gleason, H. a. 1952. Illustrated flora of ten des dissimilatorischen Stoflfwechsels in 
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The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

oxydaseaktivitat in gehemmten und enthe- 
mmten Wuchsformen reziproker Epilo- 
biu?n-BiiSta.rde mit der hirsutmn-Sippe 
Jena. Zeitschrift fiir Vererbungslehre 82: 

ScHWEMMLE, J. 1924. Vcrgleichcnd zyto- 
logische Untersuchungen an Onagraceen. 
Deutsche botanische Gesellschaft, Berlin 
Berichte 42: 238-243. 

Shacklette, H. T. 1962. Fruit variation in 
Vaccinhmi uligmosuni L. Canadian Field- 
Naturalist 76 (3): 162-167. 

Snyder, L. H. and P. R. David. 1957. The 
principles of heredity, fifth edition. D. C. 
Heath and Company, Boston. 507 pp. 

SpARROVi^, A. H. and Virginia Pond. 1956. 
Some cytogenetic and morphogenetic ef- 
fects of ionizing radiation on plants, in 
Radioactive Isotopes in Agriculture, Uni- 
ted States Atomic Energy Commission, 
pp. 125-139. Government Printing Office, 
Washington. 416 pp. 

SuTCUFFE, J. F. 1962. Adineral salts absorp- 
tion in plants. Pergamon Press, New 
York. 194 pp. 

SwEETMAN, W. J. and A. L. Bundage. 1960. 
Better forage for Alaska's dairy industry. 
University of Alaska Agricultural Ex- 
periment Station Bulletin 30. 9 pp. 

Received for publication 30 June, 1963 


O. E. Devitt 

83 Harding Blvd., Richmond Hill, Ontario 

In Canada prior to 1943, Brewer's Blackbird (Euphagus cymiocephahis) was 
considered a bird of the western provinces. Tavemer (1934) in Birds of Canada 
gives its range as "from Manitoba west to the coast". In adjacent mid-western 
American states a definite eastward movement by this species has been noted 
since early in the present century (Lyon, 1930; Roberts, 1932; Schorger, 1934; 
Mayfield, 1949). Bent (1958) says "the Brewer's Blackbird seems to have 
extended its range eastward in recent years, and it has now been recorded as a 
breeding species in Ontario, Eastern Minnesota, Wisconsin and Illinois". 
Walkinshaw and Zimmerman (1961) state that during the twentieth century 
it has "extended its breeding range eastward — to central, and possibly eastern, 
lower Michigan". 

The purpose of the present paper is to review the status of this species in 
Ontario and to document an eastward extension in breeding range of 143 miles 
in 1962 and a further eastward extension of seventy-eight miles in 1963, as well 
as to record intermediate summer occurrences hitherto unreported. 

A male collected for the Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology by Clifford E. 
Hope at Lake Attawapiskat in northern Ontario on June 5, 1939 marked its 
first reported occurrence in Ontario (Baillie, 1953). This remained the only 
record until Dr. A. E. Allin observed a small male blackbird with straw- 
coloured eyes at Port Arthur during the summer of 1943. On June 13, 1945, 


Devitt: Extension of Brewer's Blackbird 




> — 

Figure 1. Summer records of Brewer's Blackbird in Ontario. Large dots indicate locality 
records; circled dots are where the species has been known to nest. Triangles designate 
where specimens have been taken. 

44 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

a colony of at least eight birds was found in the same locality, a cleared area, 
eight acres in extent, by Allin and Dear (1947). A male was collected on June 
14 and L. S. Dear found a nest containing four young to establish the first 
breeding record for Ontario. 

The twelve Brewer's Blackbirds recorded by Walkinshaw and Zimmerman 
(1961), as having been seen by E. E. Kenaga on September 1, 1948 at Longlac, 
were probably early fall migrants. 

Allin and Dear located a second colony of Brewer's Blackbirds in Paipoonge 
Township, Thunder Bay District, in 1952 but could find no nest (Baillie, 1953). 
In 1955 a nest with five eggs was found there by Dr. MacLaren on June 5 
(Allin and Denis, 1955). By 1955, the species was established in summer in five 
areas around the Lakehead (Baillie, 1955). 

Brewer's Blackbirds have nested in a willow-grown muskeg area at Fort 
Frances, Rainy River District, since 1951 according to Leslie Patterson (Baillie, 
1961). They remained until 1957 when the immediate area was burned over. 
Mr. Patterson saw adults feeding newly-emerged young on several occasions. 

Further evidence of an eastward movement in Ontario came to light when 
Dean Amadon and Jeff Carleton, en route home after attending the Wilson 
Ornithological Club meeting at Douglas Lake, Michigan, saw a pair near Garden 
River, half way between Sault Ste. Marie and Echo Bay, June 17, 1953 (Baillie, 
1953). By coincidence, the writer, his wife and D. S. Miller returning from 
the same meeting two days later (June 19) also saw a pair of Brewer's Blackbirds 
along No. 1 7 Highway near Echo Bay. 

At Sault Ste. Marie, Dr. and Mrs. J. M. Speirs and William Morris found 
a nest containing four young on June 6, 1954. Mrs. Speirs located two more 
nests on June 11 (Speirs, 1954). A fourth nest with five eggs and a fifth nest 
containing well-developed young was discovered a few days later by D. M. 
Wood in the same colony, which was located at the eastern city limits of 
Sault Ste. Marie in a quarter-mile stretch between the highway and the railway 
(Wood, 1955). At Echo Bay, fourteen miles east of Sault Ste. Marie, two 
more pairs were known to be resident, but breeding evidence was restricted 
to adults carrying food to young and carrying away excretory pellets. A 
careful search failed to reveal the young (Speirs, 1954). One bird seen seven 
miles east of Thessalon on July 31, 1959 and another at Blind River on August 
4 of the same year have been recorded by Speirs ( 1959). 

On July 1, 1962, a small colony of five pairs of Brewer's Blackbirds was 
discovered by the writer and his wife at the easterly outskirts of McKerrow, 
in Baldwin Township, Sudbury District, 143 miles east of Sault Ste. Marie. 
The birds were frequenting a narrow band of territor)" between the railway 
and Highway No. 17. A search disclosed two young birds, out of the nest, 
but as yet unable to fly. The young were easily captured, photographed and 
released. A dead female that had been hit by an automobile on the highway 
was recovered and sent to the Royal Ontario Museum. The writer had occasion 
to travel the same highway on August 11, 1962 and noted Brewer's Blackbirds 
at the following points: Echo Bay, 3; Blind River, 4; McKerrow, 16. The 
following day a group numbering twenty-five was noticed at the westerly limits 
of Copper Cliff to mark their most easterly observed occurrence for that year. 

1964 Devitt: Extension of Brewer's Blackbird 45 

While en. route to Sudbury on May 31, 1963 to check for possible nesting 
sites of Brewer's Blackbirds, the writer and his wife were surprised to come 
upon two pairs at Rutter, thirty-seven miles south of Sudbury, in Bigwood 
Township, Sudbury District. After watching the actions of the birds for half 
an hour, we decided that they must be nesting in a marsh alongside Highway 
No. 69. After a short search we flushed a female from a nest of five eggs. 
The well-built nest of grasses and rootlets was placed in the centre of a clump 
of dried rushes, approximately fifteen inches above the water of the marsh. 
The outside diameter of the nest measured six inches while the inside width was 
four inches. The nest and eggs were collected and sent to the Royal Ontario 
iVIuseum. With the exception of a small stand of narrow-leaf cattail (Typha 
a?igustifolia) near the road and a few Spiraea sp. and red-osier dogwood {Cornus 
stolonijera) bushes around its borders, the marsh occupied by these birds 
consisted of almost pure Scirpus cyperinus (L.) Kunth. and covered approxi- 
mately ten acres. A dense growth of alders {Alnus sp.) and willow {Salix 
sp.) grew along the west and north sides of the marsh. 

Besides the Brewer's Blackbirds other birds noted in the immediate vicinity 
were the Short-billed Marsh Wren {Cistothorus platensis), Yellowthroat 
(Geothlypis trichas) and Traill's Flycatcher (Empidofiax traillii). 

Rutter is seventy-eight miles east of McKerrow, the previous most easterly 
breeding locality for this species. 

The Copper Cliff area was re-examined on June 1, 1963, and about one 
half mile west of the town two pairs of Brewer's Blackbirds were found that 
showed strong attachment to a small cattail marsh along the railway tracks. 
One pair, in particular, protested our intrusion but no nest was located. The 
behaviour of the birds indicated probable nesting. 

About five miles farther west along Highway No. 17 and approximately 
one mile west of the intersection of Highway No. 536 to Lively, we saw a male 
Brewer's Blackbird gathering a beakful of insects. 

At McKerrow, on the same day at least five pairs were again occupying 
a quarter-mile stretch of territory adjacent to the highway. Three nests were 
located, all built on the ground in low cover. The nests were made of fine 
sticks and grasses and lined w^ith fine rootlets. In size they averaged six inches 
outside width, with a cup four inches in diameter and a depth of two inches. 
The first nest contained four newly-hatched young plus one e^^. It was half- 
hidden beneath dead bracken (Pteridimn aquilinum) and a small Spiraea sp. 
A second nest, which held five young about a week old, was located about one 
hundred yards to the east of the first nest; a third nest contained five t^^s. Two 
other pairs were definitely on territories and apparently nesting but the actual 
nests were not located. 

Vegetation surrounding the three nests was essentially the same and, 
besides bracken and spiraea, consisted of wild strawberry {Fragaria sp.), wild 
raspberry (Rubus sp.), blueberry (Vaccimiem sp.), Aster sp., goldenrod 
(Solidago sp.), fringed polygala (Poly gala paiicifolia), false lily of the valley 
{Maianthermnn canadense), ground pine (Lycopodium ohscuriim), willoM- 
(Salix sp.), common yarrow (Achillea 7nillefolium) and sweet fern (Myrica 
asplenifolia). Across the highway from the nesting colony was a large alder 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

{Ahnis sp.) thicket which was used to some extent by the blackbirds as perching 
sites, although the preferred lookout seemed to be the telephone wires. 

An additional breeding locality was discovered by the writer on July 1, 
1963 in A4acGregor Township, Thunder Bay District at the junction of High- 
ways No. 17 and No. 587, near Pass Lake. At least four pairs were occupying 
wet grassy fields bordering the highway. Two nests were located in low 
vegetation on dry knolls. Both were sunken in depressions so that their tops 
were flush with the ground. One contained three young about a week old, 
plus one &Q,g\ the other had four small young and an unhatched tgg. This area 
is twenty-three miles east of Port Arthur. 

As an indication of the remarkable increase in numbers of this western 
species in Ontario, the writer observed them in thirteen different localities 
between Sault Ste. Marie and Sudbury along Highway No. 17 on July 6, 1963, 
in groups of up to eight birds. 

In view of a similar rapid eastward spread of Brewer's Blackbird in the 
United States, especially in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan, it should be 
looked for in the lowlands of the Lake St. Clair- Windsor region of Ontario. 


Allin, a. E. and L. S. Dear. 1947. Brewers 
Blackbird Breeding in Ontario. Wilson 
Bulletin 59: 175-176. 

Allin, A. E. and Keith Denis. 1955. Breed- 
ing Records — 1955, News Letter of the 
Thunder Bay Field Naturalists Club 9:33 
(No. 5, Dec. 21). 

Baillie, J. L. 1953. [Region reports] On- 
tario-western New York Region, Audubon 
Field Notes 7:13-15, 306-307. 

. 1955. [Region reports] Ontario- 
western New York Region. Audubon Field 
Notes 9:377 (No. 5, Oct.). 

. 1961. More New Ontario Breed- 

ing Records. Ontario Field Biologist 15:1-9. 
Bent, A. C. 1958. Life Histories of North 

American Blackbirds, Orioles, Tanagers, 

and AUies. U.S. National Museum Bulletin 

Lyon, W. L 1930. Brewer's Blackbird 

Nesting in Illinois. Wilson Bulletin 42:214. 
Mayfield, H. 1949. [Spring migration] 

Middlewestern Prairie Region. Audubon 

Field Notes 3:210-211. 

Roberts, T. S. 1932. The Birds of Minne- 
sota. Vol. 2, University of Minnesota Press, 

ScHORGER, A. W. 1934. Notes on the Dis- 
tribution of Some Wisconsin Birds. The 
Auk 51:482-486. 

Speirs, J. Murray. 1954. Brewer's Black- 
bird Nesting at Sauk Ste. Marie, Ontario. 
Bulletin of the Federation of Ontario Na- 
turalists 65:29. 

1959. Worth Noting. Bulletin of 

the Federation of Ontario Naturalists 85: 

Taverner, p. a. 1934. Birds of Canada. 
National Museum of Canada Bulletin 72. 

Walkinshaw, Lawrence H. and Dale A. 
Zimmerman. 1961. Range Expansion of 
the Brewer Blackbird in Eastern North 
America. Condor 63:162-177. 

Wood, D. M. 1955. Nesting of Brewer's 
Blackbird at Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. 
Ontario Field Biologist 9:23. 

Received for publication 21 July 1963 




December 3, 1963 

During the past year, five meetings of Council were held at the National 
Museum of Canada: December 12, 1962, February 28, May 23, October 8 and 
November 12, 1963. The average attendance was seventeen members. The 
Club's business was conducted in the usual orderly manner. 

Appointments for 1963 were made as follows: 
Editor, The Canadian Field-Naturalist — F. R. Cook 
Business Manager, The Canadian Field-Naturalist — W. J. Cody 
Chairman, Publications Committee — D. D. Hogarth 
Chairman, Excursions and Lectures Committee — G. R. Hanes 
Chairman, Reserve Fund Committee — H. Lloyd 
Chairman, Membership Committee — F. H. Schultz 
Chairman, Bird Census Committee — G. H. McGee 
Chairman, Macoun Field Club Committee — F. R. Cook 

succeeded by A. H. Clarke, Jr. in April, 1963 
Chairman, F.O.N. Affairs Committee — R. Frith 
Chairman, Public Relations Committee — E. L. Bousfield 
Chairman, Preservation of Natural Historic Sites Committee — 

W. K. W. Baldwin 
Chairman, Mer Bleue Conservation Committee — D. A. Smith 
O.F.N.C. Representative to A.A.A.S. Council — V. E. F. Solman 

At its February meeting. Council elected Mr. Stuart Criddle, longtime 
Prairie naturaUst now residing in Sidney, B.C., as an Honorary Member of the 
Club. He joined the illustrious company of previously elected Honorary 
Members, Dr. Alice Wilson, Mr. Herbert Groh, Dr. Harrison F. Lewis and 
Dr. George H. Turner. 

Report of the Publications Committee 
Since the last report of Council, five numbers of The Canadian Field- 
Naturalist have been published. These included the last two numbers of 
Volume 76 which contained 112 pages, and the first three numbers of Volume 
77 which contained 182 pages, or a total of 294 pages in all. Papers, notes and 
reviews were distributed as follows: 

Papers Notes Reviews 

Botany 5 6 5 

Entomology 2 2 

Geology 1 

Herpetology 3 6 2 

Ichthyology 3 3 

Malacology 1 

Mammalogy 3 4 5 

Ornithology 6 19 5 

Miscellaneous 2 16 


48 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

The editor has reported that Volume 77, No. 4 is in an advanced state of 
preparation and should be published shortly. Some manuscripts are on hand 
for the first two numbers of Volume 78, but he would welcome more good 

Expenditures for the year were as follows: 

Volumes 76 (Nos. 3 and 4) and 77 (Nos. 1, 2 and 3) $4,469.12 

Binding of official Club set of The Canadian Field-Naturalist 36.00 

Reprints for volumes 76 (Nos. 2, 3 and 4) and 77 (No. 1) 676.21 

Total $5,1 81.33 

Report of the Excursions and Lectures Committee 

The Excursions and Lectures Committee met three times and arranged: 
four lectures (of which one was co-sponsored by the National Museum of 
Canada), a film night, six daytime and two evening field trips, four morning 
bird walks and the annual dinner. Six Newsletters were issued. The first of 
a winter series of six bird identification lectures for beginners was recently 
presented by Mr. George McGee and evoked considerable interest. 

Approximately ninety people attended the annual dinner at the Experimen- 
tal Farm, and heard a most interesting talk entitled "Birds and Men" given by 
Dr. D. A. Munro. 

The Newsletter now appears under a printed letterhead designed by 
Mrs. G. R. Haynes. The Committee purchased a supply that should last about 
three years. 

Report of the Reserve Fund Committee 

There has been no change in the Club's investments during the past year. 

Report of the Membership Committee 
The committee distributed information on Club activities and solicited 
new memberships. Of forty-two new individual members, thirty-five were 
active members and seven associate members. In addition twelve institutions 
were added as subscribers to the Club journal. No expenses were incurred. 

Report of the Bird Census Committee 
The forty-fourth consecutive Annual Christmas Bird Census was held by 
The O.F.N.C. on Sunday, December 23, 1962. Forty observers in thirteen 
groups reported a total of 5,375 birds of forty-five species. While the count 
was down slightly from the 6,310 birds of forty-eight species reported in the 
1961 Census, two new birds. Common Loon and Loggerhead Shrike, were 
added to our all-time list which now stands at eighty-nine species. 

The details of the Census were published in the Christmas Census edition 
of Audubon Field Notes and, in addition, were circulated to local members in 
a Newsletter. 

Report of the Macoun Field Club Committed 
In terms of total membership, apparent interest of the members in club 
activities and in other developments, the 1963 Macoun Field Club season has 
been an outstanding success. Attendance at meetings has nearly doubled. 

1954 Report of Council 49 

innovations in club activities have met with enthusiasm, and the administrative 
personnel of the club has been increased from one to three. In addition to 
sponsorship by The Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club, the Macoun Club has now 
become an official administrative responsibility of the National Museum of 
Canada and is therefore doubly assured of year to year stability. 

Regular meetings of the club have been held throughout the year except 
for the period from May to September. In April, a newspaper report on the 
Macoun Club with coloured photographs was published nationally and much 
additional interest was engendered. Attendance, which averaged forty-five 
for all three sections in the spring, increased to an average of eighty-five in the 
fall. Three field trips were held in May, to Hogs Back and Mer Bleue in Ottawa 
and to Fitzroy Harbour Provincial Park in Fitzroy Harbour, Ontario. 
A*"tendance on these trips averaged fifty-eight, with many new members 

Speakers at the Macoun Club during 1963 were as follows: F. R. Cook, 
D. J. Damas, A. D. DeBlois, H. B. Herrington, S. D. MacDonald, W. W. Mair, 
W. R. M. Mason, J. R. McLintock, H. Monahan, V. E. F. Solman, and J. S. 
Tener. In addition. Dr. Alice E. Wilson gave a fine series of lectures on the 
geology of the Ottawa area. 

Officers for 1963-1964 are as follows: Senior Group, President Robert 
Bender, Secretary John G. Robertson, Attendance Paul Valentine, Observations 
Clair Suddon; Intermediate Group, President David Smiley, Secretary Arthur 
Clarke, Attendance Derek Munro, Observations Susan Young; Junior Group, 
President Peter Teal, Secretary Chris Fyles, Attendance Colin Barnard, and 
Observations Don Beckett. 

In April, A. H. Clarke, Jr. replaced F. R. Cook as Macoun Club Chairman 
and in the fall the National Museum assigned two staff members, Messrs. A. A. 
Ellis and G. Tessier, as assistants. In addition, the club is continuing to benefit 
from the dedicated assistance of Mr. Herbert Groh. Further assistance has 
enabled additional services to be given such as renovation of the club's collection 
of natural history objects, more assistance to members in conducting projects, 
assistance with film projection equipment, etc. 

Report of the F.O.N. Affairs Committee 

The committee during November and December has supervised the usual 
sale of Christmas Cards and stationery purchased from the Federation of Ontario 
Naturalists and re -sold for the benefit of our Club. 

There are no official joint activities of the two organizations to report. 
Major Federation functions, usually held in Toronto or points west, had present 
on most occasions a small number of members of the O.F.N.C. 

Report of the Public Relations Committee 

At the request of council members, the committee was active in developing 
publicity for the Mer Bleue Project and forwarding news-worthy items to the 
Ottawa press. 

50 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

Report of the Preservation of Natural Historic Sites Committee 

The Committee met once to discuss the preservation of the Mer Bleue 
peatland. A report on this subject, with recommendations for action, was 
presented to Council. The Committee co-operated with the Excursions and 
Lectures Committee and the ad hoc Mer Bleue Conservation Committee to 
present to Club members at the regular meeting in March a program of activities 
designed to further this project. Later the Committee co-operated with the 
Editor of The C.F.N, in planning a series of scientific papers to be written by 
interested scientists on various aspects of the Natural History of the Mer Bleue. 

No meeting of the Citizens' Committee for Preservation of Historic Sites 
was held during 1963. 

Report of the Mer Bleue Conservation Committee 

This ad hoc committee was set up early in 1963 to co-ordinate a variety 
of Club activities to be held under the auspices of other committees— all with 
the aim of expressing the urgency for preserving the Mer Bleue Peat Bog and 
taking steps to further its preservation. This Committee co-operated with 
others in arranging and participating in the special Mer Bleue meeting in March 
and a successful field trip to Mer Bleue in June. Moreover, it assisted in 
stimulating the efforts of individuals, both within and outside the Club member- 
ship, to begin synthesizing our present knowledge of the bog and its inhabitants 
into a series of papers to be published in The Canadian Field-Naturalist. 

Largely as a result of correspondence with the Club, a meeting of repre- 
sentatives of organizations interested in the Mer Bleue was convened in April 
by the National Capital Commission. At this exploratory meeting, a Technical 
Committee of which our retiring President is Chairman, was set up to give 
advice to the National Capital Commission on matters concerning multiple use 
of the Mer Bleue in its natural state as part of the Green Belt. The whole 
situation is currently under study and the committee is hopeful of a satisfactory 
outcome of its actiivties. 

Donald A. Smith, Secretary 

The Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club, November 27, 1963 


Balance in bank, Nov. 27, 1963. 

Cash on hand 

Bills receivable, separates 

t, 911. 91 




Cheques outstanding $ 343 .35 

Balance 3,190.01 

Balance in bank, Nov. 29, 1962. 


Current $2,860.54 

Arrears 139.00 

Advance 273.40 

Associate 78.00 



Separates and illustrations. 

Sale of back numbers 









Can. Field Nat. 5 numbers. ... $4,505.12 

Separates and illustrations 676.21 

Editor's honorarium 200.00 

Business Manager's honorarium 100.00 

Newsletter 78 . 26 

Excursions and Lectures Committee 52 . 25 

Macoun Field Club 113.75 

F.O.N, affiliation 45.40 

Postage and Stationery 188.31 

Bank discount 33.00 

Miscellaneous 48.48 

Bank balance Nov. 27, 1963 

plus cash on hand less 

cheques outstanding 2,590.76 



$3 , 000 Ontario Hydro 3 % Bonds, 

market value $2 , 737 . 50 

20 shares Bell Telephone Stock, 

market value 1 , 065 .00 

Balance in bank Nov. 27, 1963 411 .43 



Balance in Bank Nov. 29, 1962 .... $273 . 77 

Bank Interest 8 . 66 

Bond Interest 90.00 

Bell Telephone Dividends 44.00 




Safety Deposit Box 

Bank Balance Nov. 27, 1963. 

I 5.00 



$1,500 Ontario Hydro 3% Bonds, 

market value 

Balance in bank Nov. 27, 1963 . . . 

Balance in bank Nov. 29, 1962 . . 

Bank Interest 

Bond Interest 








Bank Balance Nov. 27, 1963. 




Audited and found correct (Signed) 
R. J. Moore J. M. Gillett, Auditors 

(Signed) Anne Banning, Treasurer 



Never Cry Wolf 

By Farley Mow at. McClelland and Stewart, 
Toronto. 247 pages. $4.95. 

The reason I was asked to review this 
book, I suspect, was that the editor knew* 
I had worked closely with the author in 
the North. Farley refers to me as a school 
chum he had known in more carefree 
days. A glance at the dust cover forces 
the incredible admission that I knew him 
as a beardless youth! During the period 
dealt with in the book Farley was assist- 
ing me on the preliminary caribou in- 
vestigation conducted by the Canadian 
WildHfe Service in 1948-9. But his career 
with the Federal Government lasted only 
about six months. As the reader is well 
able to confirm, Farley wasn't cut out to 
be a civil servant. Since his retirement he 
has gone on to greater heights and writ- 
ten three semi-fiction books based upon 
his experiences with the caribou investi- 
gation crew. 

These books are a fascinating mixture 
of fact and fancy with the central theme 
of the ineffectual, bumbling civil servant 
trying to cope with Mowat's raw north. 
This theme finds ready acceptance among 
his uninformed readers who cherish the 
same point of view. Never Cry Wolf has 
been heralded as hilariously funny— and 
it is, especially to the few of us who were 
involved in the episodes described by 
"Squib" in the early chapters. With a fair 
share of malice and considerable literary 
licence with the facts, he caricatures us 
and parodies the Canadian Wildlife Ser- 
vice. Most of us are recognizable 
through our thin disguises. Lance-Cor- 
poral J. Smith is undoubtedly Dr. Dean 
Fisher and his banishment to study 
sticklebacks on Ellesmere Island is a re- 
ference to his later leadership of the 
Arctic Unit of the Fisheries Research 
Board. I am not so sure of the "Chief", 
who clacked ground-hog jaws at Squib. 

Dr. Harrison Lewis was then Chief of 
the Canadian Wildlife Service. Since he 
is a distinguished ornithologist, I suggest 
that a room full of pickled cormorant 
stomachs would have been more appro- 
priate. But, if it is I, as Chief Mammalo- 
gist, who is caricatured, I must protest 
that I have never given the dentition of 
Marwota 7nonax more than a casual 
glance. As for joining the federal service 
in 1897,-1 suspect that we just looked 
that much more mature to Squib. 

One caricature I do deplore is that of 
Gunnar Ingebritson, of Arctic Wings 
Ltd., who flew him from Churchill to 
Nueltin Lake. Gunnar was one of that 
colourful band of bush pilots, which 
served our Arctic frontier with verve. 
He effected several exciting rescues, in- 
cluding that of the crew of an American 
Air Force plane forced down on the 
shifting ice floes of Hudson Bay. He lost 
his life tragically a few years later in an 
Arctic crash. Gunnar's real life was far 
more exciting than Farley's shallow cari- 

On the lighter side, however, I found 
Farley's comments on our post-war mili- 
tary phase quite incisive. I wonder what 
he would say about our latest phase of 
wearing berets and ceintures flechees! 
His description of us as Dantesque 
bureaucrats doesn't seem appropriate: I 
always pictured us as Caspar Milque- 

At the risk of being considered pedan- 
tic and mundane, 1 would like to set the 
record straight on those events so the 
reader can appreciate the full measure of 
Squib's humour. Farley was only one of 
three biologists who assisted in the cari- 
bou survey and as he has emphasized, he 
was assigned the problem of assessing the 
effect of wolf predation upon the caribou. 
I prepared the field instructions which 
are generously ridiculed in the book, or 
else given sympathetically as his own 
program. Mowat's suggestion that he was 






hired to produce incontrovertible proof 
to damn the wolf is a woolly fabrication 
of fact. I am sure his disclosure will 
come as a shock to those few extremist 
members of the hunting fraternity who 
have been condemning the same Service 
vehemently for years as apologists for 
predators and wolf-lovers. 

He reports that he was hired at the 
munificent salary of |125 a month. Ac- 
tually he was hired as a technical officer, 
grade 1, at $175 a month, which was the 
established scale for a second year Arts 
student in May, 1948. He submitted a 
very long list of equipment and supplies 
which he required, and it was filled. This 
included a folding boat, along with an 
eighteen foot canoe, tents, outboard 
motor, axes, alcohol, smoke generators, 
etc. and etc. If he had any complaints 
concerning the equipment and supplies— 
they were largely due to his own choice. 

Mowat's description of the start of his 
field work is completely fanciful. He and 
Andrew H. Lawrie flew from Ottawa to 
Churchill in an R.C.A.F. Dakota. I met 
them at the Churchill airport, since I had 
been there six weeks carrying out an 
aerial survey of the migrating caribou. 
Arrangements had already been made to 
rent Fred Schweder's cabin at Windy 
Bay, Nueltin Lake, Keewatin District, 
for $15 a month (not $10 for three 
months) to serve as a base to store their 
equipment (they planned to tent and 
travel extensively by canoe). However, 
as Farley states they occupied the cabin 
much of the summer and an adjustment 
was later made on the cabin rent. It 
should be noted that Squib was never 
"alone with the wolves". Andrew Lawrie, 
a graduate biologist, was his constant 
companion all summer and nominally in 
charge of the party. 

Prior to their arrival, Gunnar, Charlie 
Weber (the engineer) and I had flown 
to Nueltin Lake, taking much of their 
heavy equipment such as canoe, outboard 
motor and a cache of gasoline. Even then, 
when they were finally flown in the load 
taxed the carrying capacity of their 
NorseTfian aircraft. (The last JU.52, tri- 

motor to fly in Canada was scrapped in 
1947). I might also point out that the 
Moose Brand Beer served in Churchill 
must have packed quite a punch in order 
for Squib to rush out of the beer parlor 
and catch hold of the wing of the aircraft 
landing at the skiplane base five miles 

The character of Mike is based upon 
Charlie Schweder. He met Farley in 1947, 
when Farley first visited Nueltin Lake. 
Any reticence on Charlie's part was pro- 
bably based upon his experience with 
Mowat the year before. 

Of course Mowat's various messages in 
italics and capitals are sheer bunk! He 
was supplied with a Forestry-type radio 
transmitter (with extra batteries). Farley 
and I set up the radio and tested it at 
Churchill before they departed. With it 
they communicated with Churchill Sig- 
nals until about mid-August when it 
became unserviceable and was flown out 
for repairs on one of the regular service 
flights. The Department exchanged with 
Mowat several radio messages and mailed 
reports during the summer. It had no 
reason to doubt his location unless it was 
when Mowat flew out to Toronto and 
gave a press interview. (The call letters 
assigned to the transmitter by D.O.T. 
were CF6E— rather prosaic compared to 
"Daisy Mae"). 

As Farley states he submitted a report 
upon his studies. However, there is 
nothing in the style, spelling, or grammar 
of this report to foretell that it would 
some day form the basis of a "best seller". 
I abstracted the report and published the 
highlights in the preliminary barren- 
ground caribou report of 1951, crediting 
the observations to Mowat. He now bor- 
rows several of my conclusions from 
that report such as the importance of 
human utilization of the caribou includ- 
ing the annual human kill of 100,000 ani- 
mals (which I reported in 1951, without 
losing my C.S. "head"). 

During Mowat's "indoctrination" 
period in Ottawa, he was given several 
books to read including Adolph Murie's 
The Wolves of Moujtt McKinley, 1944. 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

Any resemblance between Never Cry 
Wolf and that book is 7iot coincidental. 
Much is familiar, including first names 
for the wolves and the crawl into the 
burrow. Squib disproved no scientific 
concepts about wolves— only his own mis- 
conceptions. Instead he sets up his own 
straw men to bowl over. For instance, 
an estimate of 36,000 wolves was pub- 
lished by C. H. D. Clarke, in 1940, for the 
total caribou range of 600,000 square 
miles, not just of Keewatin District. 
Wolf bounties have not been paid in the 
N.W.T. for many years and were dis- 
continued in the Prairie Provinces prior 
to 1954. There is no "official" book 
which says wolves do not bark. 

Farley gives a hilarious description of 
his struggle with the use of the Raunkiar's 
Circle in range studies. It is evident that 
he lacked the equipment and training to 
do any nutritional analysis in the field 
and was not asked to do it. He literally 
interprets the word "throw" in spite of 
the detailed instructions that the fre- 
quency data were to be collected on 
systematic transects at intervals of ten 
paces. The situation is comparable to the 
technician at a satellite launching pad, 
tearing out the control panel when the 
monitoring officer exclaims, "All systems 
go!". A recent Civil Service pamphlet, 
which outlines career opportunities for 
biologists, includes a photograph of two 
young biologists, on their hands and 
knees, staring at a Point Sampler, while 
conducting range studies in Wood Buf- 
falo Park. It appears therefore that such 
studies are still in style for biologists. 
Farley was, therefore, well advised to 
recognize his limitations in biological 
research potential and to seek fame else- 

Mowat also curiously telescopes time 
in his book. Considering the life ex- 
pectancy of a wolf, it is extremely doubt- 
ful that George, Angelina and Uncle 
Albert would still be around in May, 
1959, eleven years after his visit in 1948, 

when they appeared to be in the prime of 
life. In the meantime there were several 
developments which influenced wildlife 
management programs in northern 
Canada. First of all there was the unpre- 
cedented outbreak of rabies among 
wolves, coyotes and foxes. Then there 
was the continued decline of the caribou 
herds. These natural catastrophes neces- 
sitated immediate co-operative action as 
outlined in my article in the Spring 
issue, 1956, of The Beaver. A broad 
caribou management program was in- 
itiated which placed primary emphasis on 
reducing the human kill by tightening 
regulations (such as the prohibition of 
sport hunting). A part of this program 
was the introduction of limited wolf 
control (not eradication) by trained 
wolf hunters instead of the ineffective 
bounty system. Wolf numbers were re- 
duced: the rabies epizootic subsided: and 
the crop of caribou fawns jumped dra- 
matically. Since 1959 the wolf control 
program has tapered off. This is the 
background of Mowat's fanciful Epi- 
logue. The facts are that two control 
stations were established on Windy Lake, 
27 and 30 miles southwest of "Wolf 
House Bay" during the autumn of 1958. 
On April 10, 1959, these sites were 
visited, records of the wolves taken and 
biological information were gathered and 
the stations destroyed. No cyanide "wolf 
getters" were employed in the District 
of Keewatin. 

Much of the book consist of a fascinat- 
ing embelHshment of Mowat's observa- 
tions on the home life of a wolf pack. It 
is certain that not since Little Red Riding 
Hood has a story been written that will 
influence the attitude of so many towards 
these animals. I hope that the readers of 
Never Cry Wolf will realize that both 
stories have about the same factual con- 

A. W. F. Ban FIELD 

National Museum of Canada 
Ottawa, Ontario 




Wildlife's Ten-Year Cycle 

By Lloyd C. Keith. Madison, University of 
Wisconsin Press, 1963. 16 + 201 pp. $6.00 

Dr. Keith's book is in the main a review 
of Hterature bearing on the occurrence 
and characteristics of the ten-year mam- 
mal and bird cycle. The subject is one of 
great interest in Canada, for many of its 
most striking examples come from the 
records of the fur trade in our boreal 
forests. Furthermore, the cycle strongly 
influences the lives of many Canadians, 
from trappers to ammunition salesmen. 
As well as providing a survey of data, the 
book presents several interesting and 
original contributions, and an extensive 

The book was written in order to pro- 
vide background material for cycle 
studies and to point up promising re- 
search topics. Available kinds of data are 
evaluated, ranging in sophistication from 
fur returns to the capture-recapture 
census. A technique is demonstrated for 
calculating fiducial limits around mean 
intervals in serially correlated series of 
random numbers, the series being of 
various lengths. If the mean interval of a 
series of census figures of comparable 
length lies outside the confidence limits 
given (98% and 95%), the series is con- 
sidered non-random, or cyclic in the 
strict sense. By means of this technique 
evaluations are made of census figures on 
the local, regional, and continental levels 
in the New and Old Worlds. 

The criterion of synchrony is adopted 
as of great importance in the validation 
of cycles; "strict regularity" is abandoned 
as a criterion, and the term "ten-year 
cycle" is retained as "a useful description 
of the non-random long-term fluctua- 
tions" of certain North American fur- 
bearers and gallinaceous birds, and the 
snowshoe hare. The latitudinal and other- 
wise geographical progression of con- 
tinental cycles is discussed, as is the 
order of amplitude of well-studied ex- 
amples. Other characteristics of cycles 
and of cycling populations reviewed in- 

clude reproduction, mortality, popula- 
tion structure, pathology, and beha- 

The last chapter is a review of the 
various explanations that have been pro- 
posed to account for the ten-year cycle. 
The series of population estimates upon 
which the generalization rests are not 
equivalent to serially correlated random 
number series, and the well-known hypo- 
thesis of Palmgren and Cole must there- 
fore be rejected. Postulated meteoro- 
logical influences have the merit of ex- 
plaining the synchrony so important in 
the earlier review; when sought, how- 
ever, they cannot be found, or, if found, 
they cannot be related convincingly to 
the species concerned. Various theories 
including those implicating predator- 
prey and relaxation oscillation are ex- 
amined. In conclusion, Keith states that 
he is "convinced, and assuredly many 
others are as well, that none of the fore- 
going hypotheses can adequately ac- 
count for the ten-year cycle", and pro- 
poses a long-term, comprehensive field 
study by a diversified team of specialists. 

Most students of cycles have been 
convinced of their general validity by 
certain very impressive series of popula- 
tion indices, notably lynx pelt returns of 
the Hudson's Bay Company. Field work, 
however, has failed to establish a uni- 
versal cause for the declines observed and 
has even given indications that the con- 
spicuous causes, pathological conditions, 
for example, may be relatively unimpor- 
tant. Cycles observed in laboratory 
populations seem to have little direct 
relevance to those studied in the field, 
and Keith makes no attempt to fit the ten- 
year cycle into the formal ecological 
framework that has been constructed 
around the laboratory data. There is no 
discussion of the nature of an oscillatory 
biological system. Hutchinson's observa- 
tion, from a symposium (1954, Journal 
of Wildlife Management 18) to which 
reference is made, that a population 
might "resonate" by virtue of its intrin- 
sic characters such as life history chro- 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

nology, to one or a combination of subtle 
environmental frequencies, was perhaps 
considered too general for inclusion. 
Similarly the views of Dunbar (1960, 
American Naturalist 94) on the insta- 
bility of immature ecosystems were not 
discussed. A hypothesis recently put 
forward by Chitty (1960, Canadian 
Journal of Zoology 38) relating the four- 
year vole cycle to a postulated general 
autoregulatory capacity of animal popu- 
lations may have application to the ten- 
year cycle and should pehaps have been 

In my opinion a major short-coming 
of Keith's approach is his apparent re- 
jection of earUer contributions to the 
problem of cycles. Surely each piece of 
research on the ten-year cycle, and each 
contribution to the conceptual side of 
the problem, has left certain questions 
unanswelred and certain hypotheses un- 
tested. It would seem unfortunate to 
abandon the patient, particulate unravel- 
ling of the problems involved along the 
lines already begun in favour of a totally 
new start. Modern experimental methods 
in ecology have perhaps barely had time 
to prove themselves wanting in the 
answering of the many questions remain- 

The nature of the evidence for the 
validity of the ten-year cycle is such that 
a completely nonpartisan book might be 
impossible to write: the phenomenon, 
for example, seems confined to certain 
species within a certain area, and it is 
difficult not to introduce a bias when 
selecting the reports to be evaluated. The 
scepticism of the reader is nonetheless 
occasionally aroused by such statements 
as "when the effects of extensive habitat 
restoration schemes and regulated trap- 
ping ... are added to the profound in- 
fluences of adverse water conditions, 
snowfall, etc., ... it is, I think, surprising 
that any semblance of regularity should 
still prevail" (pp. 43-4), or, "There is 
perhaps still a suggestion of a cycle in 
the Ontario data" (p. 50). A reference 
to a discussion by Lack of the adreno- 
pituitary exhustion hypothesis is infelici- 

tous: "only as long as such mortality does 
not in the long run have survival value" 
(p. 112), harking as it does to the no- 
man's land of population selection. 

In conclusion this book can only be 
welcomed. It is attractively produced 
and well written. It provides a concise 
summary of cycle research and available 
census series, and a very useful biblio- 
graphy. North American cycle research 
is once again, with the development of 
modern techniques and concepts, an at- 
tractive field of study, as it was when 
Clarke and MacLulich made their 
famous contributions. The orderly addi- 
tion to our knowledge of population 
regulation in wild species will un- 
doubtedly in time make possible an un- 
derstanding of what Rowan called 
"Canada's premier problem of animal 

A. H. Macpherson 

Canadian Wildlife Service 
Ottawa, Ontario 

The Birds 

By Roger Tory Peterson and the Editors of 
Life. Time Inc., New York. 1963. 192 pp. 
Profusely illustrated (64 pp. in full color) . 


This is the twelfth in Life's Nature 
Library series. In this handsome book 
lucid writing is combined with drawings 
and colored photographs to give the 
reader a clear and up-to-date account of 
a great many aspects of birds. 

Beginning with the origin, evolution, 
and classification of birds it takes the 
reader enjoyably through such subjects 
as bird anatomy and particular avian 
adaptations (especially for flight) the 
mechanics of flight, food and feeding 
adaptations, distribution, numbers, mi- 
gration, navigation, communication, the 
breeding cycle, man-bird relationships, 
and many other subjects too numerous to 

One noteworthy feature is an up-to- 
date breakdown of the numbers of bird 
species (1) known to occur or to have 




occurred, and (2) known to breed, in 
each of the countries of North America 
and Europe. For the United States and 
Canada figures are given for each state 
and province. This is the first published 
attempt to bring together these figures on 
such a wide scope. 

The numerous colored photographs are 
outstanding, sometimes spectacular. 
They, with many drawings and paintings, 
illustrate and clarify the text. The latter 
is extremely readable and authentic. The 
book contains a useful bibliography and 
closes with a five-page (four columns 
each) index. It is an outstanding popular 
treatment of the ways of birds. 

W. Earl Godfrey 

Principles in Mammalogy 

By David E. Davis and Frank B. Golley. 
Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New 
York. 1963. 335 pp. $8.50. 

This excellent textbook follows com- 
petitively on the heels of Cockrum's 
"Introduction to mammalogy" recently 
reviewed by me (Canadian Field- 
Naturalist, 77:54). However, the two 
works approach mammalogy with dif- 
ferent emphasis. Cockrum leans heavily 
towards taxonomy while Davis and Gol- 
ley are oriented towards ecology. The 
authors say that "The material is selected 
to provide an idea of how the mammal 
lives, not only in its environment, but in 
association with other mammals as well". 

Chapter titles include "The Kinds of 
Animals", "The Nature of Adaptation 
and Evolution", "Adaptation", "The Evo- 
lution of Mammals", "Zoogeography", 
"Reproductive Processes", "Mammahan 
Populations", "Metabolism of Popula- 
tions" and "Activity and Behavior". 

I find the book generally well written 
and authoritative. The references are 
numerous, although they largely ignore 
work done outside of the United States 
of America. The book is attractively 

bound and well printed, although some 
graphs and line drawings appear to have 
been rushed to meet a deadline. There is 
some lack of evenness between chapters, 
probably reflecting the division of sub- 
jects between the authors. Chapter seven 
is in some places awkwardly written, for 
instance (p. 165): "Of some importance 
in understanding the lives of mammals is 
a knowledge of the clitorus . . ." and (p. 
168) "Whales keep the testes within the 
abdomen at all times and the penis is held 
in a sac . . .". The statement that "rodents 
are entirely spontaneous ovulators . . ." is 
incorrect. A serious omission is the failure 
to include A. V. Nalbandov's "Reproduc- 
tive Physiology" among the references 
for this chapter. 

A keener taxonomic eye would have 
prevented the inclusion of a nonexistent 
species of whale in a table on page 90. 
However, the book is relatively free of 
typographical errors. 

A professional mammalogist will find 
he has no choice but to own both Davis 
and Golley's, "Principles in mammalogy" 
and Cockrum's, "Introduction to mam- 
malogy". The teacher of a course in 
mammalogy will consider himself for- 
tunate to be in a position to choose from 
two texts. 

Phillip M. Youngman 

The Monarch of Mularchy Mountain 

By Bruce S. Wright. Brunswick Press, 
Fredericton, N.B. 1963. 149 pages, 40 illus- 
trations. $3.95. 

This book consists of a collection of 
five stories concerning familiar Canadian 
mammals: the white-tailed deer; eastern 
panther, or mountain lion; black bear; 
bobcat and moose. The chapters are not 
disconnected however. The scene is the 
same in each story— Mularchy Mountain 
and the Burnt River Valley, N.B., and 
the main actor of each chapter appears 
briefly in the previous chapter in a minor 
role. For each species, birth, death and 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

the annual cycle of events concerned 
with the four seasons are described. 

The natural homeostatic processes in 
wildlife populations which tend to main- 
tain an integrated community are 
stressed. The disruptive forces of human 
activity are highlighted and the benefits 
to be reaped by sportsmen and farmers 
in a balanced biotic community are 
pointed out. The game warden and the 
wildlife biologist play important roles in 
interpreting the wildlife community to 
the local populace. 

The excellent illustrations, gleaned 
from the files of the U.S. Fish and Wild- 
life Service, Canadian Wildlife Service, 
N.B. Travel Bureau and Colorado Fish 
and Game Department, have been clever- 
ly worked into the text. The style is 
straightforward, even facile in spots, 
particularly the description of the stalk 
of the white-tail buck— the Monarch of 
Mularchy Mountain. 

This book is a useful first reader in 
animal ecology and wildlife management, 
set in the Canadian scene, for students 
from about grades seven to ten. 

A. W. F. Banfield 

National Museum of Canada 
Ottawa, Ontario 

A Sharing of Joy 

By Martha Reben. Harcourt, Brace and 
World Inc„ New York. 1963. 183 pp. $4.95. 

The dust jacket of this volume proudly 
announces its content as "T/^e true story 
of amazing friendships in a mountain wil- 
derness" (italics mine). If the potential 
reader is worried that this might indicate 
a somewhat anthropomorphic approach 
by Miss Reben, a quick sample of chapter 

headings — " Goose Ways", "Treetop 
Tumblers", "Duck People", "Miss Prim- 
sy's Last Flight" or names for individual 
animals— "Goosie", "Philander", "Dump- 
ling" or "Wee Willie Winkle" will serve 
to assure him that the assumption is en- 
tirely warranted. However, despite this, 
the text is readable, sincere and entertain- 
ing and is reasonably free from the 
exaggerations which usually accompany 
an approach of this type. 

The mountain wilderness is the fast 
shrinking forest of the Adirondack 
Mountains of New York State, and the 
amazing friendships include a variety of 
animals, both domestic and wild, from 
goat to bear to wasp, which at various 
times lived near or with the author. 

Miss Reben received her first oppor- 
tunity to live out-of-doors after spending 
three years in a sanatorium, bedridden 
with tuberculosis. Her writing has the 
genuine enthusiasm of one who suddenly 
contacts a previously unappreciated por- 
tion of life. The personalization of the 
animals encountered arises from this en- 
thusiasm and from the conviction that 
each has its own individual qualities. 

Her introduction mirrors both her en- 
thusiasm and her approach: "I doubt that 
one can really know a wild animal unless 
it has full freedom in natural surround- 
ings. ... I have tried not only to show 
the extraordinary diversity of some of 
the wild friends I have known, but also 
to capture and thereby share a little of the 
joy they have given me". Many readers, 
especially those who have had the satis- 
fying yet often exasperating experience 
of sharing surroundings either in nature 
or at home with an animal allowed its 
freedom, will enjoy this volume. 

Francis R. Cook 


Common Egrets Nesting near 
Amherstburg, Ontario 

After moving to Essex County, Ontario, 
in 1956, 1 enjoyed seeing Common Egrets 
(CasTnerodius albiis egretta) in the 
marshes along the highways and feeding 
in some secluded places. By the summer 
of 1958, I was convinced that they were 
nesting on the mainland but it was July 
1959 before I located a heronry with 
egret nests on the mainland between 
Amherstburg and Harrow. A mixed 
heronry, located on private property, has 
had egrets nesting in it since 1954. 

The first Common Egrets known to 
nest in Canada were found in 1953 on 
East Sister Island, Ontario (Langlois, 
1953, Audubon Field Notes 7:306). The 
following year egrets were found nesting 
on islands in the Detroit River and Lake 
St. Clair (1955, Jack Pine Warbler 33:8); 
this is the first record of nests in Michi- 
gan. With nests on islands on three sides 
of the county it was difficult to know 
where the egrets that came to feed in the 
marshes were nesting. 

About a mile from Lake Erie and 
surrounded on three sides by marsh is the 
mixed heronry of about one hundred 
nests in a hardwood grove composed 
of elm {Ulmus americana) , shagbark 
hickory {Gary a ovata), and oaks of dif- 
ferent species. The nests vary in size but 
are used by Great Blue Herons (Ardea 
herodias) and Common Egrets only. 
Black-crowned Night Herons (Nycti- 
corax nycticorax) and Green Herons 
(Butorides vires c ens) have been seen fly- 
ing around the heronry but do not nest 

Young Great Horned Owls (Bubo 
virginianus) were often seen in the woods 
in the spring of 1960 and a nest of Bald 
Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was 
found about half a mile from the heronry. 

In five years' observations, the Com- 
mon Egrets arrive from a week to ten 

days after the Great Blue Herons to feed 
in the marshes. Feeding grounds surround 
the heronry, but because of variations in 
water levels, the egrets are forced to 
move from season to season and some- 
times, as in 1958, several times within one 

On July 25, 1959, I first visited the 
heronry. There were several nests of 
egrets and when the birds were disturbed, 
the egrets flew off in groups of fours and 
fives. The young herons were not as far 
advanced and few were flying. 

A second visit was made on August 4, 
with Mr. R. D. Ussher, but by this time 
the birds landed in the trees and not in 
the nests. As the sun set, the egrets as- 
sembled to roost in a row of trees near 
the heronry and fifty-five were counted. 

On April 23, 1960 one week after 
arrival, a pair of egrets was seen flying in 
and out of the nest. On May 17, Mr. J. L. 
Baillie, of the Royal Ontario Museum, 
visited the heronry and saw two pairs of 
egrets flying in and out of the nesting 
area. Eggshells were already on the 
ground as the young herons were starting 
to hatch. 

The first nest was never actually lo- 
cated because of the thick foliage. The 
second nest was in a dying elm tree with 
thirteen other nests, several of which 
were occupied by Great Blue Herons. 
This second nest raised one young bird, 
which was able to fly off after the parents 
when I visited the heronry on July 23. 

There were more dead herons in the 
heronry this year than last, and, on 
August 18, a dying young egret was 
picked up on the Lake Erie shore and 
sent to the Southern Research Station at 

October 15, (I960), is the latest that I 
have seen egrets in the Lake Erie area. 
In the Lake St. Clair marshes, Mr. E. 
Hueghlin has seen egrets as late as Octo- 
ber 30, (1959). The flocks that fly over 
these marshes and roost in the trees be- 
come quite a spectacle in late summer. 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

Unfortunately the Lake Erie heronry was 
25 miles from my home and the nests 
could only be observed on weekends. I 
should like to acknowledge the help of 
Mr. R. D. Ussher, Park Naturalist of 
Rondeau Provincial Park, in this project. 
WiNNiFRED Smith 

304 Delhi St. 
Guelph, Ontario 
4 April 1961 

A Breeding Record For 
The Bobolink in 
Prince Edward Island 

The Bobolink, Dolichonyx oryzivorus 
(L), is relatively common in suitable 
areas of Nova Scotia (Tufts, 1961, The 
Birds of Nova Scotia), including dyke- 
lands and coastal meadows across 
Northumberland Strait from Prince Ed- 
ward Island. Despite the narrowness of 
the strait, nine to about twenty-five miles, 
the bird has been infrequently observed 
in P.E.I. , most visitors appearing in the 
area south of Charlottetown. 

In mid-July, 1955, the author first heard 
the Bobolink near Grand River, Prince 
County, in the western third of the pro- 
vince. On June 10, 1957, a male was seen 
at Bideford, Prince County, but almost 
daily visits there failed to elicit further 
sightings. In 1961 several observations 
were made at Ellerslie, Prince County: 
May 25, 1 male; May 26, 2 males; May 27, 

6 males; June 1, 1 male, 1 female. On July 

7 four males were seen at Bideford. A 
similar record was obtained in 1962 at 
Ellerslie: May 19-21, 1 male; May 26, 4 
males; June io, 3 males, 3 females; July 
18, 1 male. Nests were not sought in the 
latter two years but breeding probably 

Beginning May 20, 1963, five males be- 
came established in a riverside meadow at 
Ellerslie. On July 1, a ground nest of soft 
grass was found containing six fledgelings 
and one egg. The advanced young left the 
nest during the observation, and the nest 
was later abandoned by the family. The 
parent birds were frequently observed 

feeding their scattered brood during the 
ensuing week, and from similar beha- 
viour among other adult Bobolinks the 
existence of four, possibly five more nests 
in the meadow was deduced. The first 
flying young was seen on July 4. Singing 
and general activity were suppressed 
from about July 15 to 21, except for one 
pair tending a late-developing brood. 
After July 31 no Bobolinks were observed 
at Ellerslie until August 23, when six were 
seen among a large flock of mixed black- 
birds feeding in harvested grain fields. 
Singing males were occasionally seen 
elsewhere in central Prince County dur- 
ing the summer, and several reports 
which accurately described the bird were 

Considerable meadowland lays fallow 
in Prince Edward Island, offering excel- 
lent habitat for the Bobolink, and it is 
surprising that the species has not long- 
since become established. Also, Northum- 
berland Strait would seem to present no 
great difficulty to this long-range mi- 
grant. The question arises then, whether 
the Bobolink's current extension of its 
range represents a true and continuing 
migration path, or a temporary displace- 
ment of the Nova Scotian coastal birds 
arising from population pressure there. 

Stanley E. Vass 

Ellerslie, P.E.I. 

17 September 1963 

A Spadef oot Toad from Manitoba 

The most recent published range map 
of distribution of the Plains Spadefoot, 
Scaphiopus bombifrovs, in Saskatchewan 
(Cook, 1960, Copeia (4): 363-364) shows 
the eastern limit as the area between 
North Portal and Roche Percee, south- 
east of Estevan. Incidentally noted in the 
text was a single Manitoba locality, 

On July 22, 1963, the junior author 
collected an adult Scaphiopus bombifrbns 
on his parents' farm, approximately five 
miles southwest of the town of Oak Lake, 




Manitoba. It was discovered while he 
was hoeing raspberry plants in the gar- 
den, about fifty yards from the house, and 
appeared suddenly, hopping into the 
open from under a raspberry bush. It was 
probably disturbed, perhaps unearthed, 
by the hoeing. The weather was bright 
and sunny and the time about 3 p.m. 
The specimen has the darkly pigmented 
throat of a male in breeding condition. 
It has been catalogued as NMC 7379 and 
measures (after preservation) 55 mm 
snout- vent length and 18 mm tibia. It 
has been compared with Saskatchewan 
material of the species and agrees in 
colour and proportions. 

The Dauphin collection, NMC 1863, 
Dauphin, Manitoba, July 25, 1935, C. M. 
Sternberg, has been re-examined. It con- 
sists of three immature, probably re- 
cently transformed, specimens which 
measure 28, 24 and 23 mm snout- vent. 
The senior author had previously doubted 
the provenance of this collection due to 
the lack of additional specimens from 
Manitoba and because the locality lies in a 
northern extension of the forest and 
grassland region of Rowe (1959, Forest 
Regions of Canada). All known localities 
of the spadefoot in Alberta and Saskat- 
chewan lie within the grassland region 
of these provinces (Cook, unpublished 
data). Communication with the collector, 
C. M. Sternberg, has verified that he 
was in the Dauphin area at the date of 
collection, although he does not recall the 
specimen nor the circumstances of cap- 
ture. The later is of little significance 
after a lapse of twenty-eight years. 

The Oak Lake locality is also within 
the forest and grassland region. This 
region is a mixture of prairie and aspen 
woodland in which the grassland areas 
apparently supply habitat for Scaphiopus. 
Bird (1961, Ecology of the Aspen Park- 
land of Western Canada) has indicated 
that the southern border of this region 
fluctuates, and that since 1900 it has pro- 
bably extended considerably southward 
into the formerly pure grassland. It is 
possible that these collections represent 

relict populations of spadefoots from a 
period of more northern extension of 
the grassland region. However, the 
species may be wide-spread within grass- 
land areas throughout the grassland and 
forest region and have evaded discovery 
due to their nocturnal habits and sporadic 
(only after heavy rains) breeding. Al- 
though the senior author and R. A. 
Henry spent July and August, 1960, col- 
lecting reptiles and amphibians in south- 
western and south-central Manitoba, in- 
cluding brief periods in the Daphin and 
Oak Lake regions, their failure to find 
Scaphiopus must have been due to its 

Francis R. Cook 
David R. M. Hatch 

National Museum of Canada 
Ottawa, Ontario, and 
Oak Lake, Manitoba 
11 October 1963 

A Weevil in the Ear of Child 
at London, Ontario 

On May 5, 1963, at 4.00 p.m., a six year 
old girl at London, Ontario, complained 
of having "a butterfly in my ear". When 
her right ear was examined the posterior 
end of a beetle was seen moving about in 
the external ear. When removed from the 
ear the insect was alive and active and 
proved to be a Sweet Clover Weevil, 
Sitona cylindricollis Fahr., identified by 
Mr. W. J. Brown, Entomology Research 
Institute, Department of Agrciulture, 
Ottaiwa. The specimen is preserved in the 
collection of the Department of Zoology, 
University of Western Ontario. After 
the -weevil had been removed the child 
reported no further discomfort. It had 
evidently entered the ear when the child 
was playing in the grass in a backyard. 

Horsfall (1962. Medical Entomology. 
Ronald Press, New York) records that 
people have experienced pain as a result 
of small beetles entering an ear and then 
crawling over the ear drum. Specific 
cases of such invasion by scarabeid 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

beetles are reported by Hallock (1936. 
Life history a72d control of the Asiatic 
garden beetle. U.S. Department of Agri- 
culture Circular 246) and Metcalfe, Flint 
and Metcalfe (1951. Destructive a?id Use- 
ful bisects. McGraw-Hill, New York). 
Maddock and Fenn (1958. Hmnayi ear in- 
vasions by adult scarabeid beetles. Jour- 
nal of Economic Entomology, 51:546- 
547) record invasions of the ears of 186 
people at a scout jamboree in Pennsyl- 
vania. The scarabeid beetles Cyclocephala 
borealis and Autoserica castanea were in- 
volved in these cases and caused pain 
because the tibial spines of the beetles 
pierced the skin of the ear canal. 

William W. Judd 

Department of Zoology 
University of Western Ontario 
London, Ontario 
12 September 1963 

Mass Mortality of Gulls at 
Rondeau Park, Lake Erie 

On August 22, 1963, the writers found a 
large number of dead and dying gulls 
along a beach at Ropdeau Provincial 
Park, Ontario. This section of beach runs 
west from the south end of Rondeau 
Park Road; it is composed mainly of 
sand, and is some 1.25 miles in length. 

Along this beach, eighty dead and four 
dying gulls were found. In addition, 
several swam a few yards offshore and 
refused to flush. Unlike most dead gulls 
found along beaches, most of these birds 
appeared intact and quite fresh. Four 
Ring-billed Gulls, Larus delaivareJisis, 
two adults and two immatures, crouched 
low with their eyes open, and allowed 
themselves to be picked up without 
struggling. The dead consisted of sixty- 
two Ring-billed Gulls, fourteen Herring 
Gulls, Larus argentatus, and four Bona- 
parte's Gulls, Larus Philadelphia. One 
dead immature Ring-billed Gull carried 
band No. 585-77425. No dead terns were 
noted although both Common Tern, 

Sterna hirundo, and Caspian Tern, Hy- 
droprogne caspia, were abundant in the 

No signs of "oiling" were found on the 
plumage of any of the birds. It is con- 
ceivable that the mass mortality may 
have been due to local water pollution. 

Douglas D. Dow 

M. Anne Dow 

Department of Zoology 
University of British Columbia 
Vancouver 8, Canada 
15 October 1963 

Three New Bird Records for 
Prince Edward Island 

In W. Earl Godfrey's Birds of Prince 
Edward Island (1954, National Museum 
of Canada Bulletin 132) Mr. Godfrey 
states, "It is hoped that the present re- 
port will stimulate ornithological ob- 
servation on the island and that observers 
will publish such additional information 
as comes to their attention". My bird- 
watching activities there each summer 
enable me to report the following three 
new species for this Province. 

Little Blue Heron Florida caerulea. On 
August 20, 1958, I learned that a large 
white bird had been shot by Wilfred 
Saunders near one of the fish hatchery 
breeding ponds at Tyne Valley, fifteen 
miles northwest of Summerside. It had 
been passed to a local storekeeper for 
safekeeping in his freezer on August 10, 
1958. I obtained it from him and sent it 
by air express to the National Museum 
of Canada, Ottawa, and received word 
back that it was the first record of the 
Little Blue Heron for Prince Edward 
Island and that the specimen had been 
prepared for the research collection of 
the Museum. 

Willet Catoptrophorus sermpalmatus. 
Eric Holdway recorded the first Willets 
observed in Prince Edward Island. Mas- 
ter of the ferry Lord Selkirk which runs 
between Caribou, Nova Scotia, and 
Wood Islands, Prince Edward Island, 




Captain Holdway takes advantage of the 
opportunity to keep complete records of 
birds seen during the fourteen mile 
crossings. On July 4, 1958, hearing birds 
calling, he observed three feeding on the 
mud flats 150 feet from his ship, docked 
at Wood Islands. Identifying them as 
Willets, he gave two quick blasts of the 
ship's vi^histle, startling them so that he 
was able to see plainly the flashy wing- 
pattern. On August 10, 1958, I saw two 
Willets at Covehead and one August 29, 
1963, at Rustico Island, both areas being 
in the National Park of the Province. 
Since the breeding range of this species 
is extending, observers should be on the 
lookout for evidence of breeding in 
Prince Edward Island. 

Stilt Sandpiper Micropalama himanto- 
pus. Near one end of the bridge at Cove- 
head there is a sizeable brackish pond 
between the road and the ocean beach. 
On August 30, 1963, as I drove by, I 
noted a Greater Yellowlegs and then a 
much smaller bird wading up to its belly 
and although I did not at once see its legs 
it did not look like a Lesser Yellowlegs 
but appeared to be something different. 
Flushing it first from one side of the pond 
and then from the other I knew I was 
looking at my first Stilt Sandpiper, a bird 
very uncommon on the Atlantic Coast. 
At one time when the Greater Yellow- 
legs and the Stilt Sandpiper were feeding 
together the difference in their bills was 
plainly noticeable, the latter bird's bill 
showing a tapering and droop at the tip. 
Later, when I was watching from my car, 
it emerged from the water fifty feet 
away and I was able to see its greenish 
legs in a good light. After a thorough 
preening it took off in a westerly direc- 
tion and finally disappeared from view. 
An examination of a study skin of this 
species in Fall plumage in the Nova 
Scotia Museum of Science further con- 
firmed my identification. 

WiLLETT J. Mills 

5486 Spring Garden Road 
Halifax, Nova Scotia 
31 October 1963 

An Eastern Spiny Soft-shelled 
Turtle from Quebec Province 

A HATCHING FEMALE Eastern Spiny Soft- 
Shelled Turtle, Trionyx spinifer spinifer, 
was captured (by J. L.) at lie Perrot, 
Quebec, in late August 1962. He Perrot 
is at the junction of the Ottawa and St. 
Lawrence rivers. 

The site of the capture is a small bay 
downstream from Brussy Point, one-half 
mile downstream from the bridges con- 
necting the towns of He Perrot and Ste.- 
Anne-de-Bellevue, at approximately 73° 
57' W., 45° 22.8' N. (All names and 
measurements from the "St. Lawrence- 
Lake St. Louise" chart published by the 
Hydrographic and Map Service, Ottawa, 

The turtle was found about fifteen feet 
from shore while crawling across a small 
mudbank which was about two feet wide 
and surrounded by water on all sides. 
The bay is very shallow— one to two feet 
deep— with a fine sand and mud bottom 
and with dense subaquatic vegetation. 
The shore is boulders and sand, reed 
fringed, and backed with low shrubs 
growing in swampy ground which is 
flooded in spring. The head of a second 
turtle of the same species was seen at the 
same time. This second turtle was ob- 
viously an adult since the head and neck 
exposed above water was estimated to be 
about two inches long. 

There are no known collected speci- 
mens of this turtle from Quebec Pro- 
vince. Logier and Toner (1961. Checklist 
of amphibians and reptiles of Canada a?2d 
Alaska, The Royal Ontario Museum) 
list it for Iberville, Quebec, on the 
Richelieu River. According to Melancon 
(1950. Inco7inu et niecoiinu. La Societe 
Zoologique de Quebec) it is occasionally 
captured in the Richelieu River. Clarke 
(1908. The Ottawa Naturalist. 22:7-14) 
reports it from L'Ange Gardien, and 
Alexandre (1937. Les Tortiies du Que- 
bec, Bibliotheque des Jeunes Naturalistes, 
Societe Canadienne d'Histoire Naturelle, 
Tract No. 39) from Lake Champlain and 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

the Richelieu River. We also have a sight 
record with a photograph from the Pike 
River where it enters Mississquoi Bay of 
Lake Champlain at approximately 73° 06' 
W., 45° 04' N. (P.C: Hon. Mr. Justice 
G. M. Montgomery). 

The turtle is still alive and in captivity. 
The carapace was estimated to be about 
30 mm long at the time of capture; at the 
time of writing (October 1963) it has 
grown to 97 mm. During this time it has 
been fed on earthworms and pieces of 
raw fish and raw meat. 

It will eventually be deposited in the 
National Museum of Canada, Ottawa. 

Joseph Lovrity 
NoRRis Denman 

34 Sixth Avenue 
He Perrot, Quebec, and 
350 WilUam Birks St. 
St. Bruno, Quebec 
2 October 1963 

Breeding Record for the 
Bufflehead West of the Coast 
Range in British Columbia 

The following note reviews the nesting 
records for the Bufflehead Bucephala 
albeola (L.) west of the coast range sum- 
mit in Canada, and presents the first 
record of Bufflehead breeding on Van- 
couver Island, British Columbia. Brooks 
(1917, Auk 34:34) reported a female 
Bufflehead and three young on Sumas 
Lake, B.C., and Tavemer (1919, Condor 
21:80-86) reported a brood seen by 
Spreadborough near Hazelton, B.C. 
These appear to represent the only re- 
corded nesting records for the Bufflehead 
west of the coast range summit. Anthony 
Erskine (pers. coimn.') of the Canadian 
Wildlife Service considers these two 
records as accidentals (here meaning a 
breeding record in an area outside the 
defined and accepted breeding range of 
the species). 

The following is a summary of inform- 
ation I collected on two small ponds two 
miles north of Middle Quinsam Lake 

(lat. 49° ^y, long. 125° 29') Vancouver 
Island. The data are supplemented by 
notes supplied through correspondence 
with William Munro, of the Canadian 
Wildlife Service, and James Bendell and 
Peter Elliott, of the University of 
British Columbia. 

1960. Pond Number 1. 

May 29— female with four downy 
young about 8-10 days old ("1 b" stage, 
1954, Gallop and Marshall, Mississippi 
Flyway Council and Technical Council. 
A guide for aging duck broods in the 
field) and a female with eight 4-6 days 
old ("1 a" Stage) downy young. Two 
males and a broodless female were also 

June 19— two adult females but no 

1961. Pond Number 1. 

June 7— Elliott observed female buffle- 
head leaving nesting hole. 

June 9— female with nine downy young 

1961. Pond Number 2. 

June, between the 13th and the 20th— 
female and two downy young seen by 

1962. Pond Number 1. 

No date— female and brood seen several 
times (Elliott). 

For a number of summers prior to 1960, 
Buffleheads were reported in this area 
though no positive evidence of breeding 
was detected (Bendell pers. comm.). 

These records clearly establish the 
Bufflehead as a breeding bird of the 
Quinsam area for the years 1960 through 

It is interesting to speculate on some of 
the reasons responsible for this recent 
invasion. A comparison of the structure 
of the vegetation in the Quinsam burn 
area, with that of established bufflehead 
breeding range, for example the Cariboo 
district, suggests much similarity. The 
following is a description of the vegeta- 
tional structure of the Quinsam area. 
Thirty-two thousand acres of logged and 
mature timber were burned in 1951. The 
present successional stage has much bare 
ground, charred stumps, recently planted 




conifer seedlings, and open to dense 
thickets of willow (Salix spp.) and alder 
(Alnus oregona). Salal (Gaultheria shal- 
lon), bracken (Pteridium aquilhim), 
blackberry {Rubus vmcropetahis), and 
hare's ear (Hypochaeris radicata) are the 
shrubs and herbs in greatest abundance. 
The ponds are ringed by dead and living 
mature conifers which escaped both axe 
and fire. The first pond, about four acres 
in size, is mud bottomed and bordered by 
a floating sphagnum mat. A few feet from 
the water's edge this mat supports a thick 
layer of sweet gale (Myrica gale) and 
labrador tea {Ledum groenlandicum). 
On the east and west sides of the pond 
this gives way to the soils of the original 
pond edge which supports salal and a 
narrow ring of tall conifers, Douglas fir 
{Fseudotsuga Tneiiziesii), western red 
cedar (Thuja plicata), and western hem- 
lock (Tsuga heterophylla). Beyond the 
edge of the pond is the open burn. At 
the north and south ends of the pond are 
thickets of willow and hardback {Spiraea 
dougiasii). The second pond, about five 
and a half acres in size, lacks the sphag- 
num mat and the living conifers, but has 
an extensive stand of dead conifers, pri- 
marily • cedars, surrounding it. Much 
windfall makes the shoreline impene- 
trable. The elevation of the ponds is 
approximately 900 feet. 

It is likely that extensively logged 
and/or burned areas offer a habitat whose 
structure fulfills the nesting require- 
ments of the Bufflehead. Fires had oc- 
curred in the area of Taverner's and 
Brook's Bufflehead records. However, 
British Columbia Forest Service records 
of these areas are incomplete for these 
early dates, and it is, therefore, impos- 
sible to either fully substantiate or dis- 
pute the view that similar conditions 
prevailed in these areas at the time of 
their records. 

If, as suggested, the physiognomy of 
large logged and burned areas meets the 
breeding requirements of the Bufflehead, 
it is difficult to account for the lack of 
previous coastal nesting records in these 
areas. These new breeding records may 

represent "accidentals", but it appears 
more likely to me that they are the result 
of recent invasion into a newly created 
breeding range. I suggest such a popula- 
tion of birds be regarded as transient. 
Population densities will rise and then 
fall both spatially and temporally as the 
habitat progresses from an open logged 
or burned area to a forest. The few 
records available are, I suggest, primarily 
the result of the lack of data from these 
regions. No final decision can be reached, 
however, without further investigation. 

I am grateful to the above contributors 
for the use of their notes. Acknowledg- 
ment and thanks are here given to Dr. 
J. F. Bendefl, and to Dr. E. M. Hagmeier 
of Victoria University, for their advice 
and criticism in the preparation of this 

David A. Hancock 

Department of Zoology 
University of British Columbia 
6 November 1963 

A Northern Range Extension for 
Bu^o americajius with Notes on 
B. americamis and Rana sylvatica 

During July, 1963, a National Museum 
of Canada field party coUected along 
the coast of James and Hudson Bays 
from Moosonee, Ontario, to the Port 
Harrison Gulf area, Quebec. The expedi- 
tion consisted of A. H. Clarke, Jr., and 
D. E. McAllister, leaders, and H. D. 

Only two species of herptiles were seen 
during the course of collecting which 
was concentrated on fresh and salt water 
moUusks and fish. Due to the paucity of 
records from the area all herptile speci- 
mens are reported here. Numbers pre- 
fixed NMC are National Museum of 
Canada catalogue numbers. 

Bujo aTnericanus: Quebec: NMC 7383, 
Eastmain, July 5 (1 specimen); NMC 
7385, at RCAF Station, Great Whale 
River, July 8 (1); NMC 7387, 2-3 miles 
up from mouth of Deer River, Rich- 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

mond Gulf, July 19 (1); Ontario: NMC 
7389, Creek tributary to Moose River, 
Moosonee, July 16 (1). 

The Deer River specimen {S6° 17'N., 
76° 10' W.) represents an approximately 
85 mile range extension from the pre- 
viously known northern limit of this 
species at Great Whale River (Logier 
and Toner, 1961, Checklist of the Amphi- 
bians and Reptiles of Ca?iada and Alaska). 

The Moosonee specimen shows the 
greatest resemblance to the disputed race 
B. a. copei in having a strongly con- 
trasted pattern, wide mid-dorsal stripe, 
heavily spotted and reticulated venter, 
and long, narrow parotoid glands. The 
other specimens show a south to north 
cline from the Moosonee to the Deer 
River specimen which is more-or-less 
typically B. a. americajius with only 
partial ventral spotting. 

The habitat for the Deer River speci- 
men was a grassy area bordered by a low 
muddy river bank on one side and clumps 
of willow, reaching a height of four to 
five feet, on the other. Richmond Gulf 
is at the northern limit of the tree line on 
the east coast of Hudson Bay. Spruce 
grew on the opposite bank of the river 
but not on the side where the collection 
was made. 

Specimens were 63, 70, 69 and 65 mm 
respectively. The Deer River toad is a 
male, probably in breeding condition, 
with a dark throat vocal sac. 

Two collections of toad tadpoles were 
made. NMC 7393, Fort George River, 
17 mi. E. of Fort George, Quebec, July 
17, was taken in rock pools at the edge 
of rapids. The nineteen specimens were 
staged as follows: 29 (1), 32 (1), 33 (5), 
35 (5), 36 (2). NMC 7610, stream, N. 
central Burton Lake (S. of Great Whale 
River), Quebec, July 24. Three tadpoles 
staged at 35 (1), 43 (2). The stages fol- 
low Gosner (1960, Herpetologica 16 (3): 

Rana sylvatica: Quebec: NMC 7382, 
Eastmain River, 1 mi. E. of Eastmain, 
July 3 (2); NMC 7384, Bank of Fort 

George River, 8 mi. E. of Fort George, 
July 3 (2); NMC 7386, Deer River 2-3 
miles up from mouth, Richmond Gulf, 
July 19 (6); Ontario: NMC 7388, Creek 
tributary to Moose River, July 26 (1). 

The Deer River specimens are imma- 
tures, 28 to 25 mm snout- vent length, and 
all lack a dorsal line. Specimens from the 
other localities are 40-49 mm and all have 
a dorsal line. Logier and Toner (1961) 
give George River as the northern 
locality on this coast. Bleakney (1954, 
Canadian Field-Naturalist 68(4) : 165-171) 
cites a collection from Richmond Gulf. 

One collection of tadpoles was made, 
NMC 7609, N. central Burton Lake, Que- 
bec, July 24. Two tadpoles were staged 
as above at 31 (l) and 32 (1). 

Bleakney (1958, National Museum of 
Canada, Bulletin 155, table 3, p. 67; map 

5, p. 74) delineated herpetofauna zones 
in eastern Canada. Zone 6 contains Bufo 
americanus, Rajia sylvatica and Ra?7a 
septentrionalis; zone 7 contains only the 
latter two species. At the east coast of 
Hudson Bay the northern limit of zone 

6, which is based on the northern limit 
of Bufo americaims, must now be moved 
from Great Whale River to Richmond 
Gulf, making it synonymous with the 
northern limit of zone 7 at this point. 
Future collecting will establish if Bufo 
americanus ranges as far north as P^ana 
sylvatica at all points, thus eliminating 
zone 7, or if the Richmond Gulf situa- 
tion is caused by some factor such as 
a 'Warming effect at the coast while the 
inland areas remain validly differentiated 
into two zones. 

No frogs were observed at Port Har- 
rison, north of Richmond Gulf, nor on 
any the coastal islands visited between 
Great Whale River and Port Harrison. 

I am indebted to the collectors for the 
specimens, their field notes, and their 
permission and encouragement to report 
on these specimens. 

Francis R. Cook 

National Museum of Canada 
Ottawa, Ontario 
8 October 1963 


Edmonton Bird Club 

President, H. J. Montgomery; Vice-President, 
Dr. V. E. Lewin; Secretary-Treasurer, Dr. W. G. 
Evans, Department of Entomology, University of 
Alberta, Edmonton, Alta.; Field Secretary, Dr, 
R. W. Turner; Librarian, D. A. Boag; Audubon 
Representative, B. Sparks. 

Mcllwraitb Ornithological Club 

President, W. R. Jarmain; Past President, Dr. 
F. S. Cook; Vice-President, Dr. G. Cummings; 
Recording Secretary, Mrs. G. A. MacDougall; 
Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. A. M. Coote, 644 
Base Line Rd., London, Ontario; Treasurer, Mrs. 
H. J. Wheaton; Migration Secretary, J. W. Leach; 
Migration Editor, W. G. GrauNG. 

Natural Hi&tory Society of Manitoba 

President, Miss J. M. Walker; Honorary Presi- 
dent, A. H. Shortt; Honorary Vice-President, E. 
Gilbert; Past President, G. S. Cotter; Vice-Presi- 
dent, Dr. L. Smith; Treasurer, W. D. Kyle; 
Assistant Treasurer, J. Jack; General Secretary, 
Mrs. a. E. Axcell, 310 Linwood St., St. James, 
Manitoba; Assistant Secretary, Miss R. McGregor; 
Mailing Secretary, Miss L. M. Lovell; Executive 
Secretary, Mrs. G. Keith. 

Nova Scotia Bird Society 

President, Dr. L. B. Macpherson; Vice-President, 
Mrs. Vicior Cardoza; Secretary -Treasurer, Miss 
Sylvia J. Fullerton, 1051 Lucknow St., Halifax, 
N.S.; Editor, Mrs. J. W. Dobson. 


Provancher Society of Natural History 
of Canada 

President, Ronald E. Blair; First Vice-President, 
Benoit Pelletier. Second Vice-President, James P. 
Coristine; Secretary-Treasurer, Georges A. L»- 
CLERc, 628 Fraser St., Quebec, Que. 

Province of Quebec Society for the 
Protection of Birds 

President, Mrs. G. H. Montgomery; Vice- 
Presidents, Dr. Ian McLaren, Miss R. B. Blan- 
chard; Honorary Treasurer, Miss G. E. Hibbabd; 
Honorary Secretary, Miss R. S. ABBorr, 164 Sen- 
neville Road, Senneville, P.Q.; Honorary Librari- 
an, Mr. W. H. Rawlings. 

Toronto Field Naturalists' Club 

President, Dr. D. Hoeniger; Vice-President, 
R. F. Norman; Secretary -Treasurer, Mrs. H. Rob- 
son, 49 Craighurst Ave., Toronto 12, Ont.; As- 
sistant Secretary, Miss Rtrra Marshall; Jimior 
T.F.N.C., R. J. MacLellan, 416 St. Qements Ave., 
Toronto 12, Ont. 

Vancouver Natural History Society 

Honorary President, Dr. M. Y. Williams; Past 
Presides, Dr. R. Stace-Smith; President Dr. J. E. 
Armstrong; Vice-President, N. F. Pullen; Corres- 
ponding Secretary, Mrs. D. J. Martin, 2038 Mac- 
donald St., Vancouver, B.C.; Treasurer, Mrs. E. N. 
Copping; Programme Secretaries, Miss R. Ross, 
Mrs. H. Pinder-Moss; Editor of Bulletin, C. B. W. 
Rogers; Recording Secretary, Miss K. Milroy. 


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bur Z 1364 


Published by THE OTTAWA FIELD-NATURALISTS' CLUB, Ottawa, Ontario 


Winter Mortality among Red-necked Grebes (Colymbus grisegena) in Ontario 

Antoon de Vos and Albert E. Allin 67 

A List of Vascular Plants from around Ogac Lake, South Coast of 

Frobisher Bay, N.W.T. Ian A. McLaren 70 

Preliminary Trials of a Camera Recording Device for the Study of Small Mammals 


Local Distribution of Two Voles: Evidence for Interspecific Interaction 

Garrett C. Clough 80 

New Bird Records from Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia 

Anthony J. Erskine 89 

Potentilla stipularis L. and Draba sibirica (Pall.) Thell. New to North America 

A. E. PoRSiLD 92 

Vole Populations in Southwestern Ontario Robert H. Stinson 98 

A Plant Collection from Southwest Newfoundland — John Bell, 1867 

Isabel L. Bayly 107 

Reviews 119 

Birds of the Labrador Peninsula and Adjacent Areas — Birds of the Lake Athabasca Region, 
Saskatchewan — Cacti and Other Succulents — Handbook of North American Birds, 
Vol, L Loons through Flamingos — Minnesota's Rocks and Waters: A Geological Story 
— Les Libellules du Quebec — Investigations in the Natural History of the Soviet Far East. 


Changing Status of the Cowbird in Prince Edvs^ard Island Stanley E. Vass 125 

Some Interesting Plants in the Baron Canyon in Algonquin Park Mary I. Moore 125 

The Holotype of the Franklin Grouse (Canachites frankUnii) I. McT. Cov7An 127 

Bushy-tailed Wood Rat in the Peace River District, Alberta A. W. F. Banfield 128 

The Stonecat, Noturus flavus, Nevs^ly Recorded in Alberta J. R. Nursall and Victor Levi^in 128 

Letter to the Editor Douglas E. Wade 130 

Can. Field Nat. 

VoL 78 

No. 2 

p. 67-130 

Ottawa, April- June 1964 


Founded en 1879 

— Patrons — 
Their Excellencies The Governor General and Madame Vanier 

The objects of the club are to foster an acquaintance with and a love of nature, to 
encourage investigation and to publish the results of original research and observations 
in all branches of natural history. 

The club is a corporate member of the Federation of Ontario Naturalists and is 
affiliated with the American Association for the Advancement of Science. 


President: George H. McGee, 2052 Woodcrest Road, Ottawa 8, Ontario 

First Vice-President: W. Winston Mair 

Second Vice-President: G. R. Hanes 

Secretary: A. W. Rath well, Canadian Wildlife Service, Norlite Building, 

150 Wellington St., Ottawa 4, Ontario 
Treasurer: Miss Anne Banning, Box 4099, Postal Station E, Ottawa, Ontario 
Additional Members of Council: Mrs. F. R. Cook, Miss L. Kingston, Mrs. D. A. Smith, 
Miss M. Stuart; Messrs. W. K. W. Baldwin, A. W. F. Banfield, D. R. Beckett, E. L. 
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Gillett, H. Groh, J. W. Groves, D. D. Hogarth, P. H. Jones, E. L. Leese, H. Lloyd, 
H. N. Mackenzie, A. E. Porsild, F. H. Schultz, K. R. Scobie, D. A. Smith, V. E. F. 
SoLMAN and G. Tessier. 
Auditors: J. M. Gillett and R. J. Moore 


Editor: Francis R. Cook Business Manager: W. J. Cody 

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The Canadian Field-^Naturalist harvard 


Volume 78 APRIL-JUNE 1964 Number 2 


{Colymbus grisegena) IN ONTARIO 

Antoon de Vos and Albert E. Allin, 

Department of Zoology, Federated Colleges, Guelph, Ontario 

and Regional Laboratory, Ontario Department of Health, Fort William, Ontario 

During late February and early March 1963, many reports came into the 
offices of the Ontario Department of Lands and Forests and the Ontario 
Humane Society stating that Red-necked Grebes, Colymbus grisegena, had 
been found stranded, either dead or ahve, in unlikely places on land. Because 
it was suspected that further information could be obtained, an inquiry was 
launched, the results of which will be discussed. 

The Red-necked Grebe was considered a bird of the Prairies, but during 
recent decades it has shown a tendency to extend its summer range into the 
Great Lakes area. It has been found nesting near Burlington at the western 
end of Lake Ontario since 1943 (Speirs et ah, 1944), and in the Cochrane 
District in northern Ontario since 1955 (Snyder, 1957). 

This species has been found wintering on Lake Ontario near Toronto, near 
Niagara Falls, on Lake Erie near Ashtabula, Ohio, and on Lake Michigan 
(Bent, 1919). Snyder (1929) reported that a specimen was sent in to the 
Royal Ontario Museum on January 16, 1929, which was picked up from a 
local marsh near Kingston, Ontario. In another paper (Snyder, 1930) he 
reported that on December 12, 1929, during a heavy sleet storm many grebes 
had landed on Toronto streets. By mid-afternoon of the thirteenth, twenty- 
seven live birds had been picked up. By December 15 a total of thirty-seven 
had been reported for Toronto. One other specimen was reported to have 
been captured at Brantford, Ontario. Not all birds passing through the 
Toronto area were stranded, as indicated by several individuals observed 
along the waterfront on December 14. 

Forbush (1925) stated that the species is seldom seen in the interior 
of southern New England, except when severe cold waves freeze up the Great 
Lakes or other large lakes westward in which, in ordinary seasons, many of 
the birds pass the winter. According to him, in trying to escape to open 
water, many grebes become fatigued and fall or alight on the snow or ice in 
New England, eastern New York and New Jersey. 

Todd (1940) states on pages 35 and 36 "in the winter it prefers the sea 
coast but sometimes remains on the Great Lakes'". He adds, "there are 
February records for this grebe from Erie, Warren, Clinton, Armstrong and 
Washington Counties. If not pertaining to birds that were actually wintering 
where they were found, these records must indicate a considerable wandering 

Mailing date of this number: 28 August, 1964 

68 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

at certain times from a presumed winter habitat elsewhere, probably Lake 
Erie. This explanation is suggested by the fact that Mr. Simpson has on 
several occasions found this grebe at Warren early in February during bliz- 
zards. Some were picked up in an exhausted condition, due apparently to 
lack of food." 

Janet C. Green obtained several reports of Red-necked Grebes wintering 
at the extreme western end of Lake Superior near Duluth, Minnesota: 
1 bird on Nov. 1, 1961 (The Flicker, 33(4): 114, 1961) 
1 bird on Feb. 19, 1962 (The Flicker, 34(1): 22, 1962) 
1 bird on Dec. 6, 1962 (The Flicker, 34(4): 114, 1962) 
1 bird on Jan. 5, 1963 (The Flicker, 35(1): 15, 1963) 
1 bird on Jan. 15, 1963 (The Flicker, 35(1): 15, 1963) 
S. D. Robbins {in letter dated March 14, 1963) stated that there are no 
winter records for Wisconsin, but that little winter work has been done along 
the Lake Superior shore of Wisconsin. His latest date for the state is November 
16, 1951 at Milwaukee. Probably the specimen seen on March 5, 1962 at 
Madison (Audubon Field Notes 16(3): 331, 1962) was a very early arrival. 
W. Nickell {in letter dated March 7, 1963) reported that there were no winter 
records for Lake Michigan. 

Records about observations of grebes in Ontario during the winter were 
obtained from the Ontario Department of Lands and Forests (courtesy Mr. R. 
E. Mason), the Ontario Humane Society (courtesy Mr. T. L Hughes), and 
The Ontario Naturalist (1(2): 33, 1963 (Table 1). In addition to data con- 
tained in Table 1, "numbers" were found in snow drifts in the Paisley-Wing- 
ham area (Ontario NaturaHst, 1963). 

An analysis of data covering winter 1962-63 suggests that the largest 
number of grebes was displaced during the second half of the month of Feb- 
ruary. It also suggests that the majority of these displaced birds were found 
in a relatively restricted section of the peninsula of southern Ontario, namely 
Bruce, Grey, Simcoe, Huron and Wellington Counties. It should be stated 
here that personnel of the Ontario Department of Lands and Forests could 
not obtain any records in reply to our questionnaire from area west and east 
of those referred to in Table 1. As will be noticed, the majority of the grebes 
were alive when found. The bird found in early March on the shore of 
Inverhuron Park was perhaps netted. Most grebes were found on roads or 
road shoulders. Perhaps roads bare of snow have a special attraction for 
displaced grebes. 

What may cause large numbers of grebes to become stranded on land 
during the winter? The most obvious answer that comes to mind is certain 
weather conditions. 

The winter of 1962-63 was unusually severe, which resulted in all of the 
Great Lakes, except Lake Ontario, becoming completely covered with ice 
or nearly so. Data supplied by the Meteorological Branch, Department of 
Transport, Canada, indicated that on February 1 5 Lake Erie had only relatively 
small stretches of open water, while only very little open water could be 
found at the south ends of Lakes Huron and St. Clair. On Lake Superior 
there was almost no open water on February 12. These records were taken 



Table 1. — Records obtained of stranded Red-necked Grebes 







Dec. 13, 62 

Blanchard Twp. 



Jan. 6, 63 




Feb. 6, 63 

W. Luther Twp., Wellington Co. 



Feb. 14, 63 

Fort William 



A. E. Allin 

Feb. 16, 63 




Feb. 20, 63 

Howick Twp., Huron Co. 



Feb. 20, 63 




Feb. 21, 63 





Feb. 22, 63 



Feb. 23, 63 

Kincardine Twp., Bruce Co. 



Feb. 23, 63 




Feb. 26, 63 




Feb. 28, 63 




Feb. 28, 63 




Feb. , 63 

Glengarry Co., 14 mi. N of St. Lawrence 



Feb. , 63 

Blanchard Twp. 


L &F 

Feb. , 63 

Downie Twp. 



Feb. , 63 

Ellice Twp. 



Mar. 2, 63 

Port Elgin 



Mar. 5, 63 

Rostock, Ellice Twp. 



Mar. (early) 

On shore of Inverhuron Park 



Mar. 18, 63 




Mar. 23, 63 

Huron Twp., Bruce Co. 




Note: February 17-23: Twelve telephone calls were investigated by Conservation Officer 
G. R. Harris about grebes along sides of roads in Bruce County. Several grebes were 
also found in the Wingham area. Six more calls were investigated since then. 
No reports were received from the Clinton, Meaford, Lions Head and Paris area.. 
L&F = Ontario Department of Lands & Forests records 
O.H.S. = Ontario Humane Society records 
O.N. = The Ontario Naturalist (1), 1963. 

during the period when most casualties were observed among the grebes. 
Nevertheless, there was some open water. Would it be plausible that the 
grebes were displaced by drifting ice or were moving from one lake to the 
next and unable to find open water? The problem is not adequately solved 
by this report, but further documentation might clarify the situation. 


Bent, A. C. 1919. Life histories of North 
American diving birds. U.S. National 
Museum Bulletin 107, p. 19. 

FoRBUsH, E. H. 1925. Birds of Massachu- 
setts and other New England States. Part 
One — Water Birds, Marsh Birds and 
Shore Birds. Massachusetts Department of 

Snyder, L. L. 1929. Holboell's Grebe near 
Kingston, Ontario, in midwinter. Canadian 
Field-Naturalist 43(7): 166. 

. 1930. A flight of Holboell's 

Grebes {Colymbus holboelli) at Toronto. 

Auk 49(2): 240-241. 

1957. Changes in the avifauna 

of Ontario. In: Changes in the fauna of 
Ontario. Contributions of the Royal 
Ontario Museum, University of Toronto 
Press. 75 pp. 

Speirs, J. M., G. W. North, and John A. 
Crosby. 1944. Holboell's Grebe nesting 
in southern Ontario. The Wilson Bulletin 
56(4): 206-208. 

Todd, W. E. C. 1940. Birds of Western 
Pennsylvania. University of Pittsburg 

Received for publication 4 October, 1963 



Ian a. McLaren 

Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Arctic Unit, 505 Pine Ave. W., Montreal 18, Que.* 

The plants listed here were collected by several people during three seasons 
at Ogac Lake at 62° 52' N and 67° 21' W on the south side of Frobisher Bay. 
In each season plants were collected incidentally to the main program, which 
was the study of the hydrography and biology of the lake, which is in fact the 
almost landlocked head of a fiord, with a depauperate marine biota, including 
a rehct population of the Atlantic Cod Gadus morhua L. The general nature 
and interest of the lake have been discussed briefly by Dunbar (1958, p. 

In 1952 R. S. McCall and A. D. Dawson, under the auspices of the Arctic 
Institute of North America, made a preliminary survey of the lake between 
July 16 and August 22, and collected sixty-three species of vascular plants. 
In 1957 I stayed at the lake between June 1 and October 4, and my wife 
Bemice, who was my sole companion and assistant, made a collection of seventy 
species, including nine not taken in 1952. In 1962 I made further detailed 
studies at the lake between June 1 and August 28. Armed with Porsild's 
(1957) manual, my assistant Mr. T. E. Welch (who paid special attention to the 
grasses and sedges) and I were able to increase the list of local plants to 124 

The area around the lake consists of metamorphic and igneous Precambrian 
rock. The coast of Frobisher Bay here is rugged and indented with a series 
of steep-sided inlets; Ogac Lake is at the head of one such inlet, Ney Harbour. 
There is very little level ground around the lake, and since the lake is L-shaped, 
its steep sides face in almost every direction. There are cold, barren faces 
receiving very little sunlight during the day, and other slopes which are warm, 
sheltered and lush with flowers. In general, the local climate is rather more 
salubrious than that found even five miles away, on the coast of Frobisher Bay. 
The high, steep hills, up to 2000 feet, inhibit winds from most directions and 
trap heat. The snowfall along the south coast of Frobisher Bay is unusually 
high, enough to sustain the most southerly glaciers in the Archipelago, about 
forty miles southeast of Ogac Lake {see Mercer, 1956). 

Most previous collections from southeast Baffin Island are listed by Polunin 
(1940). Since that time, the only major published collections from the region 
appear to be those of Calder (1951), who lists 149 species from the head of 
Frobisher Bay, which is topographically, climatically, and botanically rather 
different from the Ogac Lake region. The recently described flora of the 
vicinity of Merewether Crater, Northern Labrador (Gillett, 1960), is in many 
ways more comparable with that from Ogac Lake. 

"Present address: Marine Sciences Centre, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec. 


1964 McLaren: Plants from Ogac Lake 71 

Of especial interest in southeast Baffin Island is the presence of amphi- 
Atlantic and subarctic elements, otherwise found in Greenland and Labrador- 
Ungava and points east or west. The three additions to the flora of the Can- 
adian Arctic Archipelago given in this paper {Car ex cmguillata, Luzula multi- 
flora ssp. frigida var. contracta, and Viscaria alpma) are all of this distribution, 
and a few other species of comparable range have previously been collected 
only once or twice from the Archipelago. A number of plants are found in 
the Greenland flora which have not hitherto been recorded in North America 
proper. It may be that the unnamed species of Erigeron discussed in this 
paper will prove to be one of these. The southeast corner of Baffin Island may 
be important in understanding a number of phytogeographic problems, and 
deserves more collecting activity. 

I wish to thank Messrs. A. D. Dawson, R. S. McCall, and T. E. Welch, 
and my wife Bernice, who did much of the collecting. Dr. Paul Maycock, 
Department of Botany, McGill University, gave me free access to the Her- 
barium, and helped in other ways. Dr. Askell Love, Montreal Botanical 
Garden, offered an opinion on the identity of the unnamed species of Erigeron. 
Dr. A. E. Porsild, National Herbarium, examined and revised all the critical 
material in the collections — the grasses, sedges, Luzula spp., willows, Draba 
spp., and Antennaria spp. — and also read critically this manuscript. I am most 
grateful for his help. 

Annotated List of Species 

In the following list, the nomenclature of Porsild (1957) is used throughout. 
Specimens of all species listed are in the McGill University Herbarium, Mont- 
real. Some of the more unusual material has been deposited in the National 
Herbarium, Ottawa, as well. The listed specimen numbers consist in each 
case of the year of collection (1952, 1957, or 1962) followed by the collecters' 
field numbers. 

Woodsia ilvensis (L.) R. Br.: Common on Lycopodium annotinum L.: Common only 

crumbling cliffs near the lake outlet. 1962-27, among willows and on herbmats on the 

103. south-facing slope of the inner basin of the 

lake. 1962-109, 110. 

Woodsia glabella R. Br.: One collection ,. ,, , t ^ i 

from rock clefts. 1962-26. Lycopodium Selago L.: Common on hea- 
thy areas. 1962-108. 

Cy stopteris fragilh (L.) Bernh.: The com- / ,,..,. .^ \ n <, c -ru 

monest fern. 1962-29, 30, 106. Large speci- Hterochloe alpina (Sw.) R. & S.: The re- 

mens (1962-106) up to 35 cm were collected l^ted, recently described H. orthantha S0r. 

from among dense shrubs of Salix cordi- did not occur m the four collections, al- 

jolia on the south-facing slope of the inner though it might be expected in the region, 

lake basin. 1952-74; 1957-7; 1962-95, 99. 

Equisetum arvense L.: Common. Densest Agrostis borealis Hartm.: Common. 1952- 

stand of plants noted on rather sterile sand ^^^ 1962-98. 

at the bottom of a deep gorge one mile west Trisetiim spicatum (L.) Richt.: Common, 

of the lake (1962-104), but also occurred on 1962-96, 97. 

sunny, grassy slopes (1962-105). p^^ j^^.^^^^ ^^^^ ^indm.: Collected only 

Equisetum variegatum Schleich.: Not com- by the 1952 expedition from damp, rich soil 

mon, or overlooked. 1962-51. near the lake. 1952-68. 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

Poa arc tic a R. Br.: Abundant. 1952-72, 82; 
1962-120, 121. 

Poa alpina L.: Scattered clumps every- 
where around the lake, but nowhere very 
common. 1962-118, 122, 123. 

Poa glauca M. Vahl.: A few specimens 
collected. 1957-4; 1962-119. 

Festuca brachyphylla Schultes: Probably 
the commonest grass around the lake. 1962- 
92, 93, 94. 

Eriophorum angustifolium Honck.: The 
commonest cotton grass; found around the 
numerous ponds near the lake. 1962-83,87. 

Eriophorum Scheuchzeri Hoppe: A few 
unexpanded specimens were taken near a 
stream one mile west of camp on August 24 
(1962-88). A single expanded specimen was 
taken in 1957 (1957-1). 

_ Eriophorum callitrix Cham.: This attrac- 
tive species grew in some numbers on black 
humic soil near Pinguicula vulgaris (see be- 
low), and a few specimens were taken on a 
like site near the outlet of the lake. 1962- 
85, 86. 

Eriophormn vaginatw7i L. ssp. spissu?n 
(Fern.) Hult.: Collected only twice. 1952- 
80; 1962-84. 

Scirpus caespitosus L. ssp. austriacus (Pal- 
las) Asch. & Graebn.: Common. 1962-53, 76. 

Car ex nardina Fr. var. atriceps Kiik.: On 
gravel beach of lake and on south-facing, 
grassy slope. 1962-65, 68. 

Carex scirpoidea Michx. 
54, 62, 70. 

Common. 1962- 

Carex rupestris AIL: Only a single speci- 
en collected. 1962-69. 

men collected. 1962-69. 

Carex Lachenalii Schk.: One collection 
from near stream emptying into inner basin 
of the lake, 1962-61. 

Carex glareosa Wahlenb. var. amphigena 
Fern.: Collected only by the 1952 expedition, 
which found it common near the shores of 
a small pond, less than one metre above the 
level of Ogac Lake. 

Carex Bigelowii Torr.: The commonest 
sedge in a variety of habitats, and often the 

commonest plant. 1952-67; 1962-62, 64, 73. 
Specimens of C. anguillata [f. anguillata 
(Drej.) Fern.] were collected from dry, 
sandy soil between streamlets, and identified 
from among the material by Dr. Porsild 
(1962-60). This appears to be the first re- 
cord of this form from the Archipelago. 

Carex norvegica Retz.: Only a single 
small specimen taken in 1962, although noted 
as being common near the outlet of the lake 
in 1952. 1952-68; 1962-93. 

Carex holostoma Drej.: Collections from 
black humic soil near Pinguicula vulgaris and 
Eriophorum callitrix and on a similar site 
near outlet of lake. 1962-52, 66. 

Carex supina Wahlenb. ssp. spaniocarpa 
(Steud.) Hult.: On the upper parts of a 
sandy-gravel beach on the east side of the 
lake. 1962-62. 

Carex glacialis Mack.: Collected only by 
the 1952 expedition, atop Knife Edge Moun- 
tain (ca. 600 m). 1952-97. 

Carex misandra R. Br.: This high-arctic 
species was collected only from two slopes, 
both south-facing in 1962. 1952-75; 1962-55, 

Carex capillaris L.: A single, over-ripe 
specimen taken from wet ground on the 
south-facing side of the inner lake basin on 
August 18. 1962-72. 

Carex membranacea Hook.: Locally com- 
mon 1952-84; 1957-3; 1962-56, 67. 

Juncus biglumus L.: Apparently scarce. 
1952-91; 1962-89. 

Juncus trifidus L.: Not common, but con- 
spicuous on dry sunny slopes, and also at 
the bottom of a deep gorge, one mile west 
of the lake. 1962-74, 75, 90. 

Luzula nivalis (Laest.) Beurl.: Taken only 
once, on rather damp tundra. 1962-79. 

Luzula spicata (L.) DC: 1962-80, 81, 92. 

Luzula confusa Lindebl.: Everywhere 
common. 1952-75; 1962-57, 58, 78, 91, 92. 

Luzula ?nultiflora (Retz.) Lej. ssp. frigida 
(Buch.) Krecz. var. contracta Sam.: This is 
the first collection from the Archipelago, 


McLaren: Plants from Ogac Lake 


where it was anticipated by Porsild (1957), 
in view of its occurrence in Ungava and 
Greenland. At Ogac Lake specimens were 
taken from the lush, south-facing slope of 
the inner basin. 1962-82. 

Tofieldia pusilla (Michx.) Pers.: 1952-34; 
1957-31; 1962-77. 

Salix herbacea L.: 1952-12, 86; 1957-13. 

Salix Uva-Ursi Pursh: 1957-8; 1962-101. 

Salix reticulata L.: 1952-33, 61; 1962-100. 

Salix cordifolia Pursh var. callicarpaea 
(Trautv.) Fern.: 1952-94; 1962-115, 117. 
Formed low thickets about 0.5 m high on 
parts of the south-facing slope of the inner 
lake basin (1962-115). 

Salix arctophila Cockerell: The most com- 
mon willow on the low ground around the 
lake (1952-19, 62; 1957-12; 1962-116), al- 
though two collections come from dry hill- 
sides (1952-95; 1962-116). 

Salix arctica Pall.: A few flowering speci- 
mens in 1957 were the only ones taken, al- 
though doubtless overlooked in 1962. 1957-9. 

Oxyria digyna (L.) Hill: Abundant. Very 
lush growth in alluvial gravel at the head 
of the lake. 1952-71, 78. 

Polygonum viviparuni L.: 1952-58, 59; 

Stellaria longipes Goldie s. lat.: Specimens 
of the race ?nonantha were common on dry 
areas around the lake outlet, but good cili- 
atosepala were collected from an old tent 
ring. 1952-37; 1957-39; 1962-44, 45. 

Stellaria humifusa Rottb.: Common on 
more sterile beach gravel and sand near out- 
let of lake. 1962-43. 

Cerastium alpinum L.: Ubiquitous. 1952- 
41, 64. 

Cerastium cerastoides (L.) Britt.: Speci- 
mens taken in 1952 were the first Archipelago 
record (identified by Porsild and mapped in 
his manual, 1957). In 1962 it was found to 
be moderately common near the lake edge 
on more humic, consolidated shores, and 
was also noted on several wet, mossy sites 
up to 150 m above sea-level. It was not in 

flower until early-through mid-August, long 
after Cerastium alpinum. 1952-13; 1962-41, 42. 

Sagina intermedia Fenzl.: Uncommon, 
Found only in damp crevices near the out- 
let. 1962-25. 

Arenaria peploides L. var. diffusa Hor- 
nem.: Common on gravel shores of lake 
near outlet. 1957-44. 

Arenaria rubella R. Br.: Uncommon. 1962- 
23, 24. 

Arenaria sajanensis Willd.: Common in a 
variety of settings, especially on rather dry 
grassy slopes and herbmats. 1962-19, 20, 21, 


Silene acaulis L. var. excapa (All.) DC: 
Common. 1952-22. 

Melandrium apetalum (L.) Fenzl. ssp. 
arcticum (Fr.) Hult.: Curiously rare, al- 
though looked for. Collected only once in 
a damp herbmat on an east-facing slope 
about 300 m above the lake. 1962-35. 

Melandrium affine (J. Vahl) Hartm.: 
Common. 1952-44; 1957-16. 

Viscaria alpina (L.) G. Don.: The beauti- 
ful alpine campion has not hitherto been 
recorded in the Archipelago, although anti- 
cipated in Porsild's (1957) manual. Two 
patches of several plants each were found 
on August 15-18, 1962, along steep, unstable 
slopes below weathering cliffs on the east 
side of the lake. The flowers were past 
prime when discovered. 1962-35. I also col- 
lected this plant on August 5, 1951, near the 
Grinnell Glacier, about 40 miles down the 
southwest shore from Ogac Lake. These 
specimens were given to a private collection 
(Now in McGill Herbarium), and remained 
unrecorded in the literature. 

Ranunculus nivalis L.: This was the com- 
mon buttercup at Ogac Lake. 1952-30, 77. I 
looked carefully for R. sulphureus Sol., 
which apparently does not occur. 

Ranunculus pygmaeus Wahlenb.: Locally 
common. 1952-16; 1957-36. 

Ranunculus Allenii Robins.: This rather 
rare endemic of subarctic eastern North 
America has apparently been taken only 
once before from the Archipelago, again 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

from the Frobisher Bay region (see Benson, 
1948). It was taken only in two places at 
Ogac Lake in 1962. A few plants were found 
growing around the springy base of a huge 
boulder on the south-facing slope of the 
inner basin on August 20 (1962-36), and 
three plants were picked from wet moss on 
one of the few extensive horizontal "mea- 
dows", at around 150 m on the west side of 
the lake, two days later (1962-37). 

Papaver radicatum Rottb.: 1952-40; 1957- 


Cochlearia officinalis L.: The prostrate 
form, ssp. groenlandica (L.) Porsild, was 
common on the shores of Ogac Lake, and 
typically biennial (1957-21). A large, up- 
right fruiting specimen was taken from 
sandy clay of a barren scree slope about 100 
m above the southeast side of the lake; it 
had set seed the previous year (1962-46). 

Cardamine bellidifolia L.: Local. 1952-15. 

Cardamine pratensis L.: Tiny rosettes of 
the peculiar leaf of this plant appeared com- 
monly on black mud of drying pools around 
the lake in early August, 1962. They achiev- 
ed some vegetative growth, but no flowers 
were noted. Also collected in the same state 
in 1952. 1952-79. 

Drab a crassifolia Grab.: Rare. Found only 
on two sheltered snow-patch areas. 1962-13. 

Draba nivalis Liljebl.: Collected only once, 
on a dry ledge on the shaded side of the 
inner lake basin. 1962-17. 

Draba lactea Adams: Much the common- 
est of the genus at Ogac Lake and, as usual, 
quite variable. 1962-11, 12, 15, 18. 

Draba glabella Pursh: The common large 
draba. 1962-14. 

Draba cinerea Adams: Taken only from 
calcareous cliff rubble on the east side of 
the lake. The siliques are, atypically, simple- 
pubescent. 1962-16. 

Arabis alpina L.: Common along streams 
flowing into the lake. 1952-29, 47, 57; 1957-18. 

Saxifraga aizoides L.: Common locally; 
forming dense and extensive mats on steep 
seepage areas and along rivulets. 1952-27, 63; 

Saxifraga Aizoon Jacq. var. neogaea But- 
ters: Regular on drier ledges and slopes, 
but nowhere really common. 1952-53, 54j 

Saxifraga caespitosa L.: Plants referable 
to ssp. eucaespitosa. Nowhere very com- 
mon. 1952-28, 81; 1957-38; 1962-50. 

Saxifraga cernua L.: Conspicuous but scat- 
tered. 1952-21; 1957-34. 

Saxifraga foliosa R. Br.: Found only on 
otherwise almost sterile, black mud on mar- 
gins of drying streamlets and ponds in Aug- 
ust. None had flowers. Almost all specimens 
were less than 3-4 cm high, but one of 13 
cm was collected. 1962-38. 

Saxifraga nivalis L.: 1962-39. This and the 
four following saxifrages were all well re- 
presented at the lake. 

Saxifraga oppositifolia L.: 1952-17; 1957-47. 

Saxifraga rivularis L.: 1957-46. 

Saxifraga tenuis Sm.: 1952-14; 1957-5; 1962- 

Saxifraga tricuspidata Rottb.: 1952-5; 26; 

Potentilla Crantzii Beck: This species is 
well known in Greenland and northern 
Ungava-Labrador, but its presence on the 
Archipelago has hitherto been based on a 
specimen collected by Kumlien in Cumber- 
land Sound in 1878. In 1962 it was found to 
be regular around Ogac Lake in typical hab- 
itats — in deep grass and among willow 
shrubs between braided streams and on 
damp, south-facing slopes. 1962-2, 3, 107. 

Potentilla hyparctica Make: The com- 
mon cinquefoil in a variety of habitats. 1952- 
4; 1962-34. 

Potentilla nivea L.: Less common than the 
above, and usually in drier habitats. Plants 
referable to the typical race. 1962-31, 32, 33. 

Potentilla Vahliana Lehm.: A few speci- 
mens of this high-arctic species were taken 
from a south-facing slope on June 27, 1962. 
These were the earliest blooms of the genus 
noted, and the species was not found else- 
where thereafter. 1962-1. 


McLaren: Plants from Ogac Lake 


Sibbddia procumbens L.: This species 
just enters the Archipelago in southeast Baf- 
fin Island. It was found in 1962 to be fairly 
common on the south-facing slope of the 
inner lake basin and, once noted, was found 
sparsely in a number of places — even on 
gravel beaches well above the lake level. 

Dryas integrifolia M. Vahl.: 1952-3, 39; 

Empetrum nigrum L.: Common. 1952-no 
field number. 

Epilobium angustij olium L. var. inter- 
medium (Wormskj.) Fern.: Found only in 
a dry thicket of Salix cordifolia on the south 
facing slope of the inner basin of the lake. 
No evidence of flowering when collected 
on August 15. 1962- 40. 

Epilobium latifoliu?n L.: 1952-7, 32, 60; 
1957-14, 49. A single specimen of the white- 
flowered f. albiflorum Nathorst was noted 
and collected by the expedition in 1952 
(1952-32). Several white blooms occurred 
among the typical form at the same site in 
1957 (1957-14), but the white form had 
apparently disappeared in 1962. 

Pyrok grandiflora Rad.: 1952-23; 1957-33. 

Ledum decumbens (Ait.) Lodd.: 1952-1, 
87, 92. This and the following seven heaths 
are well represented at the lake. 

Loiseleuria procumbens (L.) Desv.: 1957- 


Cassiope hypnoides (L.) D. Don: 1952-10, 
51; 1957-51. 

Cassiope tetragona (L.) D. Don: 1952-9, 
85; 1957-45. 

Phyllodoce coerulea (L.) Bab.: 1952-18; 

Rhododendron lapponicum (L.) Wahlenb. 

Arctostaphylos alpina (L.) Spreng.: 1952- 


Vaccinium uliginosum L.: 1952-6, 88, 93. 

Vaccinium Vitis-idaea L. var. minus 
Lodd.: The only heath which can be said 
to be rare. 1957-45. 

Diapensia lapponica L.: Regular on gravel 
between rocky ridges. 1952-96; 1957-40. 

Armeria maritima (Mill.) Willd. ssp. lab- 
radorica (Wallr.) Hult.: Rare. A few speci- 
mens found on damp cliffs on the fiord 
in mid-July, 1957, and a few clumps taken 
from the gravelly brow of a south-facing 
hill in 1962. 1957-22; 1962-102. 

Mertensia ?naritima (L.) F. J. Gray: A 
few growing on gravel beaches near the out- 
let of the lake. 1952-35; 1957-42. 

Veronica alpina L. var unalaschcensis C. & 
S.: Formed dense stands on a few moist sites 
on south-facing slopes, but elsewhere un- 
common. 1952-57; 1957-32. 

Euphrasia arctica Lge.: Quite common on 
sunny slopes, but often almost hidden in 
grassmats. 1952-55; 1957-29. 

Bartsia alpina L.: Small local stands. 1952- 
50; 1957-30. 

Pedicularis lapponica L.: 1952-38; 1962- 

Pedicularis flammea L.: 1952-20; 1957-17. 

Pedicularis hirsuta L.: The common louse- 
wort at the lake. 1952-45; 1957-15. I searched 
for P. lanata, but if it occurs it must be rare. 

Pinguicula vulgaris L.: A few dozen plants 
were discovered on August 19, 1962, grow- 
ing on black soil of a seepage slope facing 
southeast on the outer basin of the lake. 
Most had finished flowering. The species 
is rare on the Archipelago, and apparently 
hitherto known only from a few specimens 
collected by Polunin (1940) around Lake 
Harbour. 1962-47. 

Cafnpanula uniflora L.: Although perhaps 
more widely distributed, this species did not 
form local concentrations like the following. 


Cafnpanula rotundifolia L.: Beautiful thick 
stands of the species were found at several 
places in cliff rubble along the east side of 
the lake and elsewhere. 1952-56; 1957-28. 

Erigeron eriocephalus J. Vahl: This high- 
arctic form was found only once, on a 
sandy-clay barren, about 400 m up the east 
side of Knife Edge Mountain. 1962-112. 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

Erigeron unalaschkensis (DC) Vierh.: The 
common composite on a wide variety of 
habitats around the lake. 1952-25; 1957-23; 

-Erigeron sp.: On August 15, 1962, a stand 
of several dozen finger o??, quite unlike the 
above two species, was found below the 
weathering cliffs on the east side of the 
lake. Most were past flowering, and attract- 
ed attention from a distance by their large 
white pappus and general robustness. A few 
late blooms resembled superficially those of 
E. eriocephalus in their large, loose invol- 
ucres, spreading phyllaries, and dense cov- 
ering of pale hairs. However, the high- 
arctic E. eriocephalus, which I have seen 
in abundance on Ellesmere Island, is densely 
grey-to-white villous, exactly as described 
in Porsild's (1957) ma;nual, whereas the pre- 
sent specimens are mauve-villous and much 
more robust. Dr. Porsild {pers. cormn.) con- 
curs in the opinion that they are not E. 
eriocephalus. It is perhaps significant that 
jE. eriocephalus at Ogac Lake (above) was 
taken on one of the most barren alpine sites 
examined, whereas the present specimens 
grew on one of the most warm and shelter- 
ed flower slopes, a stone's throw from the 
first Archipelago record of the subarctic, 
amphi-Atlantic Viscaria alpina. Along with 
E. eriocephalus and E. humilis (= unalas- 
chkensis), the two "low-arctic, oceanic- 
montane" species E. uniflorus L. and E. 
borealis (Vierh.) are maintained in the cur- 
rent Greenland manual of Bocher et al. 
(1957). Cronquist (1947) described E. alpini- 
formis from Greenland material, but this is 
considered to be E. uniflorus p.p. and E. 
borealis p.p. by Bocher et al. (1957). Further 
E. uniflorus and E. eriocephalus are consid- 
ered only subspecifically distinct by some 
authors, and are not separated at all by 
others. In my opinion the material from 

Ogac Lake is referable to E. uniflorus L. 
(s. str.) as described in the recent manuals 
for Greenland (Bocher et al., 1957) and Ice- 
land (Love, 1945), and Dr. A. Love (pers. 
cmitm.) concurs that it is E. uniflorus as he 
knows it in Iceland. However, there are 
systematic arid nomenclatural problems 
which preclude any easy decision on such 
limited material. It is perhaps sufficient to 
suggest that there is an entity in the Eastern 
Arctic flora distinct from E. unalaschkensis 
and E. eriocephalus, somewhat resembling 
the latter, but of decidedly subarctic rather 
than high-arctic habitat. 1962-113. 

Antennaria canescefis (Lge.) Make: Col- 
lected on dry herbmats on the . south-facing 
slope of the inner basin of the lake. 1962-7. 

Antennaria angustata Greene: The com- 
mon Antennaria at the lake. 1952-24; 1957-11- 
1962-5, 10. 

Antennaria Ek?naniana Porsild: This high- 
arctic form was taken only on a gravelly 
ledge on the steep, north-facing slope of the 
inner basin of the lake. 1962-9, 

Artemisia borealis Pall.: Small specimens 
taken in 1957 from the exposed clifi^s of the 
fiord. Luxuriant collections from river gra- 
vel and from cliff rubble along the east side 
of the lake in 1962. 1957-19; 1962-95. 

Arnica alpina (L.) Olin ssp. angustifolia 
(Vahl) Maguire: 1952-2, 48, 83; 1957-20. 

Taraxacum lacerurn Greene: 1952-42- 
1957-10; 1962-48. Both dandelions are com- 
mon, this species perhaps more around the 
shores, and the next on sunny slopes. 

Taraxacum lapponicum Kihlm. 



Benson, L. 1948. A treatise on the North 
American Ranunculi. American Midland 
Naturalist 40: 1-261. 

Bocher, T. W., K. Holmen, and K. Jakob- 
sen. 1957. Gr0nlands flora. Copenhagen, 
P. Haase & Sons. 

Calder, J. a. 1951. Plants from the Frob- 
isher Bay region, Baffin Island, N.W.T., 
Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist 74: 8-27. 

Cronquist, A. 1947. Revision of the North 
American species of Erigeron north of 
Mexico. Brittonia 6: 121-302. 

Dunbar, M. J. 1958. Physical oceanogra- 
phic results of the "Calanus" Expeditions 
in Ungava Bay, Frobisher Bay, Cumber- 
land Sound, Hudson Strait, and northern 
Hudson Bay, 1949-1955. Journal of the 
Fisheries Research Board of Canada. 15: 

GiLLETT, J. M. 1960. The flora of the 
vicinity of the Merewether Crater, north- 
ern Labrador. Canadian Field-Naturalist 

74: 8-27. 

1964 McLaren: Plants from Ogac Lake 77 

Love, A. 1945. fslenzkar iurtir. Kaupman- Polunin, N. 1940. Botany of the Canadian 

nahofn Eastern Arctic. Part I, Pteridophyta and 

Spermatophyta. National Museum of Can- 

Mercer, J. 1956. Geomorphology and gla- ada, Bulletin 92. 

cial history of southernmost Baffin Island. Porsild, A. E. 1957. Illustrated flora of the 

Geological Society of America, Bulletin. Canadian Arctic Archipelago. National 

67: 553-570. Museum of Canada, Bulletin. 146. 

Received for publication 21 July, 1963 



Forest Entomology Laboratory, Box 6300, Winnipeg 1, Manitoba 

Tests of a stop-lapse camera device for studying the habits of small mammals 
in forest and bog habitats of southeastern Manitoba were made in 1961- The 
•apparatus was similar to those employed by Pearson (1959), Dodge and Snyder 
(1960), and Abbott and Dodge (1961). These have been described elsewhere, 
and shown in photographs at the sites of operation. Examples were also 
presented by these authors of the individual recordings made by the devices. 
The apparatus I used was obtained through the joint assistance of the Engineer- 
ing Research Institute and the Bio-Graphic Unit of the Canada Department of 
Agriculture. P. W. Voisey, Instrumentation Engineer, Engineering Research 
Service, Research Branch, Canada Department of Agriculture, Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada, was responsible for basic construction and design 
of electrical circuits. 

The apparatus consisted of two units: one containing a 16 mm movie camera 
with electronic photoflash, and a photoelectric cell and light source; the other 
a small mirror, scale, clock, thermometer and relative humidity gauge. The 
units were housed in glass-fronted weatherproof shelters. In operation, these 
were positioned facing each other at a distance of two feet so that the red-light 
source from the camera unit was reflected back to the photoelectric cell from 
the mirror unit. Interruption of this beam fired the red light electronic flash 
and exposed one frame of film. The flash and shutter could also be fired by 
a treadle tripping device (Voisey and Kalbfleish, 1962) but preliminary tests 
indicated that the photo cell has greater advantages. The device operated on 
120 volt line current and differed from Pearson's model chiefly in the inclusion 
of an isolation transformer to eliminate a shock hazard. 

The apparatus was operated in a tamarack bog from August 2 to 23 
inclusive. Preparations included a three-day mark-and.-release program one 

^Contribution No. 971, Forest Entomology and Pathology Branch, Department of Forestry, Ottawa, 

78 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

week prior to the trial. Trapped animals were marked in the standard manner 
by toe-clipping, and also by fur-clipping in various patterns for photo identifica- 
tion. Animals marked in this way included two masked shrews, two meadow 
voles, eleven red-backed voles, two deer mice, two meadow jumping mice, and 
one red squirrel. 

A total of 1,055 exposures were made, not including manual tests, of which 
244 were discarded for the following reasons: subject not in camera field, 162 
exposures; flash unit failure, 67 exposures; tripping by inanimate objects, 15 
exposures. A garter snake and a white-throated sparrow each accounted for 
one exposure and grey jays for 21. The remaining 788 photos were of 
mammals, as follows: masked shrew, Sorex cmereus, 69 exposures of at least 
2 individuals; short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicmida, 4 exposures of at least 1 
individual; meadow vole, Microtus pejmsylvanicus, 28 exposures of at least 2 
individuals; red-backed vole, Clethrionomy s gapperi, 290 exposures of at least 
8 individuals; deer mouse, Peromyscus mafiiculatus, 36 exposures of at least 2 
individuals; meadow jumping mouse, Xapus hudsonius, 11 exposures of at least 
2 individuals; red squirrel, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, 181 exposures of at least 2 
individuals; least chipmunk, Eutamias minimus, 3 exposures of at least 1 
individual; snowishoe hare, Lepus americanus, 166 exposures of at least 1 

Probably all marked animals were photographed, several of these many 
times. Ease of identification varied with the position of the subject in relation 
to the camera and indistinct images of the fur-clipped patches often made 
identification difficult. Two animals were photographed carrying objects: 
a red squirrel carrying a spruce cone and a meadow vole carrying a blade of 

As an example of information obtained by the technique. Figure 1 shows 
the relative daily activity of the three most frequently photographed species, 
as determined by the number and timing of photographs. 

The snowshoe hare was active almost exclusively during the periods of 
darkness, whereas the red squirrel was active only during the daylight hours. 
In contrast, the red-backed vole was active intermittently during both daylight 
and darkness. Scanty records on the other species suggest that the masked 
shrew, the deer mouse and the meadow jumping mouse behave similarly to the 
red-backed vole. The meadow vole, and the four recordings of the short- 
tailed shrew, were photographed only at night. The three photographs of the 
least chipmunk were taken in dayhght. 

Concomitant readings of temperature and relative humidity on each photo- 
graph provide data for more critical analysis of the factors aftecting activity. 
Present data are too limited to employ appropriate multiple regression techniques 
but provide interesting preliminary indications of the conditions under which 
the greatest activity occurred. For example, the snowshoe hare was recorded 
at temperatures ranging from 45°-78° F and relative humidity from 20-68%. 
The greatest activity occurred within a combination of ranges of 5 8° -66° F 
and 37-47% RH and the largest number of individual readings was at 58° F 
and 40-42% RH. 


Buckner: a Camera Recording Device 


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 N 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 M 

TIME (C.S.T.) 

Figure 1. Number and time of photo-recordings of three species of mammals, in a tamarack 
bog, August 2-23, 1961. 

Encouraging results from the preliminary tests have warranted further 
improvements to the equipment. Reliance on line power has been eliminated 
by converting to battery operation. A re-designed model operates for about 
a week on a standard 6-volt car battery before recharging and at temperatures 
of 28° F or lower. Other improvements in the electronic and flash equipment 
have reduced the incidence of premature and faulty exposures. Experiments 
are planned to improve identification of marked animals. 

The device promises to be of value in behaviour and population studies of 
small mammals, particularly during the winter when trapping techniques are 
less feasible. It may also prove useful as a supplementary means of obtaining 
seasonal population estimates of small mammals on permanent study plots. 


Abbott, Herschel G. and Wendell E. 
Dodge. 1961. Photographic observations 
of white pine seed destruction by birds 
and mammals. Journal of Forestry ^9: 

Dodge, Wendell E. and Dana P. Snyder. 
1960. An automatic camera device for re- 
cording wildlife activity. Journal of Wild- 
life Management 24: 340-342. 

Pearson, O. P. 1959. A traffic survey of 
Microtus-Reithrodontomy s runways. Jour- 
nal of Mammalogy 40: 169-180. 

VoisEY, Peter W. and W. Kalbfleisch. 
1962. A mechanical treadle for the study 
of small mammal traffic in the field or 
laboratory. Journal of Mammalogy 43: 

Received for publication 14 July 1963 



Garrett C. Clough* 
Zoological Laboratory, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia 

The local distribution of small mammals is often explained on the basis of 
physiological limitations of the animal to physical factors of the environment. 
Examples of studies supporting this assumption are works of Pruitt (1953) on 
the short- tailed shrew, of Getz (1960 and 1961) on voles and shrews, of Bendell 
(1961) on the deer mouse and of Pearson (1962) on red-backed voles. 

Since a species usually does not occupy all of the space which apparently 
suits its physiological requirements and limitations, other limiting factors must 
be involved in some cases. Indirect evidence that presence or absence of other 
species of small mammals may influence the local distribution of small mammals 
is given by Wirtz and Pearson (1960), Findley (1954), Curry-Lindahl (1959) 
and Ota and Jameson (1961). Interspecific interactions might be expected to 
be most important in cases of predator-prey combinations or with species of 
similar ecology. 

The present study was undertaken to learn if two closely related species 
of voles influenced each other in their local distribution in southern Nova 
Scotia. The species studied were the meadow vole, Microtits pemisylvanicus 
acadtciis and the red-backed vole, Clethrionomy s gapperi pallescens. Both 
species are common in Nova Scotia. They are both widespread in North 
America with Microtus extending slightly further north into Alaska and the 
Northwest Territories and slightly further south into central United States 
than Clethrionomy s (Hall and Kelson 1959). 

This study was performed between October 1961 and November 1962. 
Collecting efforts were aimed at areas containing more than one type of habitat. 
A total of 2769 trap nights contributed to the results. Two introduction 
experiments were conducted in which Clethrionomy s were added to isolated 
areas of mixed habitat which had contained only Microtus. 

The National Research Council of Canada supplied financial support with 
Operating Grant No. A-1342. The National Museum of Canada, through the 
courtesy of Mr. Phillip Youngman, kindly provided some of the traps. 

Methods and Description of Areas 
Field Collections: The collecting was done primarily in Halifax County. 
Museum special snap traps, baited with peanut butter and rolled oats, were set 
in lines through the areas. Since the aim of the collecting was to record the 
presence or absence of the two voles the trapping method sometimes varied 
from area to area. The trapping details are given below with the description 
of each collecting site. 

"Present address: The Norwegian State Game Research Institute, VoUebekk, Norway. 


1964 Clough: Local Distribution of Two Voles 81 

Habitat Types: The habitats found on the collecting sites were distinguished 
on the basis of vegetation form and general condition of substrate. These fell 
into six major types which were subdivided into fourteen habitat types. 

I. BOG. 

A. Open Bog. This was primarily a wet Sphagninn mat with sedges and 
scattered low heaths. 

B. Conifer Bog. On this habitat black spruce (Picea marlana) and larch 
(Larix laricina) grew as low trees on the Sphagnmn and heath bog. 


C. Meadow Grass. This habitat included moist to mesic areas which had 
dense covers of grass of various species without a shrub or tree layer. 

D. Dry Grass. The grass on this habitat was sparse and the soil was dry 
compared to the previous one. On the well-drained sandy soils of coastal 
beaches the major grass was Avfrnophila. 


E. Wet Spruce Woods. This habitat contained an overstory of white 
spruce (Picea glauca) with black spruce at the wetter edges. The ground and 
herb layers supported many mosses and ferns. Sphagnum often grew in the 

F. Mature Spruce -Fir Woods. Balsam fir {Abies balsamifera) with either 
white or red spruce (Picea rubra) formed the tree layer of this habitat. Tree 
cover was usually dense. Withe-rod ( ViburJium cassinoides) and alder (Alnus) 
were the most common shrubs in the forest openings. Ferns and various annual 
herbs were common at some seasons. 

G. Opeti Spruce Woods. This habitat was the remnant of the mature 
spruce-fir woods a few years after logging operations had been completed. 
Only a few trees were standing. The sapling layer was dense with young 
poplar (Populus trermdoides), birch (Betida), spruce and fir. Viburnum, and 
Alnus were common shrubs. Many brush heaps and fallen logs covered the 

H. Dry Spruce Woods. Spruce which grew on the thin soil of rocky 
uplands were thinly spaced with branches growing thickly to the ground. 
Lichens and sparse shrubs grew on spots of exposed bed rock and areas of little 

I. Virgin Hemlock Woods. In this stand of virgin hemlock (Tsuga 
canade?isis) the dense, high canopy of trees allowed little vegetation to grow 
on the ground below. 


J. Northern Mixed Woods. In this habitat the major tree species were 
Abies balsamifera, Picea glaicca, Pinus strobus, Betida lute a, Acer rubrum and 
Fagus grandifolia. Topography was varied with moist hollows and drier ridges. 
The sapling, shrub and herb layers were well developed in places. 

82 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 


K. Old-field Shrub. This habitat consisted of thick growths of plants at 
the shrub layer and almost no herb layer. In one case these shrubs, dense 
Spiraea and goldenrod (Solidago), prevented any grass from developing. 

L. Heath Shrub. This habitat contained various low ericacous shrubs 
such as blueberry (Vacciniznn), rhodera {Rhododendron canadense), sheep- 
laurel (Kalmia ajigiistifolia), leather leaf {Chamadaphne calycidata) and ground 
heaths such as foxberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) , cranberry (F. macrocarpon) 
or the heath-like crowberry {Eupetrum nigrum). This habitat was on drier 
ground than the Conifer Bog. 


M. Grass-Spruce Ecotone. The edge between Adeadow Grass or Dry 
Grass and Mature Spruce-Fir Woods was often wide enough to contain several 
trapping stations and therefore was classified as a distinct habitat. This was 
characterized by spruce and fir trees of different heights widely spaced in 

N. Bog-Spruce Ecotone. The Open Bog and Conifer Bog often merged 
gradually with A4ature Spruce-Fir Woods or with Wet Spruce Woods. These 
areas were composed of a mixture of wet bog with sparsely growing conifer 
trees of different sizes. 

Collecting Sites: The collecting was done on fifteen different areas selected 
to represent all the habitats containing at least one of the vole species under 
study. The habitats and method of trapping on each collecting site are 
described separately below. This material is summarized in Table 1. 

1. On the first site a trap line extended from a Conifer Bog through a 
Bog-Spruce Ecotone into a Wet Spruce Woods. Fifteen traps were placed 
25 feet apart in a single hne for four nights from October 29 to November 
1, 1961. 

2. This site included Conifer Bog, Bog-Spruce Ecotone and Open Spruce 
Woods habitats. Three parallel lines of 15 traps each were set with each line 
completely within one habitat type only. The traps were spaced at 50-foot 
intervals and the lines were 50 to 75 feet apart. The traps were set for five 
nights from November 19 to 22, 1961. 

3. This site was entirely within Northern Mixed Woods. Sixty traps 
were set in groups of three at 20 stations about 10 yards apart in a single Hne 
through the woods. The trapping was done for three nights from A4ay 7 
to 10, 1962. 

4. This site was in a large area of Dry Spruce Woods. Sixty traps were 
set in groups of three at 20 stations about 10 yards apart. The traps were set 
for three nights from May 7 to 10, 1962. 

5. This trap line was placed in an extensive Mature Spruce-Fir Woods. 
Fifty traps were set at approximately 10-yard intervals along a line for three 
nights from May 14 to 17, 1962. 

6. This site had two trap lines. One hne started in Meadow Grass and 
passed abruptly into Mature Spruce-Fir Woods and the other line, which also 

J 964 

Clough: Local Distribution of Two Voles 






















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84 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

started in Meadow Grass, passed through Old-field Shrub and extended up to 
Mature Spruce-Fir Woods. The lines were parallel and had 10 stations of three 
traps per station. The stations were 25 feet apart and the lines 450 feet apart. 
The traps were set for five nights from September 26 to 30, 1962. 

7. At this site the trapping was done within a large field of Meadow Grass. 
One hundred traps were set in a square grid pattern with 25-foot intervals 
between traps and rows. Trapping was done for one day, September 14, 1962. 

8. This site was part of a 110-acre peninsula connected to the mainland 
by a long narrow spit of sand and pebbles. It contained Dry Grass habitat on 
the seaward side and on the tops of a multiple series of old beach ridges. In 
the hollows and flat sections between the ridges there were strips of Mature 
Spruce-Fir Woods and Heath Shrub habitats. A portion of this area is shown 
in Figure 1. Sixty traps were set at 20 stations for 3 nights from May 21 to 23, 
1962. Half of these stations were in Dry Grass and the rest in the other 
two habitats. 

9. This area was similar to site 8 in its position on a small peninsula 
separated from the mainland by a long narrow sand spit. It was a low glacial 
drumlin about 15 acres large. Approximately one-third of the area was 
Meadow Grass habitat and the rest covered by Heath Shrub, patches of Mature 
Spruce-Fir Woods with Grass-Spruce Ecotone (Figure 2). Sixty traps were 
set at 20 stations for three nights from May 21 to 23, 1962. Half of these 
stations were set in Dry Grass and the rest distributed through the other three 

10. This site was situated along a section of high, rocky seacoast. The 
trapping was done partly in a 35-foot wide strip of Meadow Grass on the open 
knoll above the cliff, and partly in the Grass-Spruce Ecotone and Mature 
Spruce Woods behind the grass. Three lines of five stations each extended 
perpendicular to the shore line from the open grass in the woods. The 
stations were 10 yards apart with three traps per station. The traps were 
operated for four nights from December 1 to 4, 1961. 

1 1 . This site was near a lake in a barren, rocky section of land a few miles 
from the coast. The collecting was done partly in a low area of Open Bog 
and partly on the hillside at the edge of the bog which was covered with Dry 
Spruce Woods and Heath Shrub habitats. One line of 30 traps at 10 stations 
placed at 10-yard intervals was set entirely within the bog and the other was 
set in the same manner 50 yards away on the slope. The traps were set for 
one night, October 17, 1962. 

12. This site and the following two (13 and 14) were in the Tobeatic 
Game Preserve in Queens County. The trapping on these three sites was done 
for two days on October 7 and 8, 1962. This site (12) was entirely within an 
extensive Mature Spruce-Fir Woods. Ten stations of three traps each were 
set at 15 -yard intervals. 

13. The collecting in this site was done in an Open Bog at the edge of a 
lake. The last station in the hne was at the edge of Mature Spruce Woods. 
Twelve stations with three traps per station were set at 10-yard intervals. 


Clough: Local Distribution of Two Voles 


Figure 1. Collecting site 8. Dry Grass and Mature Spruce-Fir Woods are shown. Heath 
Shrub is in the hollows in the background. 

Figure 2. Collecting site 9. This view extends from Meadow Grass habitat through 
Spruce-Grass Ecotone to Mature Spruce-Fir Woods. 

86 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

14. This site was within a Virgin Hemlock Woods situated along the 
bank of a river. Twenty stations of three traps each were set at 10-yard 
intervals. The last two stations were on the river bank. 

15. The last collecting site was on an island about six miles off the coast 
of eastern Halifax County. Most of the island's 35 acres were covered with 
Mature Spruce-Fir Woods. In a protected hollow there was one acre of 
Grass-Spruce Ecotone. Along the island shore in some places there was a 
strip of Heath Shrub 10 to 20 yards wide. Most of this was crowberry growing 
in a thick green mat six to eight inches high. The trapping was done in the 
ecotone and shrub habitats on May 23 and 24, 1962. Ten traps were set each 

Introduction Experiments: Collecting sites 8 and 9, the two peninsulas, 
supported Microtus but no Clethrionomy s at the time the first collecting was 
done. This fact, together with their relative isolation from the mainland and 
their mixture of grassland, woodland and ecotone habitats, was utilized in the 
performance of introduction experiments. On June 6, 1962, 12 Clethrionomy s 
(4 adult females, 6 adult males and 2 immature animals) were released at four 
points in the Spruce Woods of Site 8. On the same day 10 Clethrionomy s 
(4 adult females and 6 adult males) were released at three points in the Spruce 
Woods of site 9. 

Four months later, from October 10 to 12, 1962, snap trapping was con- 
ducted on site 8. Three lines of 15 stations, each with 3 traps, were set 
through all habitat types. From October 27 to 31 trapping was done on site 9. 
Three lines with a total of 33 stations, each with 3 traps, were set through all 
habitat types. In both sites some stations were placed at the original points of 
Clethrionomy s release. 


Field Collections: The small mammal catch for each collecting site is 
presented in Table 1 according to habitat type. Seven other species besides 
the two voles were found. Possibly interactions betw^een the two voles and 
these other species of mammals are important in determining local distribution. 
In this paper I am assuming that these other interactions, if they do exist, 
would not change the influence of the two voles on each other. 

On five collecting sites (2, 3, 4, 5 and 12) Clethrionomy s was found without 
Microtus. On four sites (7, 8, 9 and 15) Microtus was found without Cleth- 
rionomys. On the remaining six sites both species of voles were collected. 
Close examination showed that on these latter sites the two species usually did 
not occupy the same habitat type. The only instances of coexistence within 
a single habitat at the same collecting site come in the Virgin Hemlock on site 
14 and in the Grass-Spruce Ecotone on site 10. The first case involves only 
one specimen of Microtus. This animal may have wandered into the forest 
from the river bank where more ground vegetation grew. It was collected in 
the fall when some small mammals tend to disperse from their home ranges into 
unfamiliar areas. In the second case of coexistence the two species were not 
captured at the same station in three nights. 

1964 Clough: Local Distribution of Two Voles 87 

The comparative distribution of the two voles by habitat type is shown 
by the sum of the columns in Table 1. Four habitat types contained only 
Microtus, six contained only Clethriojiomys and four habitat types (Heath 
Shrub, Grass-Spruce Ecotone, Mature Spruce-Fir Woods and Virgin Hemlock 
W^oods) had both species of voles. Clethrionomys and Microtus had some 
exclusive habitats but they both occupied certain other habitats. However, 
the two species usually did not coexist in those habitats which both of them 
were able to occupy. 

Introduction Experiments: Four months after the introduction of Clethri- 
onomys to site 8 the trapping yielded ClethrionoTny s but no Microtus (Table 1). 
Some of the Clethrio7iomy s collected were the marked animals of the introduc- 
tion and others were unmarked juveniles. Presumably these were offspring 
of the introduced animals. The animals were taken in Mature Spruce-Fir 
Woods and Heath Shrub habitats. 

On site 9 the post-introduction trapping results were quite different. Here 
Microtus was taken but no Clethrionomys. The Microtus still occupied the 
same habitats which they had previously: Meadow Grass, Mature Spruce-Fir 
Woods, Heath Shrub and Grass-Spruce Ecotone. 

The results of these experiments support the two conclusions drawn from 
the field collections that, (1) both species of voles are able to live in certain 
habitats and, (2) that they usually do not coexist in these habitats. 


Clethrionomys gapperi usually lives in woodlands and Microtus pennsyl- 
vanicus in grasslands although they both have been found living together in 
other habitats. Buckner (1957) trapped both species in tamarack bogs in 
southeastern Manitoba, Connor (I960) found both in arbor vitae swamps in 
New York and Smith and Foster (1957) found both in some woodland habitats 
at Churchill, Manitoba. Beer, Lukens and Olson (1954) collected both species 
on small wooded islands in Minnesota. In all these places the main distinction 
between optimum habitats was preserved with Clethrionomy s most abundant 
in conifer and mixed woods and Microtus most abundant in grasslands. The 
overlap of local distribution was only partial. 

Other field studies contrast to these records of partial compatibiHty of the 
two species. The differences in local distribution of one vole in places where 
the other is absent compared to the local distribution in places where both 
species are present imply incompatibility. On Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, 
C. gapperi was most abundant in woodlands while M. pennsylvcmicus was most 
abundant in grassland (Cameron, 1958). However, on Newfoundland, where 
Clethrionom:y s is absent, Cameron found that Microtus at high population 
levels, expanded their habitats to include bogs, swamps and woodlands. A 
similar situation occurred with members of these two genera in Japan. On the 
island of Honshu C. andersonii inhabited coniferous woods and M. montebelli 
inhabited grasslands. On Hokkadio Island, where M. montebelli is absent, 
another species of Clethriono?nys, C. rufoccmus, occupies grasslands as well as 
woodlands (Ota and Jameson, 1961). My study here gives additional circum- 
stantial evidence of incompatibility between C. gapperi and M. pennsylva?iicus. 

88 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

Thus, in some places and in some circumstances, these two voles seem 
compatible while in others they may be incompatible. There is obviously an 
overlap in physiological tolerances and needs in the two species. Behavioral 
conflict may sometimes prevent them from coexisting in those places which 
both are capable of occupying alone. Such aggressive conflict between species 
of small mammals has been shown in the laboratory by King (1957) with Mus 
and Feromysciis and by Getz (1962) with Microtus pennsylvaiiiciis and M. 
ochrogaster. Both authors suggest that behavioral aggression may account for 
the spatial separations of these species in the field. 

We need much further study on the exact nature and mechanisms of inter- 
specific interactions to learn why these two species of voles are apparently 
mutually exclusive in some parts of their joint ranges and not in other parts. 
There are two profitable lines to follow. One is to study wild populations by 
following movements and survival of marked individuals in populations 
manipulated by introductions and removals. Small islands with mixed vegeta- 
tion oflFer ideal outdoor laboratories. The second line of study is to observe 
the social behavior of the animals in captivity. 

The local distribution of the meadow vole, Microtus penmylvanicics, and 
the red-backed vole, Clethrionomys gapperi, was studied in southern Nova 
Scotia. Collecting was done by snap trapping on 15 sites which contained 14 
different habitat types. Two field experiments were conducted in which 
Clethrionomys were introduced to peninsulas of mixed habitat occupied by 
Microtus. In general, Clethrionomys occupied woods and Microtus occupied 
grass and bogs but both species were found in heath shrub, grass-spruce ecotone 
and mature spruce-fir woods. However, they almost never coexisted in these 
habitats of ecological overlap. This suggests a partial behavioral incom- 
patibility between the two species. 


Beer, J. R., P. Lukens and D. Olson. 1954. Curry-Lindahl, K. 1959. Notes on the 

Small mammal populations on the islands ecology and periodicity of some rodents 

of Basswood Lake, Minnesota. Ecology and shrews in Sweden. Mammalia 23: 

35:437-445. - 389-422. 

Bendell, J.F. 1961. Some factors affecting Findley, J. S. 1954. Competition as a pos- 

the habitat selection of the white-footed sible limitmg factor m the distribution of 

mouse. Canadian Field-Naturalist 75:244- Microtus. Ecology 35:418-420 

255 Getz, L. L. 1960. Factors influencing the 

T. ^ rr ,r.r-, 1-, 1 • 1- local distribution of shrews. American 

Buckner C. H. 957 Population studies Midland Naturalist 65:67-88. 

on small mammals of southeastern Mam- ^^^^ Factors influencing the 

toba. Journal of Mammalogy 38:87-97. ^^^^^ distribution of Microtus and Symp- 

Cameron, a. W. 1958. Mammals of the toviys in southern Michigan. Ecology 42: 

islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Na- 110-119. 

tional Museum of Canada Bulletin 154, . 1952. Aggressive behavior of 

165 pp. the meadow and prairie voles. Journal of 

Connor, P. F. 1960. The small mammals Mammalogy 43:351-358. 

of Otsego and Schoharie Counties, New Hall, E. R. and K. R. Kelson. 1959. The 

York. New York State Museum and Mammals of North America. 2 Volumes. 

Science Service Bulletin 382:1-84. 1083 pp. Ronald Press, New York. 

1964 Clough: Local Distribution of Two Voles 89 

King, J. A. 1957. Intra- and interspecific Pruitt, W. O., Jr. 1953. An analysis of 

conflict of Mus and Feromyscus. Ecology some physical factors affecting the local 

,_ ,-- ,-_ distribution of the shorttail shrew (Blarina 

brevicauda) in the northern part of the 

Ota, K. and E. W. Jameson, Jr. 1961. lower peninsula of Michigan. Miscel- 

Ecological relationships and economic im- laneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, 

portance of Japanese microtines. Ecology University of Michigan 79:1-39. 

42:184-186. Smith, D. A. and J. B. Foster. 1957. Notes 

A ,, A • • on the small mammals of Churchill, Mani- 

Pearson, A. M. 1962. Activity patterns, toba. Journal of Mammalogy 38: 98-115. 

energy metabolism, and growth rate of the ^^^^ ^ q „ ^^^ p ^ p^^^^^^ ^^^ 

voles Clethnono?nys mfocanm and C. ^ preHminary analysis of habitat orienta- 

gUreolus in Finland. Annales Zoological tjon in Microtus and Feromyscus. Ameri- 

Societatis 'Vanamo'. Tom. 24:1-58. can Midland Naturalist 63:131-142. 

Received for publication 1 November 1963 



Anthony J. Erskine 

Canadian Wildlife Service, Sackville, New Brunswick 

Godfrey (1958) published data on 189 species of birds reported in Cape Breton 
Island, Nova Scotia, through 19.')4. Tufts (1962) and Cameron (1963) 
reported Cape Breton records for four species not listed by Godfrey. This 
paper presents sight records of twenty-five species of birds not reported in Cape 
Breton by those authors, and breeding records of five species not previously 
known to breed on that island. Additional records are also presented for three 
species whose status in Cape Breton was considered hypothetical or doubtful 
by previous authors. 

Canadian Wildlife Service biologists, including the late George F. Boyer, 
Brian C. Carter, Charles O. Bartlett, and the writer, have made surveys of 
waterfowl in Cape Breton during the years 1949-63. Unpublished data from 
our field notes have provided most of the new records. Other records were 
obtained from J. E. V. Goodwill {MS), and from the Nova Scotia Bird Society 
newsletters. All records not otherwise credited below are those of the writer. 
No specimens were collected, but my own identifications were made carefully, 
since I was aware of their significance. 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

Gavia stellata Red-Throated Loon: Un- 
common transient. One winter plumaged 
bird at Mabou, Inverness Co., April 29, 1961; 
one at the Strait of Canso, Inverness Co., 
November 8, 1962 (Goodwill, MS). 

Biitorides viresce72s Green Heron: Casual. 
One at Whycocomagh, Inverness Co., June 
2, 1961. 

Florida caerulea Little Blue Heron: Cas- 
ual. One immature at Whycocomagh, Aug- 
ust 15, 1961 (R. S. Gibbon and the writer). 
Chen caerulescens Blue Goose: Casual. Two 
at Little Judique Ponds, Inverness Co., Oct- 
ober 7, 1961. My field notes state that one 
bird had a dark body and the second had 
a light-coloured belly. Tufts (1962) gave 
only one record for the province of Nova 

Anas platyrhynchos Mallard: Uncom- 
mon in spring and summer. C. W. S. bio- 
logists have at least nine records, all of 
adult drakes except one eclipse-plumaged 
bird, in most cases apparently paired with 
Black Ducks Anas rubripes. Seasonally, the 
earliest was April 21, 1961, at Inverness, and 
the latest August 26, 1962, at Margaree Har- 
bour, both in Inverness Co. 

Anas acuta Pintail: Uncommon transient. 
Seasonally, spring records extend from May 
7, 1961, one drake at the Strait of Canso, to 
May 21, 1961, a pair near Kenloch, Inverness 
Co.; fall records ranged from September 24, 

1960, 19 birds at River Denys, to October 7, 

1961, one at Judique North, both locations 
in Inverness Co. 

Anas carolinensis Green-Winged Teal: 
Not previously known to breed. C.W.S. bio- 
logists have brood records from Kenloch, 
Whycocomagh, Nyanza (Victoria Co.), and 
North Sydney and Mullcuish Lake, in Cape 
Breton Co. 

Spatula clypeata Shoveler: Casual. A pair 
near Margaree Forks, Inverness Co., June 
7, 1963. 

Aix sponsa Wood Duck: Uncommon. 
Breeds. C.W.S. biologists have spring and 
summer records, from April 24, 1961, one 
drake at River Denys, to August 18, 1962, 
two at McCormack, Inverness Co. Broods 
have been seen at Nyanza — a female with 

11 half -grown young, July 24, 1956 (Carter 
and J. K. Lowther), and at River Denys — 
a female with nine one-third grown young, 
July 21, 1961. 

Aythya marila Greater Scaup: Common 
in fall and winter, uncommon in spring. 
The earliest and latest seasonal records are 
of 210 at Mullcuish Lake, October 6, 1961, 
and two pairs at Scotsville, Inverness Co., 
May 26, 1956 (J. K. Lowther). 430 off Big 
Pond, on the Bras D'Or Lakes, January 16, 
1963, is the largest number reported. 

Bucephala islandica Barrow's Goldeneye: 
Casual. One drake and two females on the 
Margaree River near Margaree Forks, April 
20, 1961. 

Bucephala albeola Bufflehead: Uncom- 
mon in winter. Two drakes and one female 
at Margaree Harbour, December 13, 1960; a 
courting group of seven males and 11 fe- 
males at Framboise Cove, Richmond Co., 
January 15, 1963. 

Somateria spectabilis King Eider: Listed 
by Godfrey (1958) as hypothetical. A speci- 
men in the Nova Scotia Aluseum of Science 
was collected at St. Paul Island in 1896, 
by W. D. Farquhar. 

Oxyura jamaicensis Ruddy Duck: Un- 
common fall transient. One near East Mar- 
garee, Inverness Co., November 5, 1957 
(Carter) ; one at Little Judique Ponds, Oct- 
ober 7, 1961. 

Lophodytes cucullatus Hooded Mergan- 
ser: Uncommon fall transient. Tufts (1962) 
stated that James Bond's records, cited by 
Godfrey, have since been withdrawn by 
Bond. One female or sub-adult at Nyanza, 
September 25, 1960; a group of three males 
and one female at Whycocomagh, October 
5, 1961. 

Totanus melanoleucus Greater Yellow- 
legs: Probably breeds. J. S. Erskine (letter, 
July 28, 1956) wrote that he saw a small 
downy young believed to be a Greater 
Yellowlegs swim across a pond, while adults 
screamed overhead, near Lake of Islands, 
Victoria Co., on the Cape Breton plateau, 
July 20, 1956. That record was incompletely 
cited by Tufts (1962), who made no men- 
tion of the young bird. 


Erskine: Bird Records from Cape Breton 


[Erolia bairdii Bairu's Sandpiper: One at 
Nyanza, September 12, 1956 (J. K. Lowther, 
1956, unpublished mimeographed report, 
Canadian Wildlife Service). This species is 
rare anywhere in Nova Scotia (Tufts, 1962) 
and is easily confused with other sand- 
pipers. Without a specimen, its status in 
Cape Breton is best treated as hypothetical.] 

Erolia alpina Dunlin: Regular transient, 
scarce in spring. One in breeding plumage at 
Point Michaud Beach, Richmond Co., June 
8, 1963; 42 at the same place October 4, 1961, 
and 12 at Big Glace Lake, Cape Breton Co., 
October 6, 1961. 

Ltjnosa haemastica Hudsonian Godwit: 
Uncommon fall transient. Laidlaw Williams 
(letter, October 13, 1963) saw this species 
on four occasions at Port Morien, Cape 
Breton Co., the earliest and latest dates be- 
ing August 6, 1951, and September 5, 1950. 
The greatest number was 24 on August 
20, 1951. One at Big Glace Lake, August 5, 
1963; three there, and two at Framboise 
Cove, October 6, 1961; two at Little Judique 
Ponds, October 7, 1961. John Lunn {jide A. 
M. Bagg, letter, October 6, 1963) saw single 
birds near Louisbourg, Cape Breton Co., 
September 2 and 29, 1963. 

Larus glaucoides Iceland Gull: Winter 
visitant. Eight at North Sydney, November 
1. 1962, and up to 25 at the Strait of Canso, 
November 3-8, 1962 (Goodwill, MS) : seven 
at the latter place, January 18, 1963. 

Hydroprogne caspia Caspian Tern: 
Casual. One at East Lake AinsHe, Inverness 
Co., September 24, 1960. 

Columba livia P.ock Dove: Omitted, prob- 
ably intentionally, by Godfrey (1958). Com- 
mon in urban areas around Sydney, Cape 
Breton Co., but uncommon and very local 
elsewhere — noted only at Baddeck, Victoria 
Co., and at Whycocomagh, Inverness, Port 
Hastings, and Port Hawkesbury, in Inver- 
ness Co. Strayed carrier pigeons seem to be 
the only Rock Doves seen in rural areas. 

Tyr annus verticalis Western Kingbird: 
Casual. One at Big Intervale, Inverness Co., 
September 2, 1961 (J. B. Hardie, in N.S. 
Bird Society newsletter). That species is 
reported each autumn in Nova Scotia and is 

not likely to be confused with other, more 
common species. 

Sayornis phoebe Eastern Phoebe: Listed 
as hypothetical by Godfrey (1958). Casual. 
One near Breton Cove, Victoria Co., July 
28, 1958 (M.R. Bates, in Tufts, 1959). One 
at Island Point, Victoria Co., and one at 
Alba, Inverness Co., July 27, 1960 (T.F.T. 
Morland). One at Portree, Inverness Co., 
May 19 and 20 and June 1, 1962; one at 
Nyanza, May 28, 1963. 

Dumetella carolinensis Catbird: Probably 
breeds. Three birds, believed to be one adult 
and two juveniles, on the basis of behaviour 
and appearance, on August 14, 1962, at Glen- 
dyer, Inverness Co., where adults had been 
noted June 4 and July 21 in that year. 

Boniby cilia garrulus Bohemian Waxwing: 
Casual. One at a feeding station in Baddeck, 
January 23-28, 1961 (Mrs. M. W. MacRae, 
in N.S. Bird Society newsletter) . This spec- 
ies, and the Towhee cited below, are quite 
distinctive, although neither is more than 
casual on the Nova Scotia mainland. Since 
the birds were observed at close range for 
several days, there seems to be no reason to 
question these records. 

Vireo philadelphicus Philadelphia Vireo: 
Casual. One at Big Intervale Cape North, 
Victoria Co., July 9, 1963. Tufts (1962) 
gave only three records for the province 
of Nova Scotia. The description I wrote on 
the spot reads — "dark olive back, darker 
cap, eye not red, dark line through eye 
with lighter line above, yellowish throat, 
belly whiter", and the song of the bird was 
much harsher than those of other vireo 
species in the area. 

[Vireo gilvus Warbling Vireo: One near 
Ingonish Beach, Victoria Co., July 27, 1958 
(M.R. Bates, in Tufts, 1959). No specimen 
exists for that easily confused species on 
even the mainland of Nova Scotia. Without 
further details, its status in Cape Breton 
should be considered hypothetical.] 

Spinus pinus Pine Siskin: Not previously 
known to breed. A fledgling, bobtailed, and 
unable to fly more than a few yards, at Big 
Intervale Margaree, June 19, 1961. That 
bird was captured, and released after ex- 

92 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

Piplio erythrophthalmus Rufous -sided letter, October 6, 1963) saw an adult near 

Towhee: Casual. One at a feeding station in Louisbourg, Cape Breton Co., September 2, 

Baddeck, December 29, 1960, to January 2, 1963. 

1961 (Mrs. M. W. MacRae, in N.S. Bird Calcarius lapponicus Lapland Longspur: 

Society newsletter). See remarks above un- ^^ j^^. .j-ansient and winter visitant, along 

der Bohemian Waxwing. ^j^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ Country. 

Cbondestes granmiacus Lark Sparrow: Three at Big Glace Lake, and 35 at Port 

Casual. Laidlaw Williams saw one at Plaster Morien, October 6, 1961; three at Big Glace 

Mines, near Baddeck, Victoria Co., August Lake, January 15, 1963; two pairs in summer 

30, 1961. John Lunn {fide Aaron M. Bagg, plumage at Louisbourg, April 25, 1961. 


Cameron, Austin W. 1963. Baltimore Tufts, Robie W. 1959. List of Rare and 

Oriole Recorded for Cape Breton Island. Unusual Birds Reported by Members of 

Canadian Field-Naturalist 77(1) :66. the Nova Scotia Bird Society. Nova Scotia 

Museum Newsletter 2(4):68-75. 

Godfrey, W. Earl. 1958. Birds of Cape 1962. The Birds of Nova 

Breton Island, Nova Scotia. Canadian Scotia. Nova Scotia Museum, Halifax. 

Field-Naturalist 72(l):7-27. 481 pp. 

Received for publication 1 October 1963 


National Museum of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario 

In the eastern North American Arctic, high mountains or elevated plateaux 
are notoriously unrewarding places for the botanist looking for new or rare 
plants. The reason clearly is that most, if not all high mountains there, were 
overridden by glaciers during the Pleistocene and that no large plant refugia 
were available from which their floras could be replenished after the ice had 
retreated. Thus, in Greenland, Labrador and Baffin Island, the number of 
plant species decreases progressively from sea-level upwards; there is no very 
apparent altitudinal zonation, and at or near the summit of high mountains, 
the plant cover is sparse and depauperate, composed entirely of ubiquitous, 
wide-ranging arctic-alpine species. Such plant refugia as may have existed 
in the eastern North American Arctic during the Pleistocene, must have been 
near sea-level rather than on the frigid and windblown summits of mountains 
protruding above the ice caps. In western Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg Islands, 
situated in the rain-shadow of the eastern coast ranges of Ellesmere Island, the 
lowland vegetation is often sparse whereas a surprisingly rich and luxurious 
plant cover may be found at elevations between 2,000 and 2,400 feet, even 

1964 Porsild: P. stipularis and D. sibirica 93 

though the site may show signs of comparative recent glaciation. The richer 
alpine plant cover owes its existence there partly to the adequate moisture from 
a more abundant precipitation, or to run-off from snow-fields, and partly to 
temperature inversion commonly observed over large parts of the Arctic 
Archipelago where, from June through August, a low-hanging cloud cover, 
averaging 70-80 per cent (Rae, 1951), greatly reduces the amount of solar 
radiation reaching the lowland (Porsild, 1955). The relatively rich plant cover 
of some alpine plateaux of these northern islands is, however, composed very 
largely of the species found also at sea-level. 

By contrast, the unglaciated mountain plateaux of Alaska, Yukon, the 
Mackenzie District and northern British Columbia, have for some time been 
known to harbour floras richer and more varied than those of the intervening 
valleys. Thus, in alpine herbmats of the Pelly Mountains in southeastern 
Yukon, the writer counted 111 species of vascular plants within a radius of 100 
feet, few of them found in the forested valley below. 

During the Pleistocene, or at any rate during the last advance of the ice 
in Wisconsin time, the upper limit of valley glaciation in Yukon roughly 
coincided with the present timberline, or roughly with elevations between 4,500 
and 5,600 feet above sea level (Porsild, 1951). The climate at this time must 
have been sufficiently favourable for the plateaux above the ice to have served 
as refugia for numerous arctic and alpine species for, otherwise, it would be 
very difficult to explain how the endemic or Mddely disjunct species, for which 
these plateaux are renowned, could have arrived in post-Pleistocene time. 
When a more favourable climate caused the valley glaciers to retreat, arctic 
and alpine tundra plants probably were the first to occupy the valleys; but they 
were soon succeeded by the more aggressive and xerophytic forest- and-grass- 
land species that today dominate the lowland and valley sites. 

Due to greatly improved means of transportation and to more readily 
available funds for field work, few places on the North American continent are 
today inaccessible to plant collectors. Nevertheless, despite the considerable 
amount of collecting of recent years, by professional and amateur botanists, 
the mountain fastnesses of Alaska, Yukon, Mackenzie District and northern 
British Columbia may still yield botanical surprises and unexpected rewards. 
Two such wholly unexpected discoveries are reported in the following pages. 

Dr. and Mrs. Raymond D. Wood of Salt Lake City, Utah, lately of Mount 
Kisco, N.Y., for a number of years have made extended summer forays into 
the North American Arctic for the purpose of photographing wild flowers in 
colour. During four summers in the Canadian North and one in West Green- 
land, the Woods succeeded in photographing 354 species of arctic phanerogams 
and ferns, many of them never before photographed in colour. A complete 
duplicate set of their colour transparencies, all in ly^ x 214'' format, now 
numbering well over 750 slides, together with carefully collected herbarium 
vouchers, being the original specimens photographed, have been presented to the 
National Herbarium of Canada. Due to the technical skill and forethought with 
which these transparencies were made, this unique collection of plant portraits 

94 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

and photographs of plant habitats constitutes an invaluable research "tool" for 
present and future botanists engaged in the study of arctic plants. 

In 1961, Dr. and Mrs. Wood visited the north slope of the Brooks Range, 
Alaska, vi^here, since the establishment of the Point Barrow Arctic Laboratory, 
a number of botanists have been active. Plants were collected and photo- 
graphed in the vicinity of Point Barrow, near Umiat on the middle Colville 
River, at Meade River southwest of Barrow, and at Schrader Lake near the east 
end of the Brooks Range, not far from the Canadian border. In 1962 the 
Woods again visited Alaska when extended visits were made to the east shore 
of Bering Strait near Cape Thompson and to Anaktuvuk Pass in the central 
Brooks Range. 

Among the highlights of the combined collections of 265 species of Alaskan 
plants are excellent representations of several rare plants thus far known only 
from a few stations in N.W. America and E. Asia, among them flowering and 
fruiting Anemone jmdticeps, the E. Asiatic Androsace ochotensis and Koeleria 
asiatica and a fine series of the Alaskan endemic, Oxytropis kuyukukensis, a 
probably undescribed scapiform Papaver, a curious new Senecio and, perhaps 
most interesting of all, a perfectly distinct Siberian cinquefoil new to North 

Flowering specimens and photographs of Potentilla stipidaris L. (Figure 1) 
were obtained on June 30, 1961, one mile west of Umiat, where it grew on wet, 
sandy loam (R. D. Wood, No. 403, CAN). The Umiat collection is a perfect 
match for Lehmann's fine illustration (Lehmann, 1856, tab. 46) as well as for 
representative Siberian specimens in the National Herbarium of Canada, from 
the lower Lena River Valley near Jakutsk on the Lena River, and from the 
northern Ural Mountains near Vorkuta. The range of P. stiptdaris given in 
Fl. USSR, Vol. 10 p. 193 is as follows: Arctic Siberia east to Chukotsk; W. 
Siberia, Ob; E. Siberia Yenisei, Lena-Kolyma east to Angara-Sajan. 

Unknown to Dr. Wood, P. stipularis had been collected at Umiat already 
in 1960 by Drs. Kjeld Holmen of the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, 
and O. Martensson of the University of Uppsala, Sweden. Their discovery 
is reported here by kind permission of Dr. Holmen. 

As far as I know, the only previous reports of P. stipidaris from outside 
the USSR is from the northeast coast of Greenland where it was collected first 
on Clavering Island, in appr. latitude 74° N. (Th. S0rensen, in Gelting, 1934, 
p. 112 and tab. 4, map fig. 12). The single specimen upon which the report is 
based, is in prefloral state and by its robust growth and broad leaflets differs 
so much from Siberian P. stipidaris that it has been described as a distinct taxon, 
var. groefilandica Th. S0r. In 1958, Kjeld Holmen and Simon Laegaard added 
another East Greenland station, in innermost reaches of Scoresby Sound, 
approximately latitude 71° 02' and longitude 27° 45', where P. stipidaris grew 
on a south-exposed slope with Cerastium alpinimi, Carex nipestris, Campanula 
rotundifolia, Salix glauca, Saxifraga nivalis, Draba aurea, PotentiUa jiivea and 
Euphrasia sp. 

The occurrence at Umiat, of P. stipularis, although unexpected and 
puzzling, is not unprecedented, however, inasmuch as a number of other 


Porsild: p. stipularis and D. sibirica 


Figure 1. Potentilla stipularis L. 2/3 natural size (from Umiat, Alaska). 

96 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

Siberian plants are known to occur in isolated and widely disjunct stations on 
both sides of Bering Strait. In view of the inland remoteness of the Alaskan 
station for P. stipularis, recent introduction into Alaska by human agencies or 
by spontaneous natural dispersal, can almost certainly be ruled out. 

Draba sibiricct (Pallas) Thellung, another Siberian plant new to the flora 
of North America, was collected in 1963 in the Ogilvie Mountains 120 miles 
northwest of Dawson, Yukon Territory, in rich alpine meadows, elev. 5540', 
by P. M. Youngman and G. Tessier of the Zoology Section of the National 

The single specimen showing flowers and young fruits, is a perfect match 
for specimens in the National Herbarium of Canada from northern Ural 
Mountains and the Lake Baikal region of the USSR. On the flat calcareous 
summit of unglaciated Ogilvie Mountains, Draba sibirica grew in rich alpine 
meadows or herbmats, associated with Cardamine purpurea, Pedicularis lanata, 
Parry a midicauUs and Aconitum delphinijolmm. 

By its matted habit, long, creeping stolons terminating in leafy rosettes, 
by its yellow flowers on naked peduncles and, above all, by its appressed, 
bifurcate (malpighiaceous) hairs, attached by their middle (as in the genus 
Erysimum), D. sibirica differs from all other arctic or boreal Drabae (Figure 2). 

Strangely enough, Draba sibirica, in common with Poteiitilla stipularis, 
outside the USSR, otherwise is known only from a single station in East Green- 
land, in approximately latitude 7 1 ° N. where it is abundant locally at the head of 
Hurry Inlet north of Scoresby Sound (Kruuse, 1905, p. 162). The range given 
for D. sibirica in Fl. USSR is: Novaya Zemlya and arctic Siberia; boreal northern 
European Russia; Caucasus and E. & W. Transcaucasus; east and west Siberia, 
south in central Asia to the Mongolian border and east to the Sea of Okhotsk. 

The Cordilleran Phyllodoce glandidiflora (Hook.) Cov., new to the flora 
of Yukon Territory, but known from adjacent parts of the Mackenzie District 
and British Columbia, was collected by Messrs. Youngman and Tessier on the 
Little Hyland River, 125 miles north of Watson Lake, elevation 4,000 feet. 


Gelting, Paul. 1934. Studies on the vascu- eastern Yukon adjacent to the Canol Road. 

lar plants of East Greenland, etc. Med- National Museum of Canada Bulletin 121, 

delelser om Gr0nland 101, 2 pp.-337. 400 pp., 34 pi. 

Copenhagen. . 1955. The vascular flora of the 

Kruuse, Chr. 1905. Meddelelser om Grcin- western Canadian Arctic Archipelago. 

land 30:143-208. Copenhagen. National Museum of Canada Bulletin 135, 

^ 66. 226, 24 pi. 

Lehmann, Johann. 1856. Revisio Potentil- ^^^ ^ ^ ^^^^ qj^^^^^ ^f ^^e Canadian 

latum iconibus illustrata. Bonn. ^^.^^j^ Archipelago. Canada Department 

PoRSiLD, A. E. 1951. Botany of south- of Transport, Ottawa. 

Received for publication 9 December 1963 


Porsild: p. stipularis and D. sibirica 


Figure 2. Draba sibirica (Pall.) THeU. approximately 2 times natural size (from O. 
Gelert, Bot. Tidsskr. vol. 21, 3, fig. 9, 1898). 


Robert H. Stinson 
Department of Zoology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario 

Voles of the genus Microtus have long been noted for their periodic outbreaks 
in different parts of the world, often causing great damage to cultivated crops. 
Elton (1942) and Chitty (1960) have summarized much of the literature and 
speculated as to the causes of such fluctuations. In North America peak 
populations have been studied by Hatt (1930), Hamilton (1937a) and, more 
recently, Beck et al. (1959) who have described the spectacular increase which 
occurred in Oregon in 1957-58. In Ontario the meadow vole, Microtus 
pennsylvanicus pennsylvanicus Ord, has been a continual source of damage in 
orchards and nurseries, girdling trees particularly where they have been planted 
in heavy sod. In 1956-57 and 1957-58 high numbers of mice occurred in 
scattered areas in southwestern Ontario and in 1958-59 at the eastern end of 
Lake Ontario. As is usually the case, concentrations of animals were rarely 
observed directly, but damage to trees and crops, evident after the snow had 
gone, indicated their presence. The occurrence of such damage in tree planta- 
tions of the Ontario Department of Lands and Forests led to studies in 1957 and 
1958 of vole populations in these areas. The following paper is an account of 
two studies, (1) a trapping survey of plantations, and (2) a description of the 
characteristics of a high population. 

Survey of Plantations 
In 1958 an attempt was made to obtain an index of vole populations in the 
tree plantations of the Lake Erie, Lake Huron and Lake Simcoe Districts of 
the Department, in order to discover the frequency of occurrence of voles 
and to determine whether any relationship existed between the population 
index and subsequent damage in the area. The plantations were generally less 
than eight years of age, and contained chiefly white pine (Pinus strobus), red 
pine (P. resinosa), jack pine (F. bansksiana) , Scotch pine (P. sylvestris), white 
spruce (Picea glaucct), w^hite cedar {Thuja occide?italis), and European larch 
(Larix decidua). 

In July and again in October single lines of 30 Victor snap traps, at 12 foot 
intervals, baited with peanut butter and oatmeal, were set out in selected areas 
of 76 plantations by personnel of the Department of Lands and Forests. A line 
was examined once a day for three days and all small mammals taken were 
preserved in 10 per cent formalin for later identification and measurement. 

The distribution of the lines by counties is shown in Figure 1 with the 
total number of voles taken on each line. In 95 per cent of the three-day 
trapping period fewer than six voles were taken in any one period, but in July 
single lines in Ontario, Perth and Elgin counties caught 13, 19 and 21 respec- 
tively, and in October one line in Middlesex county caught 15 animals. Apart 

'This study was supported by The Research Branch of the Ontario Department of Lands and Forests. 



Stinson: Vole Populations 




o tc 

- O Z X UJ UJ 

S z o o a. Q. 

w o z X _) oe — 
2 z o o 0. 
























<n ? * 5 ? >- '^ 


























































The Canadian Field-Naturaijst 

Vol. 78 


Figure 2. Distribution of size and reproductive state of 320 voles trapped in southwestern 
Ontario, July and October 1958. 

1964 Stinson: Vole Populations 101 

from these lines, which may represent "pockets" of high numbers, the average 
population in the plantation areas was probably low judging from the popula- 
tion index of Beer and MacLeod (1961). Although their trapline method 
differed in some detail from that of the present study, they give a figure of 25 
voles per 1000 trap-station-days as representing a "moderate level" of popula- 
tion. Excluding the above four lines, the plantation survey produced 14 voles 
per 1000 trap-station-days. 

Voles were trapped in 49 of the 76 plantation areas and appeared in more 
lines and in greatest average numbers per line in the Huron-Perth-Middlesex- 
Elgin area. For example, when Middlesex with 10 and Simcoe county with 
11 lines are compared, the former yielded 52 but the latter only eight animals. 

The likelihood of higher populations in the south-central area in 1957-58 
was also suggested from the results of a questionnaire sent out to District 
Foresters and Agricultural Representatives across the area of Figure 1 asking 
for reports of damage. Of the 44 reports received of damage to trees from 
1956 to 1958, 32 came from the four counties mentioned above plus the adjacent 
counties of Waterloo and Oxford. They described the girdling of trees in 
plantations and orchards, particularly where they were growing in heavy sod 
or with the addition of mulch. The Scotch pine was the tree most frequently 
attacked in the plantations and the apple in the orchards. Two other observa- 
tions of interest were made in these reports; damage occurred whether or not 
a heavy snow cover was present, and the gnawing of trees began in September 
and October at a time when there was an abundant supply of grass. 

The possibility that the amount of damage in an area bore some relationship 
to the trapline catch was examined in April and May 1959. As soon as the 
snow had gone, a survey was made by personnel of the Department for signs 
of recent attacks upon trees in the immediate neighbourhoods of 2 1 lines of the 
Lake Erie District. Damage was found in 12 of the plantation areas but it was 
evident that no correlation existed between the extent of such damage and the 
number of voles taken in the previous year. Along one line in Kent county 
on which three voles were caught in 1958, 2500 young Scotch pine seedlings 
were destroyed in the following winter, whereas on a line in Middlesex county 
no damage occurred although 15 voles had been taken in the three-day period 
of the previous October. The lines, of course, trapped only a limited area and 
gave no indication of damage which might occur in other parts of a plantation. 
In fact, from the pattern of destruction in some plantations, there was evidence 
that the voles had invaded the area during the winter from adjacent cover of 
tall grass and swamp. 

When received for examination the carcasses were hardened and somewhat 
distorted by the preservative. In order to estimate the effect of this treatment 
upon the measurement of body length, a number of voles taken on local 
traplines were measured before and after a period of several weeks in 10 per 
cent formalin. Slight shrinkage did occur, on an average four per cent of the 
body length, so this amount was added to the measured body length in each 
case. The preserved condition also made it difficult to determine the state of 
the vaginal opening in the females and the presence of placental scars; hence 

102 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

only obvious pregnancies were recognized. The reproductive state of the 
male was judged by the size of the testis following the description of Hamilton 
(1937b) that sperm were never found in the epididymis if the testis was less 
than 8 mm in length. This size has been used as the criterion of reproductive 
maturity but in 90 per cent of the males there was no difficulty in separating 
the testes into two size groups, one of 3-4 mm and another of 12-16 mm. 

Of the 320 voles examined, 242 came from the trapping survey and 78 from 
five traplines set out in July in areas of thick grass within a one-mile radius 
of the University of Western Ontario. In Figure 2 is shown the distribution 
of size and reproductive condition of these animals. The size classes are the 
same as those used by Beer and MacLeod (1961) who trapped voles at monthly 
intervals through the year. Even with the use of preserved material, there is 
considerable agreement with their data. 

It is apparent that while females in the 90-94 mm range (24 days of age, 
Beer and MacLeod, 1961) can become pregnant, the level of pregnancy rises 
appreciably to 61 per cent in the 110-114 mm range, a length which Beer and 
MacLeod state represents in either sex the adult animal. Embryo counts 
increased particularly in the larger voles. The average count was 4.4 for 
seven litters in the 90-109 mm classes, 4.9 for 43 litters in the 110-129 mm 
langes and 7.0 for seven litters from the 130-149 mm size classes. The overall 
average size was 5.1 (one to eight embryos per litter). 

Judged by testis size, maturity was reached a little earlier (80 mm) in the 
males than in the females and occurred in more than half the animals by the 
110-114 mm size range. The position of the testis with respect to the scrotum 
is considered to be unreliable as a criterion of maturity since the testis may be 
withdrawn from the scrotum after the animal has been trapped. 

In Table 1 the catches of July and October are compared. Diff'erences in 
body lengths were not significant either between sexes or between months 
although there was an increase in the number of small females in October. 
Following Beer and MacLeod (1961) and taking 110 mm as adult size, the 
frequency of adult females was 45 per cent in July but 37 per cent in October, 
that of adult males 40 per cent in July and 38 per cent in October. 

Characteristics of a High Population 
In the third week of September 1957, a high population of voles was 
discovered three miles south of the village of Bayfield, close to the shore of 
Lake Huron, in Huron County. The area consisted of two small fields 
separated by a gravel road and swampy ground for a distance of 30 yards. 
Each was approximately three-quarters of an acre in size and covered with 
a mat of dense grass (chiefly Poa pratensis L.), with golden rod (Soli da go spp.) 
and aster (Aster spp.) scattered throughout. With the assistance of under- 
graduate students of the Department of Zoology the fields were trapped simul- 
taneously, one with snap and the other with live traps. 

Snap-trap plot: This area was roughly rectangular with one boundary 
the road, and the other three made up of short mown grass of a camp area, a 
strip of mixed coniferous and hardwood bush along the lake, and a fence with 
brush along it separating the plot from a farmyard. 


Stinson: Vole Populations 103 

Table 1. — Comparison of voles caught in July and October. 




Avge. body 
length, mm. 

No. over 
90 mm. 



Avge. body 
length, mm. 

No. over 
80 mm. 













Victor snap traps were placed in a rectangular grid of eight lines with 15 
stations to a line and two traps to a station. Since all lines and stations were 
five yards apart, the 240 traps covered an area of one-half acre, leaving a strip 
of approximately five yards remaining between the outer lines and the field 
boundaries. The traps were laid during an evening and examined at 8 a.m. and 
8 p.m. for three days and one extra night. The bait used was a mixture of 
peanut butter and oatmeal; no serious weather disturbance occurred during 
the period. 

The total catch is shown for each trapping period in Table 2. Along with 
Microtus were caught short-tailed shrews, Blarina brevicauda, white-footed 
mice, Feromyscus leucopus noveboracensis, and house mice, Mus^ musculus. 
Voles were caught throughout the plot at 65 of the 120 stations. Six shrews 
v/ere taken in outside lines, five white-footed mice in the outer lines adjacent 
to the fence and strip of bush, one of the house mice in an outside line and the 
other two a short distance inside the grid. 

The size of the population was estimated from the catch of the first three 
days to reduce the possible influence of migration into the plot. This did occur 
in period N4 when one of the marked voles from the live-trap plot 30 yards 
away was caught in a snap-trap. It is apparent from Table 2 that the catch 
fell off rather sharply after the second night. This, together with the fact that 
the small field was isolated to a certain extent by the nature of its boundaries, 
suggests that the number of 110 voles captured in the three days represents a 
large part of the population. If it is assumed then that the trap grid was 
taking animals up to the boundaries of the field (three-quarters of an acre), the 
population density would be around 140-150 voles per acre. 

Table 2. — Total catch of small mammals with 240 snap traps. (N, D = Night, Day) 




































The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

Table 3. — Extent of damage by voles to trees in the live-trap plot. 


No. present 

No. damaged 

Red pine (Pinus resinosa) 

Jack pine {Pinus hanksiana) 

Silver maple {Acer saccharinum) 

Carolina poplar {Populus canadensis) 

Willow {Salix sp.) 

White elm ( Ulmus americana) 









Live-trap plot: This was also rectangular in shape, bounded by gravel 
roads on two adjacent sides and short mown grass on the remaining two sides. 
In addition to grass cover it contained a small plantation of trees about six years 
old. Many of these had been attacked previously by voles, and judging from 
the overgrowth around the scars this had occurred during the previous winter. 
All of the trees were alive for none had been girdled completely. In Table 3 
is shown the number of trees present and the extent of the previous winter's 
damage. During the trapping period it was observed that several of the silver 
maples showed signs of fresh gnawing. 

The live traps were tunnels of galvanized tin, 2x2x7 inches, with a tilting 
treadle supporting a spring-mounted door and the opposite end inserted into 
a small can provided with cotton wool. Forty traps were placed out the first 
evening, but this number was increased to 60 the next day when it was evident 
that the vole population was high. They were placed in a rectangular grid 
formation of six lines, 10 traps to a line, with lines and traps all 20 feet apart. 
The bait used was a mixture of peanut butter and oatmeal. The traps were 
laid in an evening and examined at 8 a.m. and 8 p.m. for the next four days. 
The captured voles were marked with numbered fingerling tags punched 
through either ear. After examination an animal was put down at least two 
feet away from the trap and made to run off in a direction away from the trap 

In Table 4 appear some details of the daily catch. Temperature extremes 
may have contributed to the number of deaths for it fell below 50°F. on three 
nights and, except for partial cover in the heavy grass, the traps were not 
shielded from the sun during the day. The population estimates are calculated 
from the "Lincoln Index" method with the number of dead recaptures sub- 
tracted in each case. The average estimate of the last four trapping periods, 
Dg to N4, is 119, to which should be added the 19 dead for a total of 138 voles. 
One Blarina and three Peromyscus leucopus were caught, all but one of the 
latter in the outer traps. 

The 62 recaptures of Table 4 involve 38 different animals and some idea 
of the mobiUty of this group may be gained from Table 5. It is apparent that 
15 of the animals returned to the same trap as many as five times. The one 
captured six times alternated between two traps 28 feet apart; of the 12 caught 
three or more times only two made use of three traps and these were in line 
with one another. The calculation of the area over which an animal ranged 

1964 Stinson: Vole Populations 105 

Table 4. — Daily catch of voles with 60 live traps (N, D = Night, Day) 









Total catch 

















No. dead 

















*40 traps only on first night 

is not possible then because of this trapping pattern, and the range can be 
expressed only as the distance between the two farthest points of capture. In 
this case for the 38 voles the average maximum distance was 29.3 feet. Accord- 
ing to the trapping record, 15 moved feet; 17 moved between 20 and 50 feet; 
four between 60 and 90 feet; and the remaining two, 120 and 135 feet. Four 
of the six moving over 60 feet were males, but in the last night trapping period 
one marked female from this plot was caught in the snap-trap plot 200 feet 

The size of the home range of a single vole in normal populations has been 
reported to be as high as one-half acre (Blair, 1940), an area actually larger 
than the live-trap grid used here. However, if the recapture data are at all 
indicative of movement, range was much more restricted in the present study. 
In order to arrive at some estimation of density the effective area trapped was 
taken to be the trap grid (100 x 180 feet) plus a boundary strip of a width equal 
to half the average distance of movement. The effective area was then about 0.6 
acres and the population density, using the average estimate of 138 voles on 
the plot, about 230 voles per acre. However close this estimate is, there was 
no doubt that the population was high. The ground was riddled with tunnels, 
the voles were seen continually moving about and some were even chased 
up trees. 

During the trapping it appeared that the movements of the voles might be 
influenced by the surface features of the plot. The trees had been planted in 
furrows which had become filled with a dense mat of grass and riddled with 
runways. In comparing the amount of movement across with the amount 

Table S. — 

-Frequency of capture and number of traps used by 38 voles. 

No. of voles caught 

Frequency of capture 






No. of 
















106 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

along the furrows it was found that among the 23 animals using two or three 
traps (Table 5) the difference was quite significant (P<.01) for 16 of them 
moved at least twice as many trap intervals along as across the furrows. 

Measurements of the voles: In the live-trap plot some difficulty was 
experienced in sexing younger animals, but of 87 reliably identified, 34 were 
males and 53 females. In the snap-trap plot 93 voles were examined of which 
41 were males and 52 females. 

Physical measurements were made only of those taken with the snap traps. 
The body lengths of the females (70-140 mm) and the males (80-134 mm) fell 
into a size distribution similar to that of Figure 2. There were fewer small 
females under 90' mm, which raised the average body length to 107 mm, and 

40 per cent of the females were adult (over 110 mm). The average body 
length of the males was 102 mm with 33 per cent adult. 

The reproductive condition, however, was quite different from that found 
in the voles taken on the survey. Now in spite of similar or even larger average 
body sizes, only one female (132 mm) was pregnant (4 embryos) and 38 of the 

41 males possessed testes 4 mm or less in length. There is even greater contrast 
here with the data of Beer and MacLeod (1961) who for 45 females taken in 
September report an average body length of 100 mm, 25 per cent adult and 38 
per cent pregnant, and for 67 males an average length of 102 mm, 28 per cent 
adult but 54 per cent mature. 

, Discussion 

It is difficult to generalize as to the distribution and relative density of 
Alicrotiis in southwestern Ontario from such a trapping scheme which operated 
for only one year. For example, few mice were found in Simcoe county but 
damage has occurred in this area in the past. But it is also not clear that high 
numbers and damage always occur together. Judging from the survey, damage 
in the trapline area could not be predicted on the basis of the previous catch, 
and, while at Bayfield it was apparent that a high population was gnawing 
trees, it is still possible for a few mice working along furrows under the snow 
to do considerable harm. 

The physical measurements of the voles agree with those given by Beer 
and MacLeod (1961) and others who show that there is usually a high proportion 
of young animals in these populations. But the reproductive characteristics 
of the high population at Bayfield were not consistent with those reported by 
the above authors who found up to half of their animals in breeding condition 
through the fall months. Rather they resembled the description of Spencer 
(1959) who states that late-season litters may not mature for four to six months; 
Cowan and Arsenault (1954) and Barbehenn (1955) make similar statements 
for species of Microtus. There is possibly a difference here between the 
reproductive conditions of high and low populations. In any case it is not clear 
why, when the voles continue to grow physically through the late summer, they 
do not come into breeding condition. 

1964 Stinson: Vole Populations 107 


Barbehenn, K. R. 1955. A field study of Cowan, I. M., and M. G. Arsenault. 1954. 

growth in Microtus pennsylvanicus. Jour- Reproduction and growth in the creeping 

nal of Mammalogy 36:533-543. vole, Microtus oregoni serpens Merriam. 

Beck, J. R., S. B. Osgood, and M. D. Smith. Canadian Journal of Zoology 32:198-208. 

1959. The Oregon meadow mouse irrup- Elton, C. 1942. Voles, mice and lemmings. 

tion of 1957-58. Federal Cooperative Ex- Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 496 pp. 

tension Service, Oregon State College, 

Corvallis, 88 pp. Hamilton, W. J., Jr. 1937a. The biology 

„ TT^,^T-,.T of microtine cycles. Journal or Agricul- 

Beer, J. R., and C. F. MacLeod. 1961. tural Research 54:779-790. 

seasonal reproduction in the meadow vole. 

Journal of Mammalogy 42:483-489. • 1937b. Growth and life span 

Tj T^r T- irw^rv TT J of thc field mouse. American Naturalist 

Blair, W. F. 1940. Home ranges and yi.^nn en? 

populations of the meadow vole in 

southern Michigan. Journal of Wildlife Hatt, R. T. 1930. The voles of New York. 

Management 4:149-161. Roosevelt Wild Life Bulletin 5(4) :513-623. 

Chitty, D. 1960. Population processes in Spencer, D. A. 1959. Biological and con- 

the vole and their relevance to general trol aspects, hi: J. R. Beck et al. 1959. 

theory. Canadian Journal of Zoology 38: The Oregon meadow mouse irruption of 

99-113. 1957-58. 

Received for publication 18 April 1963 


Isabel L. Bayly 
Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario 

The narrative of John Bell in The Canadian Naturalist and Journal of Science 
(Bell 1869, 1870) describes a schooner trip to the west coast of Newfoundland 
in the summer of 1867. The narrative contains daily lists of the plants which 
he saw or collected. Several authors referred to Bell's papers, particularly 
Fernald (1911), and John Macoun (1883-1888) who made many references to 
John Bell in his Catalogue of Canadian Plants, which included, whenever pos- 
sible, Newfoundland distributions. Macoun (1883) stated in the preface to 
his Catalogue, ". . . for our notices of Newfoundland plants ... we are indebted 
to the late Dr. John Bell, who published a list of plants collected by him on the 
west coast of that island in the summer of 1867". After leading a collecting 
expedition to western Newfoundland in the summer of 1910, Fernald (1911) 
expressed doubts about the identifications of some species in Bell's collection. 
("Dr. John Bell noted some of the commonest plants, with a few which are 
certainly rare or local on the island — Claytonia carolijiiana from a mountain side 
south of the Great Cod Roy River; Dryopteris fragrafis from Cairn Mountain; 

108 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

Epilobium latifoliinn from Flat Bay Brook and Grand Lake — and several 
which were surely misidentified. Dr. Bell's Vallisneria spiralis which the waves 
rolled in quantities on the beach of Bay St. George was certainly 'Lostera marina, 
his Viburnwn Lentago must have been the common V. cassinoides, his Cirsium 
piimihmt from "The Gravels" was undoubtedly a form of C. muticivm, his 
Aspidiitm fnarginale from the Bay of Islands was unquestionably the there 
common A. Filix-vms; and there is grave doubt of the occurrence in Newfound- 
land of such plants as Aspletiium thelypteroides, Salix petiolaris, Betula lenta, 
Thalictnnn dioicum, Lonicera oblongifoUa and Viburnum acerifotium.^'') Al- 
though the papers have been quoted by these authors, apparently Bell's collec- 
tions had not been seen by either of them, nor did any of his Newfoundland 
specimens turn up in a recent search of herbaria. 

In the summer of 1959 a pair of plant presses, ascribed to Robert Bell, 
eminent Canadian geologist, and sometime director of the Geological Survey 
of Canada, were presented to Carleton University by his daughter, Mrs. Olga 
Bell Outram. They proved to be collections made by John Bell, brother of 
Robert. One collection was from Newfoundland, the other from Manitoulin 
Island, Canada West. 

The presses are of the type now described as "Forest Ranger" — two strong 
solid boards fastened with cross braces and bound with leather straps. The 
papers enfolding the specimens are from editions of the Toro?ito Globe between 
1864 and 1867. 

The sparse collection data, consisting only of dates and collecting areas 
written on slips of paper signed "John Bell, M.A., M.D." are less sophisticated 
than those recorded nowadays. For instance, the inscription "Grand Cod Roy 
River, July 13, 1867" indicates only a general area. The collecting area most 
readily identified is "The Gravel", an area of high gravel cliffs about one mile 
in length which is adjacent to the town of Port au Port, and which extends 
along the shore connecting a large part of western Newfoundland with the 

The data slips with the actual collection indicate that Bell's plants came 
from the following collecting areas: Great Cod Roy River; "The Gravel" 
(St. Georges Bay) ; South Arm, Bay of Islands; Long Point, Port au Port Bay; 
Flat Bay Brook, St. Georges Bay; West Bay in Port au Port; Port au Port Bay; 
Deer Lake; Humber River; Fork, Humber River; Cod Roy Island; Flat Bay. 
The locations of these geographical features are shown in Figure 1 . 

In the fall of 1963 an extensive supplement to the John Bell Collection was 
received by Carleton University under the terms of the will of Mrs. Olga Bell 
Outram. It contained 38 mounted Newfoundland specimens from "The 
Gravel", Cairn Mountain, Flat Bay Brook and the north fork of the Humber 
River. Their order shows that John Bell had begun to mount up the more 
worthy specimens of the Newfoundland collection for preservation in his 
private herbarium. This activity was never completed, but the press contents, 
together with the mounted sheets, seem to represent the complete collection. 

Bell's method of collection, which involved very limited press space, did not 
follow the practice of one species to a sheet, and ten or twelve species may be 
present in a tangled mass. It was assumed that all specimens on one sheet were 


Bayly: Plant Collection from SW Newfoundland 


Cape Roy 



Figure 1. Map of southwestern Newfoundland, showing collecting sites of John BeU. 
(Some rivers are slightly exaggerated in size.) 

gathered from the same area on the same day. Owing to insect, fungus and 
water damage, many of the plants are fragmentary. Some species are repre- 
sented by a few leaves; some of the ferns lack sporangia and rhizomes. The 
list contains more species than did Bell's papers, since he did not mention such 
"trivia" as the Carices or the Gramineae, groups which he apparently considered 
would be of little interest to the readers. 

The nomenclature and order of the following list of vascular plants in the 
John Bell Collection follows that found in Gleason (1958). Species not listed 
therein are found in Polunin (1959). Dr. E. Rouleau has seen the collection 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

and verified my identifications. The numbers which follow the locality are 
not Bell's numbers, but have been arbitrarily assigned. They represent the 
order in which the specimens appeared in the press. Omitted numbers repre- 
sent lichens and mosses. 

Annotated list of Species 
*Indicates that a collecting label accompanied the specimen, 
tion on the collecting label is quoted, 
the papers of John Bell (1869, 1870). 

Lycopodhini annoiinimi L. — St. Georges 
Bay, 132; Lyco podium lucidulum Cairn 
Mountain*. Macoun lists Bell's L. lucidu- 
lum as the only Newfoundland collection. 
There is no Lycopodium. lucidulum in the 
Bell Collection. 

The informa- 
Other locality information is based on 

Lycopodium sitchense Rupr. — South Arm, 
Bay of Islands, 114; St. Georges Bay, 159A; 
Lycopodiimi alpinum, Cairn Mountain*: 
Bell lists L. alpimmi in his paper, so these 
specimens are probably the species he has 
mistaken for L. alpifrnm. 

Lycopodium cojnplananmi L. — St. Georges 
Bay, 159B. 

Lycopodium tristachyum Pursh. — Near Cairn 
Mountain*. This sheet is labeled '■'Lyco- 
podium complanatuni'\ 

Equisetum sylvaticum L. — St. Georges Bay, 
136. Bell mentions a "deciduous Equisetum 
collected on an island of Deer Lake". 

Atbyrium Filix-fe77iina (L.) Roth. — South- 
west Newfoundland, 46. Bell mentions 
Aspleniimi filix-j evrina, collected "12 miles 
from the mouth of the Great Cod Roy 
River, in rich damp woods", July 6, 1867. 

Woodsia alpiiia (Bolton) S. F. Gray — St. 
Georges Bay, 106. Bell lists Woodsia 
ilvensis, collected on a rocky escarpment. 
Flat Bay Brook, June 18. 

Thelypteris novaboracensis (L.) Nieuwl. — 
Great Cod Roy River, July 7, 1867, J. Bell, 
73*. Bell lists this fern. The specimen in 
the collection lacks sporangia and rhizome. 

Dryopteris fragrans (L.) Schott. — Cairn 
Mountain, 87*. Fernald mentioned that 
this fern must be local or rare. Macoun did 
not cite Bell's reference to Aspidium 

Dryopteris Filix-mas (L.) Schott. — Mar- 
ginale, South Arm, Bay of Islands, Nfld. 
74*. This plant is listed as Aspidium mar- 
ginale. Fernald suggested that it was pro- 
bably "Male Fern". One of the mounted 
sheets, labeled "South Arm, Bay of Islands, 

Aspidium spinulosum var. Bootii" repre- 
sents a second misidentification. 
Folystichum Braunii (Spenner) Fee — "The 

Gravel", St. Georges Bay, July 4, 71*; 

Great Cod Roy River, July 8, 72*. Bell 

listed this fern for "The Gravel" only, 

where it grew above the cliffs. 
Juniperus horizontalis Moench. — "The 

Gravel" July 4, 165*. 
Fotcmiogeton epihydrus Raf. — Great Cod 

Roy River, Nfd., July 8, 225, 331*. 
Fotcmiogeton Friesii Rupr. — Great Cod Roy 

River, July 8, 287*. 
Triglochin maritivia L. — Great Cod Roy 

River, 171, 175. 
Triglochin palustris L. — Southwest Nfld., 62. 
Festuca rubra L. — Great Cod Roy River, 

170; Flat Bay Brook, St. Georges Bay, 203; 

"The Gravel", St. Georges Bay, 253; 

Southwest Nfld., 28. 
Glyceria canadensis (Michx.) Trin. — Great 

Cod Roy River, Nfld., July 8, 327*. 
Foa palustris L. — Southwest Nfld., 54. 
Elymus virginicus L. — Southwest Nfld., 45. 

Elymus mollis Trin. — Great Cod Roy River 

Nfld., July 8, 321*. 
Trisetimi spicatum (L.) Richter. — South- 
west Nfld., July 8, 51, 53. 
Agrostideae — St. Georges Bay, 162. 
Calajnagrostis canadensis (Michx.) Beauv. — 

Southwest Nfld., 10, 30. 
Agrostis tenuis Sibth. — Great Cod Roy 

River, 261; Southwest Nfld., 61. 
Agrostis sp. — Great Cod Roy River, 269. 
Milium effusum L. — Great Cod Roy River, 

Hierochloe odorata (L.) Beauv. — Flat Bay 

Brook, St. Georges Bay, 190. 
Eleocharis halophila Fern & Brackett — Great 

Cod Roy River, 239. 
Eleocharis parvula (R. & S.) Link. — Great 

Cod Roy River, Newfoundland, July 6, 



Bayly: Plant Collection from SW Newfoundland 


Eleocharis palustris (L.) R. & S. — Great Cod 

Roy River, 272. 
Scirpiis cespitosus L. — St. Georges Bay, 157; 

Great Cod Roy River, 297. 
Scirpus hudsonianus (Michx.) Fern. — Great 

Cod Roy River, 345. 
Scirpus validus Vahl. — St. Georges Bay, 195. 

Bell lists 5. lacustris, a European species, 

for Long Point. This is the only Scirpus 

named in the papers. 
Scirpus riifus (Huds.) Schrader. — Southwest 

Nfld., 56, 63. 
Scirpus atrovirens Willd. — Great Cod Roy 

River, 262. 
Eriophorimi opacmn (Bjornstr.) Fern. — St. 

Georges Bay, 156; Flat Bay*. 
Eriophorum viridi-carinatuni ( E n g e 1 m . ) 

Fern. — St. Georges Bay, June 27, 122*; 

Flat Bay Brook*. 
Eriophoru?n angustifolium Honckeny. — St. 

Georges Bay, 135; Great Cod Roy River, 

Eriophorum vaginatum L. — ^Flat Bay Brook*. 
Eriopbormn Chamissonis C. A. Mey. — 

"'vaginatum'''' Flat Bay*. 
Eriophorum tenellum Nutt. — Flat Bay*. 
Carex sp. — Long Point, Port au Port Bay, 

Carex cephalantha (Bailey) Bickn. — Long 

Point, Port au Port Bay, 233; Great Cod 

Roy River, 241. 
Carex stipata Muhl. — South Arm, Bay of 

Islands, 105; "The Gravel", St. Georges 

Bay, 258; Great Cod Roy River, 164. 
Carex Mackenziei Krecz.— Southwest Nfld., 

Carex interior Bailey. — Great Cod Roy 

River, Nfld., July 7, 268*, 163, 169, 346; 

Long Point, 187. 
Carex leptonervia Fern. — Great Cod Roy 

River, 320; "The Gravel", St. Georges Bay, 

Carex scoparia Schk. — Great Cod Roy River, 

Carex scirpoidea Michx. — Great Cod Roy 

River, 288. 
Carex aurea Nutt. — "The Gravel", St. 

Georges Bay, 256. This is the only species 

of Carex which Bell actually mentioned. 
Carex arctata Boott. — South Arm, Bay of 

Islands, 103. 
Carex capillaris L. var. elongata Olney — 

Great Cod Roy River, 302. 
Carex flava L. — Great Cod Roy River, 172, 


Carex viridula Michx — Great Cod Roy 

River, 161, 244, 263; Flat Bay Brook, St. 

Georges Bay, 193. 
Carex rariflora (Wahl.) Smith. — Southwest 

Nfld., 16; Cod Roy Island, 276. 
Carex salina Wahl. — South Arm, Bay of 

Islands, 104; Long Point, Port au Port Bay, 

234; Great Cod Roy River, 273. 
Carex lenticularis Michx. — Great Cod Roy 

River, 231, 245. 
Carex paleacea Wahl. — Flat Bay Brook, St. 

Georges Bay, 194. 
Carex crinita Lam. — Great Cod Roy River, 

344; Cod Roy Island, 324. 
Carex lacustris Willd. — Great Cod Roy 

River, 264. 
Carex lasiocarpa Ehrh. — Great Cod Roy 

River, 168. 
Carex rostrata Stokes — Great Cod Roy River, 

Carex intumescens Rudge. — Great Cod Roy 

River, 267. 
Juncus balticus Willd. — Southwest Nfld., 48; 

Flat Bay Brook, St. Georges Bay, 202; 

South Arm, Bay of Islands, 80. 
Juncus bufoniiis L. var. halophilus Fern. & 

Buch.— Southwest Nfld., 22. 
Juncus trifidus L. — Great Cod Roy River, 

300. Note: Only one species, /. effusus, 

listed for Long Point, is mentioned by Bell. 
Luzula ca?npestris (L.) DC. — ^Great Cod Roy 

River, 316; Cod Roy Island, 277; Long 

Point, Port au Port Bay, 232. 
Tofleldia glutinosa (Michx.) Pers. — Great 

Cod Roy River, 237. 
Smilacina stellata (L.) Desf.— Flat Bay 

Brook, 250. 
Smilacina trifolia (L.) Desf. — Flat Bay 

Brook, 173. 
Trillimn cernuwn L. — South Arm, Bay of 

Islands, 78, 101. T. recurvatum is listed for 

Flat Bay Brook. 
Iris versicolor L. — ^Flat Bay Brook, St. 

Georges Bay, 199. 
Cypripedium Calceolus L. — Great Cod Roy 

River, July 8, 214, 330*. 
Habenaria hyperborea (L.) R. Br. — 255. 
Habenaria viridis (L.) R. Br.^ — Great Cod 

Roy River, 301. 
Habenaria dilatata (Pursh) Hook. — Great 

Cod Roy River, 303. 
Habenaria obtusata (Pursh) Richards. — 

South Arm, Bay of Islands, 76; Great Cod 

Roy River (Ryan's), 332. 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

Arethusa bulbosa L. — ^Near Cairn Mountain, 

Flat Bay Brook*; Soudi Arm Bay of 

Islands, 77. 
Spiranthes Romanzoffiana Cham. — Southwest 

Nfld., 60. 
Corallorhiza trifida Chat.— Great Cod Roy 

River, 304. Bell listed C. multiflora, found 

in "rich damp woods, 12 miles from the 

mouth" of the Great Cod Roy River. 
Salix glaucophylloides Fern. — Great Cod 

Roy River, 236. 
Salix Uva-ursi Pursh. — Great Cod Roy River, 

305, 306; alpine summits Cod Roy Moun- 
Salix pellita Anderss. — Humber River, 211; 

St. Georges Bay, 139. 
Salix Bebbiana X Candida ? — "The Gravel", 

252. Bell has this specimen listed as Salix 

Betula lutea Michx. — St. Georges Bay, 158. 

Bell lists B. excelsa for Flat Bay Brook. 
Betida pimiila L. — St. Georges Bay, 131. 
Betula glandidosa Michx. — sphagnum marsh 

near Cairn Mt. Nfld.* 
Betula Michauxii Spach. — St. Georges Bay 

(Flat Bay Brook), 127, 140. 
Alnus crispa (Ait.) Pursh. — St. Georges Bay, 

130, 196. 
{Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. — see dis- 
cussion, 7.) 
Urtica urens L. — South Arm, Bay of Islands, 

Comandra livida Richards. — Southwest Nfld., 

25, 33, 68. 
Folygonwn viviparum L. — Flat Bay Brook, 

St. Georges Bay, 204; Long Point, Port au 

Port Bay, 185. 
Polygonum lapathijolium L. — Southwest 

Nfld., 58. 
(Folygomnn virginianum L. — See discussion, 


Chenopodium albuirr L. — Southwest Nfld., 

{Phytolacca aiJiericana L. — See discussion, 

Montia fontana L. — Southwest Nfld., 37. Bell 
has listed Claytonia caroliniana and Fernald 
has suggested that it must have been rare 
or local in Newfoundland. The genus 
Claytonia is not present in Bell's collec- 
tion. Montia is represented by this single 

Stellaria longipes Goldie. — Southwest Nfld., 
17; Great Cod Roy River, 318. 

Stellaria calycantha (Ledeb.) Bongard — 
Southwest Nfld., 43, 47. 

Stellaria crassifolia Ehrh. — Southwest Nfld., 

Arenaria lateriflora L. — Southwest Nfld., 64. 

Sagina nodosa (L.) Fenzl. — South Arm, Bay 
of Islands, 79; North shore*. 

Honkenya peploides (L.) Ehrh. — Southwest 
Nfld., 67; Flat Bay (in St. Georges Bay), 
June 30, 285*; Port au Port Bay, July 24, 

Nuphar advena Ait. — ^N. Fork, Humber R., 
Newfoundland*. Macoun lists J. Bell as 
the first collection of this species on the 
west coast of Newfoundland. 

Thalictrum alpinum L. — South Arm, Bay of 
Islands, 102. T. cornuti, and T. dioicum 
are both listed by J. Bell. Fernald has ques- 
tioned the presence of T. dioicinn. The 
collection does not support Bell's paper. 

Ranuncidus Cymbalaria Pursh. — Flat Bay 
Brook, 191; Great Cod Roy River, 348. 
Bell listed R. repens for a "boggy rill" 
near Ryan's on the Great Cod Roy River. 

Ranunculus pennsylvanicus L. — Great Cod 
Roy River, 271. This has the same collect- 
ing location as R. repens. 

Cakile edentula (Bigel.) Hook. — ^Flat Bay, 

{Draba arabisans Michx. — See discussion, 1, 

{Cochlearia tridactylites Banks. — See dis- 
cussion, 4, 29.) 

Cardajnine pennsylvanica Muhl. — Port au 
Port Bay, 206. Bell listed C. birsuta for 
Long Point, Port au Port Bay. 

Drosera intermedia Hayne. — South Arm, Bay 
of Islands, 119; St. Georges Bay, 133. 

Sedum Rosea (L.) Scop. — Flat Bay Brook, 

Saxifraga aizoides L. — "The Gravel", St. 
Georges Bay, 251. 

Mitella nuda L. — Flat Bay Brook, 109. 

Ribes hirtellum Michx. — St. Georges Bay, 
123, 146; Flat Bay Brook, St. Georges Bay, 

Ribes lacustre (Pers.) Poir. — St. Georges Bay 
(Ryan's), 143. 

Ribes triste Pall. — Great Cod Roy Island, 326. 

Ribes glandidosuT7i Grauer. — St. Georges 
Bay, 115, 129. 

{Liquidambar Styraciflua L. — See discussion, 

{Potentilla palustris L. Scop. — See discussion, 
13. P. fruticosa listed for Flat Bay Brook.) 

Potentilla tridentata Soland. — Southwest 
Nfld., 65; South Arm, Bay of Islands, 98; 
Great Cod Roy Island, 278, 323. 


Bayly: Plant Collection from SW Newfoundland 


Geum macrophyllum Willd. — Great Cod 

Roy River, Nfld., July 8, 242*. 
Rubus pubescens Raf. — ^Flat Bay Harbour, 

Rubus ChcnnaeTnorus L. — ^Long Point, Port 

au Port Bay, 184; Great Cod Roy River, 

Sanguisorba canadensis L. — Southwest Nfld., 

Rosa sp. — ^label reads Rosa blanda? Ait. — 

N. shore*. Sheet has eglandular stipules 

and fruit, coarsely toothed leaflets. Speci- 
men lacks flowers. 
Rosa virginiajia MiU. — Southwest Nfld., 41, 

Rosa nitida Willd. — St. Georges Bay, 126. 
Pyrus floribunda Lindl. — South Arm, Bay 

of Islands, 81, 94. 
Pyrus decora (Sarg.) Hyland. — Flat Bay 

Brook, 200. 
Amelanchier Bartramiana (Tausch) . Roemer. 

—St. Georges Bay, 141, 148. 
Crataegus Bruneticma Sarg. — Fork, Humber 

River, 212. Bell has listed C. coccinea in 

his paper: Macoun has noted this in the 

Catalogue (Vol. 1, p. 147). 
{Trijolium agrarium L. — See discussion, 9.) 
Hedysarum alpinmn L. — Great Cod Roy 

River, 235, 240. 
Vicia Cracca L. — Southwest Nfld., 23. 
Lathyrus (L.) Bigel. var. pellitus 

(Fern.) GL— Cod Roy Island, Nfld., July 

13, 281*. Bell has listed a "variety of beach 

pea" for Cod Roy Island. 
EmpetruTn nigrum L. — St. Georges Bay, 150; 

Cod Roy Island, 279; Cairn Mountain, 

Nemopantlms mucrofiatus (L.) Trel. — South 

Arm, Bay of Islands, 107; St. Georges Bay, 

153; Deer Lake 209. 
Triadenum virgimcu?n (L.) Raf. — Great Cod 

Roy River, 243. This species is represented 

by leaf fragments only. 
(Lythrum Salicaria L. — See discussion, 8, 12.) 
Epilobium latifolium L. — Flat Bay Brook, 

189; Great Cod Roy River (?) 249; shingle, 

Flat Bay Brook*. Femald (1911) suggested 

that E. latifoliujn must be very rare or 

Epilobium palustre L. — Great Cod Roy 

River, 347. 
Oenothera biennis L. — Southwest Nfld., 69. 
Aralia hispida Vent. — ^Label reads only 

"Aralia hispida Michx. — Bristly Sarsapar- 


Conioselinum chinense (L.) BSP — Great Cod 

Roy River, 328. 
Angelica atropurpurea L. — Great Cod Roy 

River, July, 1867, 329*. 
Comus canadensis L. — Great Cod Roy River, 

Comus suecica L. — Southwest Nfld., 18, 49; 

Long Point, 183; Port au Port Bay*; Great 

Cod Roy Isd., July 18, 322*. 
Moneses uniflora (L.) Gray. — Great Cod 

Roy River, 221. 
Pyrola asarifolia Michx. — St. Georges Bay, 

160. Bell has listed P. rotundifolia, Flat 

Bay Brook area. 
Pyrola elliptica Nutt. — Deer Lake, Nfld., 

July 17, 1867, 208*. 
Pyrola secunda L. — Great Cod Roy River, 

Rhododendron canadense (L.) BSP. — St. 

Georges Bay, 145, 147; Cairn Mountain*, 

Flat Bay, Nfld.*. 
Loiseleuria procumbens (L.) Desv. — ^Flat 

Bay Brook, St. Georges Bay, 82, 93, 99, 

111, 118, 120; Cairn Mountain, Nfld.*. 
Kalmia polifolia Wang. — St. Georges Bay, 

Kal?nia angustifolia L. — St. Georges Bay, 152. 
Andromeda glaucophylla Link. — St. Georges 

Bay, 154; sphagnum bog near Flat Bay, 

Chamaedaphne calyculata (L.) Moench — St. 

Georges Bay, 155; heath, near Cairn 

Mountain, Nfld.*. 
Arctostaphylos alpina (L.) Spreng. — Great 

Cod Roy River, 223, 230, 290, 307; Flat Bay, 

Cairn Mountain*. Bell has listed A. Uva- 

ursi for Cairn Mountain. 
Vaccinium uliginosum L. — St. Georges Bay, 

96, 119, 112, 113; Great Cod Roy River, 

308; Cairn Mountain, Nfld.*. 
Vaccinium Vitis-Idaea L. — Southwest Nfld. 

(Flat Bay Shore), 40, 70; St. Georges Bay, 

97; Cairn Mountain*. 
Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. — St. Georges 

Bay (Flat Bay Brook), 116, 128; Great Cod 

Roy River, 311. 
Vaccinium Oxycoccos L. — Southwest Nfld., 

21; St. Georges Bay, 90; Great Cod Roy 

River, 166, 174. 
Diapensia lapponica L. — Great Cod Roy 

River, July 8, 1867, 289, 298, 337*; Flat Bay 

Brook (Cairn Mountain)*. 
Primula ?mstassinica Michx. — St. Georges 

Bay, 108. 
Prifnula laurentiana Fern. — Long Point, 179; 

Flat Bay Brook, St. Georges Bay, 205*. 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

Gentiana nesophila Holm — Long Point, Port 
au Port Bay, 182, 186. 

Menyanthes trifoliata L. — Southwest Nfld., 
32; St. Georges Bay, 134; ponds in sphag- 
num bog or heath near Cairn Mountain*. 

Mertensia 7}7arithna (L.) S. F. Gray — South- 
west Nfld., 42; Flat Bay (in St. Georges 
Bay) June 30, 283*. 

Scutellaria galericulata L. — Great Cod Roy 
River, 257, 270. 

Euphrasia Randii Robins. — Long Point, Port 
au Port Bay, 181. 

Melampyrum lineare Desr. — Southwest Nfld., 

Castilleja septentrionalis Lindl. — H umber 
River, July 17, 210*. 

(Ca7npsis radicans (L.) Seem. — See discus- 
sion, 5.) 

Orobanche uniflora L. — St. Georges Bay, 137; 
woods near Cairn Mountain, Nfld.*. 

Pinguicula vulgaris L. — St. Georges Bay, 100; 
Flat Bay Brook, Nfld.*. 

Plantago maritima L. — Long Point, Port au 
Port Bay, July 12, 180*; St. Georges Bay, 
254; Flat Bay (in St. Georges Bay), June 
30, 284*. 

Galium kainschaticum Steller. — Great Cod 
Roy River, 226. 

Galiufn asprellum Michx. — Great Cod Roy 
River, July 7, 1867, 266*. 

Galium palustre L. — Great Cod Roy River, 

{Galium labradoricimi (Wieg.) Wieg. — See 
discussion, 2.) 

Viburnum, cassinoides L. — St. Georges Bay, 
151. Bell has identified this plant as V. 
Lentago. Fernald has suggested a mis- 

Viburnum opulus L. var. americanum Ait. — 
Fork, Humber River, July 18, 1867, 213*; 
Viburnum Opulus L. — island, N. Fork 
Humber River*. 

Viburnum edule (Michx.) Raf. — Southwest 
Nfld., 24*. Viburnum paucijlorum — ^N. 
shore*. The presence of a sheet identified 
by Bell as. V. pauciflorum does little to 
clear Fernald's contention that Bell could 
not have seen V. acerifolium in Newfound- 
land. Bell has listed both species. Neither 
authors give authority names. Viburnmn 
acerifolimn L. is not contained in the col- 
lection. V. pauciflorum Pylaie and V. 
acerifolium Bong, are both names which 
are no longer in use for V. edule (Michx.) 

Lonicera villosa (Michx.) R. & S. — St. 
Georges Bay, 125, 144, 149; Great Cod 
Roy River, July 8, 1867, 177, 310*, 317*. 
Bell has listed L. oblongifolia. Fernald 
doubted the identification. 

Solidago macrophylla Pursh. — Southwest 
Nfld., 39. 

Aster umbellatus Mill. — Southwest Nfld., 20, 

Achilea Millefolium L. — Southwest Nfld., 52. 

Leontodon autumnalis L. — Cod Roy Island, 
July 13, 1867, 275*, 280, 282. 

Prenanthes racefnosa Michx. — Southwest 
Nfld., 36. 

Hieracium kalmii L. — Southwest Nfld., 35. 


Present status of John BelVs collecting localities 

As far as possible the collecting sites were checked during the summer of 
1960 and 1962. The flora of the area of Flat Bay Brook village is much the same, 
as is that of Flat Bay Brook itself (Figure 2), which is now a scheduled salmon 
river. A bush road described by Bell is there, but now is overgrown, and 
the gravel beds in the stream where he collected Epilobiimt latifolium still 
support that species. The Trans-Canada highway crosses Flat Bay Brook about 
four miles above its mouth and there are some disturbances associated with 
road building. A few white pines mentioned by Bell but not authenticated 
by the collection still grow on the shores. "The Gravel", Bell's collecting area 
at Port au Port, is readily identified. It has a sheltered harbour and a one mile 
stretch of gravel beach and cUff. Unspoiled in Bell's time, the trees and ferns 
on the top are now gone, through storms, farming, introduction of a road cut 
and use of part of the area as a garbage dump. Despite this, Shepherdia, 


Bayly: Plant Collection from SW Newfoundland 


Figure 2. Flat Bay Brook, Newfoundland. A licensed salmon river, little changed from 

the time of John Bell. Water here is saline, shores support Mertensia marithna and 

Cakile edentula. July, 1960. 
Figure 3. "The Gravel", Port au Port. Expansion of town dump, and road building, have 

changed the flora on top of the cliffs, but cliff itself still supports Skepherdia, Carex 

aurea, dwarf juniper. July, 1960. 
Figure 4. Boggy meadow, Long Point, Newfoundland, described by Bell. Unchanged 

except for overgrazing on nearby hill. July, 1960. 
Figure 5. Dwarfed spruce, Long Point, Newfoundland. Note heavy incidence of witches' 

brooms. July, 1960. 

116 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

Oenothera, Rhincmthtcs, Antennaria and Carex aurea still hold the crumbling 
gravel together (Figure 3). The Grand Cod Roy River, a scheduled salmon 
stream, has minimum farming and is roughly the same as when Bell travelled 
there. A stream which has the name of Ryan's Brook indicates his collecting 
location for the "profusion of garden flowers and weeds" which he mentioned. 
From Cod Roy, Bell's schooner sailed up the coast to Long Point, a narrow 
sliver of land which separates the Gulf of St. Lawrence from Port au Port Bay. 
This area is heavily overgrazed, because local residents use the point as a 
community sheep pasture. The boggy meadow mentioned by Bell was located 
(Figure 4). It contains a quaking bog which supports Tojfieldia, Habenaria 
and the typical members of the sphagnum bog community, although it is only 
about 20 feet from the sea itself. The close cropping by the sheep on Long 
Point has left little of the original flora except the dwarf spruces (Figure 5) and 
the bogs. The region of the Humber Arm, or as Bell says, the south arm of 
the Bay of Islands, has been used by a pulp and paper company as a flotation 
basin for pulp logs and there has been extensive cutting of timber. Deer Lake 
also fills with pulp logs, and farmlands occupy parts of the shore of Deer Lake. 
At the mouth of the Humber River, which is described by Bell as choked with 
eel grass, the water is now filled bank to bank with floating pulp logs. There 
is a point of land just before the mouth of the river on which Bell camped and 
collected. Along this strand, close to the town of Deer Lake, grow two species 
of maple {spicatum and rubrum) as Bell said. These are old trees, many- 
suckered from their parental root stocks. It is possible that these are 
descendants of the originals which Bell mentioned (but did not collect). The 
areas above Deer Lake visited by Bell are now timber limits, and cutting and 
forest fires have changed the original collecting site. 

Present status of the Neivfoundland collection of John Bell 

When Dr. John Bell published his Newfoundland papers he assumed that 
his readers would enjoy an account of the trip, and since he was an enthusiastic 
member of the Canadian Botanical Society he included as many plants with 
Latin nomenclature as possible. The insertion of such names w^as necessarily 
limited. The nomenclature was only as accurate as Bell's experience allowed, 
since nobody except perhaps Robert Bell ever saw the collection. That Macoun 
and Fernald placed such empTiasis on his list of plants seems good reason for a 
re-listing of this important, though obscure, collection. 

The contents of the press, additional mounted sheets and John Bell's two 
papers form the basis of this discussion. They help to answer the questions of 
Fernald and Macoun concerning the doubtful presence of some species and 
the misidentification of others. In turn, they present additional problems. 
These are misidentifications which have gone unchallenged and presence of 
anomalous species which appear at the front of the press. 

Fernald has questioned the presence of the following plants: Asplenium 
thelypteroides, Salix petiolaris, Betula lenta, Thalictrum dioiciim, Lojiicera 
oblongifolia and Vibiirnimt acerifolium. None of these plants is represented 
in the collection. The listing of Asplenium thelypteroides may have been a 

1964 Bayly: Plant Collection from SW Newfoundland 117 

sight misidentification of a young plant of Thelypteris noveboracensis (L.) 
Nieuwl. Salix pellita Anderss. is the closest representative of that genus. The 
Betula lenta listing by John Bell was a sight record made at the "bend of the 
river" (Flat Bay Brook) below Cairn Mountain. The plant may have been 
Betula lutea forma fdlax Fassett. The only Thalictrum in the collection is 
T. alpinimt L. Lonicera villosa (Michx.) R. & S. holds the collecting label 
"Great Cod Roy River, July 8, 1867", the collecting station for the plant Bell 
identified as Lonicera oblongifolia. The problem of Viburnum acerifolium 
is complicated by Fernald's omission of authority name. The collection does 
not contain Viburnum acerifolimn L., but Viburnum edule (Michx.) Raf. which 
in former times has been named Viburnum acerifolimn Bong, or V. pauciflontm 
Pylaie is present. Macoun did not make use of Bell's listing of V. acerifolium 
for Newfoundland, and said of such records "This species is reported from 
Newfoundland . . . but, as it was formerly confounded with the next 
( V. paucifloruTn Pylaie) I believe these references belong with the next." 

In addition to the problem of the distribution of certain species, Fernald 
also challenged parts of the Bell listing as misidentifications. These species 
identifications were: Vallisneria spiralis which Fernald assumed was Zostera 
marina; Viburnum Lentago which Fernald suggested was V. cassinoides; 
Cirsium pumilum considered to be C. muticum; Aspidium marginale which 
Fernald believed to be "the there common Aspidium Filix-mas''\ Neither 
Vallisneria nor Zostera are among the plants in the collection. This sight 
record "on the coastal shoreline at Flat Bay village" would certainly add support 
to the view of Fernald that the plants that Bell saw were Zostera marina L. 
Viburnum cassinoides L. is in the collection. There is no representative of the 
genus Cirsium. A fern which recently turned up in the mounted specimens 
bears the label ''marginale South Arm, Bay of Islands, Nfld." is, as Fernald 
suggested, a specimen of "Male fern" (now Dryopteris Filix-mas (L.) Schott.). 

Plants which Fernald considered rare or local in the Bell listing were: 
Claytonia caroliniana, Aspidiimt fragrans and Epilobium latifoliufn. The 
collection does not contain the genus Claytonia but does contain Montia 
fontana L., a close relative. The specimen has flower buds and well-developed 
leaves. Present in the collection is Dryopteris fragrans (L.) Schott (collecting 
label "Cairn Mountain"). One of the sheets of Epilobium latifolium L. bears 
the label "shingle. Flat Bay Brook". 

Macoun made extensive use of the Bell plants in his Catalogue. Of 143 
John Bell records cited, 15 are from the west coast of Newfoundland. One is 
not listed in the papers, nor is it present in the collection (Ranunculus acris L.), 
two are sight records (Acer saccharinum Wang., Myriophyllum spicatum L.), 
one is listed but is not in the collection (Aralia nudicaidis L.), several are mis- 
identified (Sagina procujnbens L., Crataegus coccinea L., Lycopodium lucidu- 
lum Michx., Lycopodium obscurwn L.) and the remainder (including Nuphar 
advena Ait., Sanguisorba canadensis L., Saxifraga aizoides L., Angelica atro- 
pu^pureum L. and several species of Lycopodium) are present and correctly 

A final problem arises from the presence in the plant press of a set of 
plants (my numbers 1-15) which do not appear to be from Newfoundland. 

118 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

The distribution of some (Castanea, Liqiudamhar, Campsis radiccms) is more 
southerly. Others, like Draba arabisans Michx. and Trifolium procumbens L. 
are of very wide distribution on the eastern coast of North America. All lack 
collecting labels. At first, the only immediate explanation for these plants was 
that they represented the cultivated flowers from the Ryan's Brook area or from 
Flat Bay Brook village. Considering the wealth of detail which Dr. John Bell 
wrote in his papers, it is unlikely that he would overlook such items as Castanea 
or Ly thrum Salic aria. It seems doubtful that the first numbers in the press 
are from the west coast of Newfoundland. The only other explanation is 
that John Bell had inserted a small collection from some other source in the 
top of the press. When he began to mount up the press contents, he would 
first select from the press the more interesting items, leaving most of the 
anomalous specimens still on the top of the press. The mounted sheets con- 
tained labelled specimens from Newfoundland plus one Lygodium palmatum 
(Bernh.) Sev. This fern lay on a herbarium sheet, but had not been affixed 
to it. The collecting label reads "Miss Isabella Mcintosh, Northampton, Vt. 
U.S.". It is possible that the other problem species may have the same source. 

This collection, made by a young medical doctor in the year of Confedera- 
tion, helped to increase the knowledge of the flora of Newfoundland. John 
Bell was not the first to collect on the island, but his papers, so carefully written 
and free from ambiguity, are useful to all who have an interest in the distribution 
of vascular plants in Newfoundland. The extent of the collection, exclusive 
of the Bryophytes, is embodied in this paper. The collection is now housed 
in the Carleton University herbarium. 


Bell, John. 1869. The Plants of the West Expedition to Newfoundland and southern 

Coast of Newfoundland. The Canadian Labrador. Rhodora 13:109-162. 

Naturalist and Journal of Science, Septem- Gleason, Henry A. 1958. The new Brit- 

ber, 4:256-263. ton and Brown Illustrated Flora of the 

loTfv T-u r>i r ^u WT .. Northeastern United States and adjacent 

. 1870. The Plants of the West _ j -vt ^.t ^ t> • i /^ j 

^ r -VT r ji J T-u r^ A- Canada. New York Botanical Crarden. 

Coast of Newfoundland. Ihe Canadian ., , ,„„, ,„„„ r- ^ ^ c 

Naturalist and Journal of Science 5-54-61 Macoun, John. 1883, 1888. Catalogue of 

Naturalist and journal ot science 5.^^01. Canadian Plants. Vols. 1 & II. Dawson 

Fernald, M. L. 1911. Contributions from Brothers, Montreal, 

the Gray Herbarium of Harvard Univer- Polunin, Nicholas. 1959. Circumpolar 
sity. New Series— No. XL. A botanical Arctic Flora. Oxford University Press. 

Received for publication 3 January 1964 


Birds of the Labrador Peninsula and 
Adjacent Areas 

By W. E. Clyde Todd. 1963. University of 
Toronto Press, Toronto. 819 pp. $18.00. 

In size, scope, and content this is a big 
book. Its subject is the bird Ufe of a vast 
and ornithologically poorly-known part 
of Canada that encompasses some 600,000 
square miles of the Quebec-Labrador 
peninsula, eastern Hudson and James 
bays, and part of extreme northwestern 
Ontario. Its author is one of this con- 
tinent's most distinguished ornitholo- 

It is a long-awaited book that really 
had its beginning back in 1901 when the 
author made his first expedition to the 
wilds of Labrador to study the bird life 
there. This initiated what was to become 
a series of no less than 25 expeditions 
conducted by the Carnegie Museum to 
the 'north country'. The valuable results 
of these expeditions, heretofore un- 
published, are presented in this book. In 
addition, related data from all other avail- 
able sources, published and unpublished, 
are meticulously brought together, docu- 
mented, and competently appraised. 

There are 72 pages of introductory 
material, the bulk of which (pp. 13-57) 
is devoted to the itineraries and interest- 
ing narratives of the 25 Carnegie Museum 
expeditions. The geography, physio- 
graphy, general geology, climate, popula- 
tion and resources, ecological conditions, 
life zones, and geographic history are 
dealt with briefly. A good history of 
previous ornithological work in the area 
is given. 

The systematic list of birds (pp. 73- 
723 ) makes up the main body of the book. 
Each subspecies is treated as a separate 
unit. Treatment of distributional data is 
uniform and thorough. For each sub- 
species there is a list of the literature 
references arranged by the various names 

used by the authors concerned. There is 
usually a list of additional records and one 
of skins and eggs examined by the author. 
The details derived from these published 
sources and the great mass of records and 
observations gathered by the Carnegie 
Museum expeditions are then presented 
in an orderly and readable manner. 

Emphasis is on bird distribution and 
the data presented are well documented 
and definite. In many cases locality re- 
cords are plotted on maps. The signi- 
ficance of climatic, ecological, and topo- 
graphic features as factors affecting bird 
distribution is often indicated. Migration 
dates are cited when available. 

Taxonomic studies of many of the 
forms are an important aspect of the 
book. While not everybody will agree 
with all of the opinions expressed (for 
example, the treatment of the Blue-Snow 
goose complex) many have much merit. 
For instance, the treatment of the eastern 
races of Passerculus scmdiDtchensis is, in 
this reviewer's opinion, by far the most 
realistic one that has yet appeared in 

A feature of the text is the author's 
frank, unbiased, and common-sense ap- 
praisal of published data that for one 
reason or another seem questionable. He 
concludes, for instance, that in so far as 
Labrador is concerned, too much respect 
has been paid to J. J. Audubon as an au- 
thority, and that many of Audubon's 
published records must be expunged. To 
this reviewer this view appears to be long 

In such a laborious undertaking, in- 
volving overwhelming detail, a few 
minor oversights are inevitable. For in- 
stance, the author states that he is not 
aware of the authority for the Bale Johan 
Beetz record of the Dickcissel cited in 
the A.O.U. Check-list (ed. 5, p. SSS). 
This is based on a collected specimen and 
was published in The Auk 71(3):317. 
There is no reference in the book to the 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

Ruff, Philomachus pugnax although there 
is a generally overlooked record of a 
"magnificent" male shot at Seven Islands, 
Quebec, on May 27, 1933, in the collec- 
tion of the late Dr. D. A. Dery (Pro- 
vancher Society of Natural History of 
Canada, Annual Report for 1933, p. 15). 

A very few questionable assertions are 
made such as (p. 373) that murres some- 
times undertake a southward migration 
from Hudson Bay to the Great Lakes, or 
(p. 646) that the Evening Grosbeak is 
still a casual summer resident in New 
Brunswick (it is now one of the common 
summer birds there). Such questionable 
assertions are exceptional and the work 
is characterized by meticulous accuracy 
and astute observation and interpretation. 

An extremely useful adjunct of the 
book is a 32-page gazetteer of localities 
which is skilfully prepared and anno- 
tated. The 54-page (double columns) 
bibliography, each item of which is ex- 
pertly annotated, is another extremely 
useful feature. 

Eight colored plates by George M. 
Sutton add beauty to the book and in a 
number of species show rarely-pictured 
and evanescent ju venal or the downy 
plumages. A colored plate by C. L. 
Ripper effectively portrays the natal 
plumages of four grouse. A considerable 
number of photographs showing habitats, 
terrain, and other interesting aspects of 
this rugged country are included. 

This important work fully maintains 
the very high standards that have long 
characterized the author's publications 
and will be indispensable, now and for a 
long time to come, to anyone interested 
in the bird life of the large part of the 
country that it covers. 

W. Earl Godfrey 

Birds of the Lake Athabasca Region, 

By Robert W. Nero. 1963. Saskatchewan 
Natural History Society, Special Publica- 
tion 5. 1943 pp. Illustrated. $2.50. 

This useful and attractive publication 
presents an excellent account of the bird 
life of the Lake Athabasca region, Sas- 
katchewan. Actually it considerably 
transcends the northwestern part of the 
province and gives a much clearer picture 
than has been possible heretofore of bird 
distribution in northern Saskatchewan in 
general south to Clearwater and Churchill 

The Lake Athabasca data are based 
mainly on the author's very creditable 
field work there in the summers of 1960, 
1961, and 1962 and he has included also 
data from all other available sources, both 
published and unpublished, notable 
among which are notes made by Francis 
Harper in 1914 and 1920, and by T. M. 
Shortt in 1945. 

The copiously-annotated list of birds 
contains much definite and authentic in- 
formation on distribution, status, and 
dates for each species in the area, and for 
many of those species there are notes also 
on behavior, aspects of the breeding 
cycle, and ecology. Substantial additions 
are made to the known breeding ranges 
of several species, and nesting is estab- 
lished for a number of others where it 
was only suspected heretofore. Valuable 
data are given also for more eastern parts 
of northern Saskatchewan, notably Has- 
bala Lake in the extreme northeast. 

The introduction includes a general 
account of the author's three expeditions, 
a good summary of previous work by 
others, a description of the area, notes 
and comments on bird distribution there, 
and a map of the area. The report is 
illustrated by photographs of bird habi- 
tats and other subjects. Interesting draw- 
ings by Ralph D. Carson are scattered 
through the text. This report adds vastly 
to our knowledge of the birds of northern 

W. Earl Godfrey 




Cacti and Other Succulents 

By R. GiNNS. Penguin Books Ltd., Har- 
mondsworth, Middlesex, England, 1963. 
191 pp., 125 half-tone pi., 5 text fig. (Cana- 
dian distributer: Longmans Canada Ltd., 
Paperback Division, 55 Barber Greene 
Road, Don Mills, Ontario. $1.85). 

This small book is the most pleasant 
and handsome introduction to the study 
and culture of succulent plants which has 
yet appeared. The profusion of really 
excellent photographs, beautifully repro- 
duced, shows for the most part close-up 
views of either small mature plants or of 
well-grown seedlings of large species, 
thus portraying the plants as the home 
grower is most likely to see them. There 
is also a generous smattering of photo- 
graphs of larger plants including a few in 
the wild. 

The text is well and interestingly writ- 
ten to present an outline of the habitats 
of succulent plants, much detail on 
methods of culture and, for the latter 
half of the book, a short description of a 
number of genera and species well suited 
to pot culture. 

Although the book is written for an 
English audience, the directions for cul- 
ture are generally satisfactory for 
Canadian growers. North American 
readers might like to use the University 
of California soil mixes rather than the 
John Innes formulas, or for epiphytic 
plants the chopped sphagnum moss me- 
dium developed and used with great suc- 
cess by the Montreal Botanic Garden. 

Mr. Ginns gives a too brief list of more 
extensive reference books. Those wanting 
more iivformation on the botany, es- 
pecially the taxonomy of these plants 
should refer to: 

The Cataceae by N. L. Britton and 

J. N. Rose. Reprint 1964, Dover 

Publications, Inc., New York, N.Y. 

1066 pp., 1279 ill., 2 vols, cloth $20.00 


A Handbook of Succulent Plants by 

Hermann Jacobsen, 1960, Blandford 

Press, London. 1441 pp., 1617 fig., 3 

maps, 3 vols. $45.00 (U.S.) 

Die Cactaceae, by Kurt Backeberg, re- 
commended by Mr. Ginns, is a very 
beautiful German work but should be 
used with caution, since Backeberg is the 
most notorious- splitter among cactus 
taxonomists, and many of his names will 
not stand. 

The best American journal for ama- 
teurs is the Cactus and Succulent Journal 
of the Cactus and Succulent Society of 
America. This magazine is $5.00 (U.S.) 
per year {6 issues) and may be ordered 
from Scott Haselton, Editor, 132 West 
Union Street, Pasadena, California. 

To return to Mr. Ginns' book, we can 
recommend it wholeheartedly to anyone 
interested in succulent plants, especially 
cacti. The book is free from important 
technical blunders, most of the few de- 
tected being the result of incomplete 
statements, unavoidable in so short a 

Anyone who buys the book may want 
to buy plants as well. Aside from local 
shops, the only Canadian grower of im- 
portance is Ben Veldhuis, Dundas, 
Ontario, who deals with the public 
mostly through visits to his greenhouses. 
Other sources may be found in classified 
columns of gardening magazines or in 
the Cactus and Succulent Journal. 

E. W. Greenwood 

Ramsayville, Ontario 

Handbook of North American Birds, 
Vol. 1. Loons through Flamingos 

Edited by Ralph S. Palmer. Yale University 
Press, New Haven. 1962. 567 pp. $15.00. 

When all volumes of this handbook 
are published they will constitute the 
most comprehensive assemblage of facts 
on North American birds that has ever 
been available. Everyone with a profes- 
sional interest in birds, and many serious 
amateur students of ornithology, should 
have access to the set. 

For each species, information is given 
under the following headings: diagnostic 
characters, detailed description of the 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

definitive stage (the Villalobos system of 
colours is used), descriptions of plumages 
and moults, measurements, weight, colour 
phases, hybrids, diagnostic description of 
subspecies, field marks, voice, habitat, 
distribution (maps show breeding range, 
wintering range, and, in some instances, 
migration routes and areas of hybridiza- 
tion), migration, banding studies, repro- 
duction, survival and longevity (if data 
are available), habits, and food. The pre- 
ceding list gives some idea of the breadth 
of this work; it scarcely conveys any 
idea of its detail. 

Different sections and subsections are 
the work of different authors, who are 
identified by their initials. All data are 
credited. A telegraphic style of writing is 
employed. Not all species are illustrated, 
but colour plates depict some of the less 
familiar characteristics of plumage and 
soft part colouration. Black-and-white 
sketches illustrate some aspects of be- 

David A. Munro 

Canadian Wildlife Service 
Ottawa, Ontario 

Minnesota's Rocks and Waters: 
A Geological Story 

By George M. Schwartz and George A. 
Thiel with the assistance of Peggy Hard- 
ing Love. The University of Minnesota 
Press, Minneapolis. Revised (second) Edi- 
tion. 1963. 366 pp.; 161 illustrations. $4.50. 
(Minnesota Geological Survey Bulletin 
37). Canadian representatives: Thomas 
Allen Limited, 266 King Street West, 

The State of Minnesota, comprising 
over 84,000 square miles, is situated ap- 
proximately in the central part of North 
America. Its surface waters drain in three 
major directions: to the northward into 
the Red River and eventually Hudson 
Bay, to the eastward into Lake Superior 
and the Atlantic Ocean, and to the south 
by the Mississippi into the Gulf of 
Mexico. Its northern boundary is Canada, 
and while the volume was prepared for 

the citizens of Minnesota its description 
of the geological features and how they 
were developed will be of great interest 
to many Canadians. 

The landscape is composed of lakes, 
swamps and rivers— of hills, ridges and 
plains— of farm country, and rocky area 
in the northern part. It contains some 
14,000 lakes, giving a larger water area 
than any other state in the union. The 
details of the surface were largely pro- 
duced by continental glaciers which ad- 
vanced and in turn retreated during the 
Great Glacial Age. The last glacier re- 
treated from Minnesota as recently as 
11,000 years ago. 

Over the greater part of the state the 
consolidated rocks at the surface are of 
Precambrian age. They are ancient lava 
flows, intrusives, and sediments including 
iron-formations. The length of Precam- 
brian time and the absence of fossils for 
dating any beds makes correlation in 
widespread areas difficult. In Minnesota 
these rocks are regarded as having formed 
in three geological eras: the Early Pre- 
cambrian, the Middle Precambrian, and 
the Late Precambrian. Most of Canadian 
geologists prefer to divide Precambrian 
time into two eras, an older called the 
Archaean and a younger era named the 
Proterozoic. Both of these are sub- 
divided, the Archaean into the Keewatin 
and the Timiskaming, and the Protero- 
zoic into the Huronian and the Keween- 
awan. In the southern part of the state are 
Cambrian, Ordovician and Devonian 
strata but Upper Paleozoic and Lower 
Mesozoic ages are not found. Rocks of 
Cretaceous rest on Precambrian and on 
early Paleozoic formations. 

The mineral resources are of very 
great value. The chief production is iron 
ore. The total production in the state up 
to January 1, 1962, was 2,529,737,533 
tons. Toatl taxes paid on iron ore to 
January 1, 1961, were approximately 
$1,257,448,400., a very important source 
of funds for the state government. Some 
60 per cent of the total produced in the 
United States has come from Minnesota. 
Three iron ranges are the Mesabi, the 




Vermilion and the Cuyuna. Other 
mineral resources in the state are archi- 
tectural, monumental and structural 
stone, produced from granite, limestone, 
dolomite and other rocks; gravel and 
sand are excavated and clay is used for 
many ceramic products. 

F. J. Alcock 

398 Third Avenue 

Ottawa, Ontario 

Dr. Alcock is a former director of the National 

Museum of Canada. 

Les Libellules du Quebec 

By Adrien Robert, cs.v. Ministere du 
Tourisme, de la Chasse et de la Peche, 
Province de Quebec. Service de la Faune, 
Bulletin 1. 1963. 223 pages, 278 figures. 

Now that the taxonomy of the Can- 
adian Odonata rests on a firm foundation, 
there is a place for popular regional 
manuals which will encourage the be- 
ginner and provide an abridged yet ade- 
quate guide for the local collector. 
Brother Robert's book is designed to 
meet this need for Quebec, a province in 
which he has studied dragonflies actively 
for more than twenty-five years. It is 
appropriate that this province should be 
the first in Canada to devote a handbook 
to its dragonflies. It contains at least 130 
of the some 200 species recorded from 
Canada; and yet, with its northern parts 
extending beyond tree-line, it offers en- 
vironments which limit the distribution 
of dragonflies as a group. This handbook 
will therefore foster interest in these 
insects in an area where their study 
should be singularly rewarding. 

Printed in an edition of 1,000 copies, 
this book is sent free to libraries and 
entomologists who apply to the publisher 
(at 5075, rue Fullum, Montreal). En- 
tomologists will be gratified that the 
Ministry has devoted the first bulletin of 
this series to an insect group; and this 
being so, the choice of dragonflies was a 
happy one. The behaviour of these strik- 
ing and beautiful creatures can readily 
be observed in nature, their capture fre- 

quently offers a challenge to the in- 
genuity and patience of the collector, and 
they are particularly numerous near lakes 
and rivers where so many people congre- 
gate during the summer. 

The book is arranged in three parts. In 
the first, which provides a general intro- 
duction to the order, there are sections 
devoted to the structure and life-history 
of the larva and adult; the relationships 
of dragonflies with other animals (pre- 
dators, prey, parasites, etc.); the history 
of studies on the order in Quebec; and 
methods of collection and preservation. 
The second, principal part (of 112 pages) 
comprises a key for identification of 
adults, and the third part an annotated 
list of species with brief remarks on 
their dates of adult appearance and dis- 
tribution. An addendum and bibliography 
of 62 references complete the text. The 
book is liberally illustrated with bold, 
clear line-drawings and eleven well-pro- 
duced photographs; the latter show 
typical habitats and are unusually attrac- 

Information is clearly presented, and 
great care has been taken to make the key 
incisive and easy to use. An excellent 
feature is the accompanying drawings in 
which pertinent characters are indicated 
by arrows. This will earn the gratitude of 
all who use the key, and (we may hope) 
provide a precendent to be followed in 
subsequent bulletins of this series. The 
author's aim— to provide a guide for 
identification— has been effectively ful- 
filled: this book should certainly be 
possessed by all who intend to study 
dragonflies in or near Quebec. But it 
also provides a readable introduction to 
the Odonata, and draws attention to the 
varied and fascinating problems their 
study offers the naturalist. It would 
therefore make a useful addition to any 
high school library. 

The few errors lie in the illustrations 
or their captions and only one is serious. 
This is the portrayal (page 36) of a pair 
of Coenagrion interrogatum ovipositing 
in a manner exemplified by neither sub- 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

order. To be correct (and typical of the 
sub-order this species represents) this 
figure should show the female legs grasp- 
ing a support, and the eggs being inserted 
into plant tissue. Less important sources 
of potential confusion include the ter- 
minology of the larval labium, which 
does not conform to current usage, and 
the use of the ambiguous (though pos- 
sibly correct) generic name Agrion in- 
stead of Calopteryx. These shortcomings 
represent minor and exceptional depar- 
tures from the high standard which 
characterizes the text and illustrations. 

The author and publishers are to be 
congratulated on producing this attrac- 
tive and eminently useful handbook. 

Philip S. Corbet 

Entomology Research Institute 
Canada Department of Agriculture 
Ottawa, Ontario 

Investigations in the Natural History 
[Floristics and Geo-morphology] of the 
Soviet Far East [Kamtchatka] Issledovanie 
prirody dal'nego vostoka') 

E. Parmasto, Editor. A collection of papers 
published as No. 450 of the Academy of 
Sciences of the Estonian S.S.R., Tartu, 
1963. 1.54 rubles. 

The text is in Russian, but each paper 
is followed by a clear English summary, 
sufficiently detailed for evaluation of the 
work. The translated table of contents 
lists the following: 

Kaarel Orviku. On the IVLorphology of 
the Coast of Kronoki Bay (9 pp., 4 

A. V. Raukas. On the Geology of the 
Geyser Valley (17 pp., 6 photographs); 

A. Raik. On the Regime of Kamchatka 
Geysers (56 pp., 8 photographs); 

Kaarel Orviku & A. Raukas. Geyserites 
in the Geyser Valley, Kamchatka (15 

pp., 12 photographs); 

H. Trass. On the Vegetation around Hot 
Water Springs and Geysers of Geyser 
Valley, Kamchatka (34 pp., 7 photo- 

E. Kukk. On the Algal Flora of the Gey- 
ser Valley (12 pp., 30 species); 

H. Trass & E. Lellep. Floristical Notes 
from Kamchatka and the Island of 
Medny (9 pp., 112 species); 

H. Trass. On the Lichen Flora of Kam- 
chatka I. (50 pp., 218 species including 

1 sp, nov., 2 vars. nov., 8 f. nov., and 3 
comb, nov.; 9 figures of gross charac- 

E. Parmasto. On the Fungus Flora of 
Kamchatka (68 pp., 185 species includ- 
ing 3 sp. nov., 1 var. nov., 2 f. nov., 3 
comb, nov.); 7 photographs, 7 figures 
mainly of the spores of 7 species; 

T. Nikola) eva. The Hydnaceae in Kam- 
chatka and Kunashir (9 pp., 30 species, 

2 figures); 

A, Raitviir. List of Fungi belonging to 
the order Helotiales collected in Kam- 
chatka and Kunashir (5 pp., 18 species 
including 1 sp. nov., 1 comb, nov.); 

A. Raitviir. List of Dacrymycetales and 
Tremellales collected in Kamchatka 
and Kunashir (4 pp., 14 species). 

Four striking color reproductions of 
paintings from the area add to the ar- 
tistry of the book which is attractively 
designed and bound, legibly printed. For 
those of us completely unfamiliar with 
Kamchatka, and for all interested in 
floristics and especially for taxonomists in 
the groups covered, this book is an essen- 
tial addition to the scientific library and 
desirable in the personal library. 


Plant Research Institute 

Canada Department of Agriculture 



Changing Status of the Cowbird 
in Prince Edward Island 

Prior to 1960 the Eastern Cowbird, 
Molothrus ater ater (Boddaert), was re- 
corded from Prince Edward Island on 
but four occasions. Godfrey (1954, Na- 
tional Museum of Canada Bulletin 132: 
155-213) reported observations of three 
birds made in 1933 and 1947; and Mills 
(1957, Nova Scotia Museum of Science 
Newsletter 2(2): 25-27) recorded one 
bird each in 1953 and 1954, with evidence 
of breeding. Its status in Nova Scotia is 
given by Tufts (1962, Birds of Nova 
Scotia) as a rare summer resident until 
1950, then increasing as a permanent resi- 
dent seen more often in winter than in 

The writer first recorded the Cowbird 
through a reliable report from Bideford, 
Prince County, in the fall of 1960. On 
April 15, 1961, one male and one female 
were observed at Ellerslie, Prince 
County; and from April 16 to 29, eight 
birds remained in that district. None were 
seen again until October when several 
adults and juveniles, and a flock of about 
twenty-five were recorded from Ellerslie. 
On April 9, 1962, a few were seen among 
flocks of Starlings and Common Crackles 
which might have been female Cowbirds, 
but conditions were unfavourable for 

In 1963 the Cowbird was frequently 
observed. Fourteen birds representing 
both sexes were recorded from Ellerslie 
May 4-28. Thirteen juveniles, often ac- 
companied by Robins, Flickers, or Spar- 
rows, were seen in central Prince County 
during late July; and about sixty Cow- 
birds were recorded throughout August, 
mostly associated with other blackbirds 
foraging in meadows. In the period Sep- 
tember 2 3 -October 16 two flocks of 
about two hundred Cowbirds each, and 
about ten similar flocks of mixed Starlings 

and Cowbirds were observed. No para- 
sitized nests have yet been discovered. 

A small summer population may have 
existed here before 1960, for with few 
observers and an abundance of black- 
birds, the Cowbird could remain unde- 
tected for some time. However, no resi- 
dent has yet been encountered who had 
previously seen the bird. The Cowbirds 
seen among migrating flocks during late 
September, 1963, were probably from 
regions beyond the province, most local 
blackbirds having left by late August. 

Since about 1955 several species of 
birds apparently have extended their 
range into Prince Edward Island, or have 
become more numerous there. Unfor- 
tunately, the scarcity of observers here 
may result in these changes being inade- 
quately documented, as were avifaunal 
conditions in the past. 

Stanley E. Vass 

Ellerslie, P.E.I. 
4 November 1963 

Some Interesting Plants in the 
Barron Canyon in 
Algonquin Park 

In the course of visits to the canyon of 
the Barron River we have been delighted 
to discover several plants whose occur- 
rence was most unexpected. This part of 
the river, noted for its beauty, is ac- 
cessible only by canoe. The Barron River 
drains Grand Lake on the east side of 
Algonquin Park and joins the Petawawa 
River not far from its junction with the 
Ottawa. Judging from the vegetation, 
this area is similar to the general sur- 
rounding terrain in having the acid soil 
of the southern part of the Canadian 

During our first visit in October 1961 
we found that one of the rare rock 
cresses Arabis Holboellii Hornem. grew 
on exposed rock ledges. We had pre- 
viously seen it on the rocks of the lower 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

Barron and T. C. Brayshaw of the 
Petawawa Forest Experimental Station 
has found it nearby on the Ottawa River 
on the face of famous Oiseau Rock. 

Celastrus scmideiis L. was fairly com- 
mon on rock slides and of interest because 
it bore fruit. Scattered vines of bitter- 
sweet are well established at Des Joachim 
and Deep River but do not fruit as they 
do in the calcereous soil to the east. It 
has been suggested that both sexes may 
not have moved along together and I 
must check this. These localities are just 
beyond the limit of spread shown by 
Soper and Fleimburger (1961, 100 Shrubs 
of Ontario). 

In June of 1962 on the cool, shaded, 
north-east side we were excited to find 
Saxifraga aizoon Jacq. and one plant of 
the little spleenwort Asplenium tricho- 
manes L. That the occurrence here of 
the saxifrage is unusual may be inferred 
from the report of Soper and Maycock 
(1963, Canadian Journal of Botany 41 
(2): 183-198). On May 26 of the follow- 
ing year, much to our pleasure since it 
was a hot day, we encountered a fall of 
ice in this part of the canyon. 

Also on May 26, 1963 we found a 
colony of another rare crucifer Draba 
hirta L. (D. arabisans). A second dis- 
covery which defined identification was 
a unique, evergreen, dwarf shrub or tree 
about 30 inches tall sprawling at the base 
of a moss and lichen-covered rock slide. 
It would not appear to be a new species, 
but rather a mutant of some more com- 
mon plant as there are three forms of 
needles or branches. In appearance it is 
rather like a large Cassiope mertensiana 
(which of course it could not be, so far 
out of range) with a few branches of 
enlarged needles of Juniperus horizon- 
talis and a few more of /. communis. 
W. G. Dore, by sectioning a part of the 
stem, has established that it is a conifer 
of several years growth and it is said by 
C. Frankton to smell of cedar. 

Three more visits were made in 1963. 
In mid- June we located Dryopteris 
fragrans (L.) Schott var. remotiuscula 

Komarov. The presence on the Barron 
of this fern has been reported by T. C. 
Brayshaw who first discovered it there 
(In press, Canadian Field-Naturalist). 

In September, after examining many 
rock ferns, a small colony of the glandu- 
lar, jointless Woodsia cathcartiana Ro- 
bins, was found. B. Boivin who made the 
identification considers this to be a form 
of W. oregana. The plants were on a 
dry, exposed rock and earth face on the 
south-east side. A few more specimens of 
Asplenimn tricho^nanes were located. 
Several plants of Dryopteris fragrans 
were seen under a moist overhang beside 
the main waterfall and it was also ob- 
served on dry rock slides where little 
grew except this and the common Wood- 
sia ilvensis. D. fragrans is evidently fairly 
common in the canyon and also, we have 
observed, on the cliffs of the Mattawa 
River between Pimisi Bay and the Talon 
Chute. In addition to the plants found 
in the canyon, we have collected Cepha- 
lanthus occidentalis L. (button-bush), 
Acorus calaTfMs L. (sweet-flag) and the 
uncommon Viola primtdifolia L. along 
the shores of the Barron River. Ceanothus 
ovatus Desf. has been observed in the 
canyon and along the valleys of the Chalk 
and Petawawa rivers but not to the west. 

In conclusion it is noted that the Bar- 
ron and Petawawa Rivers are considered 
to have been part of an old drainage 
system between the Upper Great Lakes 
and the Champlain Sea which once filled 
the Ottawa valley. The plants may have 
arrived at this time, then become stranded 
in crevices of the cliffs where they found 
survival possible. Some of them are 
known to require lime in the soil. This 
region is underlain mainly by acid, 
granitic rocks and the occurrence of 
lime "would be unusual. However, it 
might occur in glacially transported soils 
or the plants may signify the presence of 
calcium bearing rocks such as the Gren- 
ville-type limestones known to occur 
nearby, or of other calcium-bearing 
rocks, such as amphibolite or other basic 
rocks, that occur within the complex of 




igneous and metamorphic rocks of the 
Canadian Shield. Whatever the reason, 
these unusual occurrences make the can- 
yon of the Barron River of considerable 
interest botanically. 

I wish to acknowledge the advice of 
the members of the Plant Research Insti- 
tute, Ottawa, mentioned above to whom 
specimens were submitted and of N. R. 
Gadd of the Geological Survey of 

Mary I. Moore 

6 Laurier Ave. 
Deep River, Ont. 
12 November 1963 

The Holotype of the FrankUn 
Grouse (Canachites franklinii) 

Stenhouse (1930, Novitates Zoologicae 
35:270-276) calls attention to the exis- 
tence in the Royal Scottish Museum, 
Edinburgh, of a specimen of Canachites 
franklinii, probably the type specimen. 
I have recently examined the specimen 
to determine any further details about it. 
The specimen is now catalogued as 
1930/183 in the museum, and bears two 
labels. One, evidently originally attached 
to the stand of the bird while it was on 
display as a mounted specimen, bears no 
data of significance except the written 
statement on the reverse "Exhibited 
Wemerian Society, 20.2.1830". The ink, 
and the position of this note relative to 
the position of the red "Type" label of 
recent origin, leads to the suspicion that 
even this note may have been applied 
recently. The data upon the museum 
label were evidently transcribed from the 
details contained in Douglas' diary, pub- 
lished in 1914. There would, therefore, 
be grave doubts about the authenticity 
of this specimen were it not for certain 
supporting details. In the first place the 
specimen was originally in the Edinburgh 
University collection, where it is known 
Douglas' specimens were deposited. More 
important, however, and apparently un- 
noticed heretofore, is that it agrees close- 
ly with the description by Douglas of the 

specimen collected by him on the west 
side of Athabasca Pass) now in British 
Columbia) upon May 1, 1827. 

As described (Douglas, 1914, Journal. 
London, p. 258) the bird taken was an 
adult male. It is further stated that: "This 
being the first I have seen, could not re- 
sist the temptation of preserving it, 
although mutilated in the legs." The 
specimen in the Royal Scottish Museum 
has had the right leg shattered just above 
the foot and the left foot almost removed, 
apparently by shot. There seems to me, 
therefore, to be little doubt that the 
specimen in the Royal Scottish Museum 
is in fact the one mentioned by Douglas. 

Later in his travels, Douglas mentions 
shooting other specimens. These -were 
taken in the eastern foothills of the 
Rocky Mountains, in an area that we now 
know to be inhabited only by Canachites 
canadensis or by a population showing 
intermediate characters. No mention is 
made of any specimens being preserved 
except for the one above mentioned. 

When Douglas prepared the original 
description of Canachites franklinii (1833, 
Transactions Linnaean Society of London 
16:139) he included an accurate account 
of its colour in every detail, except that 
he remarks in the English, but not in the 
Latin description, "Tail square . . . black, 
white at the points". The tail in franklinni 
is almost always completely black, as it is 
in the specimen here described. It is safe 
to assume that the statement was based 
on his memory of the other individuals 
shot in the foothills and believed by him 
to be the same as his first specimen. 
These eastern foothill birds do in fact 
have the tail tip yellowish brown or dirty 
white. The inadequate description of the 
female was also no doubt added from 
memory and without reference to a 
specimen. Another product of faulty 
memory is the statement in the original 
description that the flesh is white, where- 
as in his diary he records accurately that 
the flesh was dark. 

Although Douglas makes no specific 
mention of any specimen in his original 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

description, and thus designates no type 
specimen, his treatment, in prior position, 
of the male plumage in detail that was 
not merely extracted from his diary, 
leaves no doubt that he had a male speci- 
men before him. In my opinion the speci- 
men in question is the one now in the 
Royal Scottish Museum and, as the only 
specimen known to have been in the 
possession of the describer, can be re- 
garded as the holotype. The type locality 
then becomes Athabasca Pass, British 
Columbia, on the headwaters of the 
Canoe River. 

I. McT. Cowan 

Department of Zoology 
University of British Columbia 
Vancouver 8, B.C. 
18 November 1963 

Bushy-tailed Wood Rat in the 
Peace River District, Alberta 

The distribution of the bushy- tailed 
WOOD RAT, Neotoma cinerea druTmnondi 
(Richardson), is usually reported as in- 
cluding the Peace River district of 
British Columbia, without mention of the 
Alberta section (Rand, 1948, National 
Museum of Canada Bulletin 108:162-163; 
Hall and Kelson, 1959, The MamTnals of 
North America 2:704). 

Soper (1948, Journal of Mammalogy 
25:59) reported the species in the Wapiti 
River valley south of Wembley, Alberta. 
He was informed that it formerly oc- 
curred at Dunvegan, but had been re- 
cently exterminated. It seems desirable, 
therefore, to record a specimen in the 
National Museum of Canada from Dun- 
vegan, Alberta. The specimen (no. 
11513), a juvenile male, was taken by Dr. 
L. S. Russell on August 30, 1932, at his 
field camp on the banks of the Peace 
River just east of Dunvegan (Section 8, 
Township 80, Range 4, W.6). 

It appears that bushy-tailed wood rats 
(or pack rats), emigrated from the 
Rocky Mountains eastward down the 

river valleys into the Peace River District 
of north-western Alberta. 

A. W. F. Banfield 

National Museum of Canada 
Ottawa, Ontario 
10 December 1963 

The Stonecat, No turns flavus, 
Newly Recorded in Alberta 

Three specimens of the stonecat. No tu- 
rns flavus Rafinesque, were caught in the 
Milk River, about 18 miles west of Wild- 
horse, Alberta, on the night of June 19- 
20, 1962, by J. R. Nursall and R. C. B. 
Hartland-Rowe, who were participating 
in a faunal survey of the Milk River 
canyon for the University of Alberta. 

The party was stationed at the winter 
camp of George Ross, a rancher of the 
district; the fish were captured at the 
camp. The water was thick with sediment 
("milky") and the current was swift. 
At 9:00 a.m., June 19, 1963, the water 
temperature at the camp was 19.6°C, 
the pH 7.8. Conductivity of the water 
was about 200 micromhos. 

Seining was attempted in the river, 
but was of limited success, owing to tur- 
bulent water and a treacherous, shifting, 
sandy bottom. Only flathead chub, 
Hybopsis {Flaty gobio) gracilis (Richard- 
son), were taken by this method. Subse- 
quently, small traps were fabricated from 
window screening and wire, baited with 
hamburger and bacon and staked into 
the river. The stonecats and several flat- 
head chub were taken by this method. 

Seining in oxbows of the Milk River, 
about one mile east of the Ross camp, 
produced more flathead chub plus some 
specimens of the burbot. Lota lota (Lin- 
naeus), but no stonecats. Here also were 
found specimens of the Western Painted 
Turtle, Chrysemys picta belli Gray, as 
reported by Lewin (1963, Copeia (2): 

The specimens noted are deposited in 
the University of Alberta Museum of 
Zoology, Edmonton. Measurements on 
Noturus flavus are as follows: 























1 + 6 






1 + 6 






1 + 6 


W. B. Scott ( 1958, A Checklist of the 
Freshwater Fishes of Canada and Alaska, 
Royal Ontario Museum, p. 19) said that 
Noturus flavus "is to be expected in 
southern Canadian plains region, al- 
though no valid records exist". In the 
same place Scott throws doubt on the 
record of Bissett (1927, Canadian Field- 
Naturalist 41(6) : 127-128) of Noturus 
flavus in Manitoba. Hinks (1943, The 
Fishes of Manitoba, Manitoba Depart- 
ment of Mines and Natural Resources, 
102 pp.) mentioned only Bissett's (1927) 
record and stated that "the record needs 
confirmation" (p. 62). 

Rostlund (1952, University of Cali- 
fornia Publications in Geography, 9, p. 
274) published a range map for Noturus 
flavus, showing it in the South Saskatche- 
wan River drainage of the southeast cor- 
ner of Alberta, and the Assiniboine — 
Red River drainage of Manitoba, with a 
doubtful distribution between these 
across southern Saskatchewan. The Mani- 
toba record was based on Hubbs and 
Lagler (1947, Fishes of the Great Lakes 
Region, Cranbrook Institute of Science, 
Bulletin 26, p. 72), which was based on 
Bisset (1927). The Alberta record was 
from Eigenmann (1895, Bulletin of the 
U.S. Fish Commission 14: 101-132), who 
stated (p. 107) that "A number of speci- 
mens of this species (150 to 250 mm. 
long) were obtained with hook and line 
at night in the Missouri River at Craig, 

Mont. They were [also] reported to me 
at Medicine Hat, but I did not procure 
any specimens at that place." It seems 
probable to us that verbal accounts of 
the stonecat from Medicine Hat would 
refer to specimens taken in the Milk 
River or its tributaries, which lie about 
60 miles south of that city. Eigenmann 
himself (1895 p. 119) lists Noturus flavus 
only for the Missouri River system. 

The species was not listed by Rawson 
(1949, A Check List of the Fishes of 
Saskatcheivan, Royal Commission of the 
Fisheries of Saskatchewan, Saskatche- 
wan Department of National Resources 
and Industrial Development, 8 pp.). F. 
M. Atton (pers. comm.) states that no 
specimens have been collected in Saskat- 

The Milk River is tributary to the Mis- 
souri River. The stonecat is found in 
the upper tributaries of this system (e.g., 
Simon, 1946, Wyoming Fishes, Bulletin 
4, Wyoming Game and Fish Department, 
pp. 94-95; Brown, 1962, Proceedings of 
the Montana Academy of Science 22, 
pp. 21-26). Mr. W. Alvord (Chief of 
Fisheries Management, State of Montana 
Department of Fish and Game) further 
informs us (pers. comm.) that this spec- 
ies has been recovered from the Milk 
River within Montana. 

j. r. nursall, 
Victor Lewin 

Department of Zoology 
University of Alberta 
Edmonton, Alberta 
13 November 1963 


During early July, 1962, my family and 
I spent seven days exploring Churchill, 
Manitoba, and environs. Through the 
courtesy of Mr. and Mrs. Irwin Smith 
and mutual use of their truck and canoe, 
we were able to range as far as Twin 
Lakes in one direction and Button Bay 
in another. The Smiths have a deep love 
and respect for the North and its native 
peoples, plants and animals. Mr. Smith 
("Windy") has background experiences 
in the North worthy of documentation. 
The Smiths have been gracious hosts to 
many amateur and professional natura- 

In spite of several cold, rainy days and 
hordes of mosquitoes on two sunny days, 
we soaked up the magnificence of tundra 
and forest edge and the great Churchill 
River and Hudson Bay. 

Our first impressions of Churchill's 
richness of nature came from the displays 
of native flowers. The natural lavish 
gardens were a dramatic contrast to the 
rawness of man-made disturbances of the 
land and the careless disposal of all sorts 
of junk. Here is a frontier town and a 
seaport with its share of Indians and 
Eskimos, already or fast becoming human 
derelicts. All too well and woefully illus- 
trated in Churchill are the almost insane 
and depraved manners in which "civil- 
ized" peoples can slash into and depre- 
ciate the native beauty of a countryside 
and can disturb the integrity of Indians 
and Eskimos. 

Within a few hours of beating around 
Churchill— its truly wonderful "Town 
Slough", river front and great coastal 
rocks, pools, pockets of soil and cobble 

and sand beaches — the thought that 
Churchill could be a place of great 
natural beauty began to gnaw away 
within our reflections. We discovered a 
few town's people who resented the 
rough manner in which developers of all 
sorts, including the armed forces, had 
treated the area. 

Many naturalists have gone to Churchill 
and tourist excursions are made periodic- 
ally by train each summer. Yet no one to 
our knowledge has come out strongly 
with a proposal that Churchill is worthy 
of careful planning with a major goal of 
preserving its natural beauty and wealth 
of flora and fauna. While there we wit- 
nessed three white town boys shooting 
down Parasitic Jaegers. Some of the 
most beautiful natural gardens and parts 
of the Town Slough were being used as 
dumping grounds. 

More seriously, we were deeply dis- 
turbed by maladjustments obviously 
existing among the whites, Indians and 
Eskimos who make up permanent and 
drifting populations of the area. 

There is great challenge all through 
Canada's North for better planning of 
towns and for development premised in 
large part on preservation of natural 
beauty of the land and integrity of 
Indians and Eskimos. 

Admittedly these observations made 
by my family and me are sketchy and 
limited, but we believe they are of import 
and worthy of reporting. 

Douglas E. Wade 

Northern Illinois University 
Lorado Taft Field Campus 
Oregon, Illinois 
28 March, 1964. 



Edmonton Bird Club 

President, H. J. MohnrcoMERY; Vice-President, 
Dr. V. E. Lewin; Secretary-Treasurer, Dr. W. G. 
Evans, Department of Entomology, University of 
Alberta, Edmonton, Alta.; Field Secretary, Dr. 
R. W. TxmNER; Librarian, D. A. Boag; Audubon 
Representative, B. Sparks. 

Mcllwraith Ornithological Club 

President, W. R. Jarmain; Past President, Dr. 
F. S. CooK; Vice-President, Dr. G. Cummings; 
Recording Secretary, Mrs. G. A. MacDougall; 
Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. A. M. Coote, 644 
Base Line Rd., London, Ontario; Treasurer, Mrs. 
H. J. Wheaton; Migration Secretary, J. W. Leach-, 
Migration Editor, W. G. Girling. 

Natural History Society of Manitoba 

President, Miss J. M. Waiter; Honorary Presi- 
dent, A. H. Shortt; Honorary Vice-President, E. 
Gilbert; Past President, G. S. Cotter; Vice-Presi- 
dent, Dr. L. Smith; Treasurer, W. D. Kyle; 
Assistant Treasurer, J. Jack; General Secretary, 
Mrs. a. E. Axcell, 310 Linwood St., St. James, 
Manitoba; Assistant Secretary, Miss R. McGregor; 
Mailing Secretary, Miss L. M. Lovell; Executive 
Secretary, Mrs. G. Keith. 

Nova Scotia Bird Society 

President, Dr. L. B. Macpherson; Vice-President, 
Mrs. Victor Carooza; Secretary -Treasurer, Miss 
Sylvia J. Fullerton, 1051 Lucknow St., Halifax, 
N.S.; Editor, Mrs. J. W. Dobson. 

Provancher Society of Natural History 
of Canada 

President, Ronald E. Blair; First Vice-President, 
Benoit Pelletier. Second Vice-President, James P. 
Coristine; Secretary-Treasurer, Georges A. Le- 
clerc, 628 Eraser St., Quebec, Que. 

Province of Quebec Society for the 
Protection of Birds 

President, Mrs. G. H. Montgomery; Vice- 
Presidents, Dr. Ian McLaren, Miss R. B. Blan- 
chard; Honorary Treasurer, Miss G. E. Hibbard; 
Honorary Secretary, Miss R. S. Abbott, 164 Sen- 
neville Road, Senneville, P.Q.; Honorary Librari- 
an, Mr. W. H. Rawlings. 

Toronto Field Naturalists' Club 

President, Dr. D. Hoeniger; Vice-President, 
R. F. Norman; Secretary-Treasurer, Mrs. H. Rob- 
son, 49 Craighurst Ave., Toronto 12, Ont.; As- 
sistant Secretary, Miss Rirra Marshall; Junior 
T.F.N.C., R. J. MacLellan, 416 St. Clements Ave., 
Toronto 12, Ont. 

Vancouver Natural History Society 

Honorary President, Dr. M. Y. Williams; Past 
President, Dr. R. Stace-Smith; President Dr. J. E. 
Armstrong; Vice-President, N. F. Piillen; Corres- 
ponding Secretary, Mrs. D. J. Martin, 2038 Mac- 
donald St., Vancouver, B.C.; Treasurer, Mrs. E. N. 
Copping; Programme Secretaries, Miss R. Ross, 
Mrs. H. Pinder-Moss; Editor of Bulletin, C. B. W. 
Rogers; Recording Secretary, Miss K. Milroy. 


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The Canadian Field-Naturalist 
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Central Experimental Farm 
Ottawa, Canada 


DEC 2 9 136'^ 




Published by THE OTTAWA FIELD-NATURALISTS' CLUB, Ottawa, Ontario 


William Copeland McCalla — An Appreciation A. E. Porsild 1 3 1 

Plant Collections from Carswell Lake and Beartooth Island, Northwestern 

Saskatchewan, Canada George W. Argus 139 

Some Interesting Plant Records from the Chalk River District, Ontario 

T. C. Brayshaw 150 
Notes on the Amphibians of Browns Flat Area, New Brunswick 

Stanley W. Gorham 154 
The Rock Ptarmigan, Lagopus mutus rupestris in Ontario and Manitoba 

Harry G. Lumsden 161 
Fish Collections from Eastern Hudson Bay D. E. McAllister 167 

The Food Habits of the Red-winged Blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus, in Manitoba 

Ralph D. Bird and Lawrie B. Smith 179 
Additional Records and a Correction of the Type Locality for the Boreal 

Chorus Frog in Northwestern Ontario Francis R. Cook 186 

Reviews 193 

The Last Horizon — Where is that Vanished Bird? — Fishes of the Western North Atlantic — 
Fish and Wildlife, A Memorial to W. J. K. Harkness — Rowan Field Notes: A Review — 
Other New Tides. 


Occurrence of Some Small Mammals in Southwestern Ontario Charles A. Long 197 

Black Duck Breeding Record for Alberta William G. Leitch 199 

Piping Plover in Ottawa, Ontario A. E. Bourguignon 199 

Two Interior British Columbia Records for the Ancient Murrelet Walter B, Johnstone 199 

A Probable Breeding Record of the Bobolink at Vermilion, Alberta James K. Lowther 200 

Harris' Sparrow in Quebec James K. Lowther 200 

Additional Specimens of the Small-mouthed Salamander from Pelee Island, Ontario 

Francis R. Cook 201 
Nest-Site Competition between Bufflehead, Mountain Bluebird and Tree Swallow 

A. J. Erskine 202 
Notes on Townsend's Solitaire in ^Vestern Chilcotin District, British Columbia 

W. Adrian B. Paul 203 

Notes on the Birds of Riding Mountain National Park, Manitoba Donald A. Blood 204 

Letter to the Editor 206 

Can. Field Nat. Vol. 78 

No. 3 

p. 131-206 

Ottawa, July-September 1964 


Founded in 1879 

— Fatrons — 
Their Excellencies The Governor General and Madame Vanier 

The objects of the club are to foster an acquaintance with and a love of nature, to 
encourage investigation and to publish the results of original research and observations 
in all branches of natural history. 

The club is a corporate member of the Federation of Ontario Naturalists and is 
affiliated with the American Association for the Advancement of Science. 


President: George H. McGee, 2052 Woodcrest Road, Ottawa 8, Ontario 

First Vice-President: W. Winston Mair 

Second Vice-President: G. R. Hanes 

Secretary: A. W. Rathwell, Canadian Wildlife Service, Norlite Building, 

150 Wellington St., Ottawa 4, Ontario 
Treasurer: Miss Anne Banning, Box 4099, Postal Station E, Ottawa, Ontario 
Additional Members of Council: Mrs. F. R. Cook, Miss L. Kingston, Mrs. D. A. Smith, 
Miss M. Stuart; Messrs. W. K. W. Baldwin, A. W. F. Banfield, D. R. Beckett, E. L. 
Bousfield, C. G. Champ, A. H. Clarke, Jr., W. J. Cody, F. R. Cook, R. Frith, J. M. 
GiLLETT, H. Groh, J. W. Groves, D. D. Hogarth, P. H. Jones, E. L. Leese, H. Lloyd, 
H. N. Mackenzie, A. E. Porsild, F. H. Schultz, K. R. Scobie, D. A. Smith, V. E. F. 
SoLMAN and G. Tessier. 
Auditors: J. M. Gillett and R. J. Moore 


Editor: Francis R. Cook Business Manager: W. J. Cody 

National Museum of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Ont. 

Associate Editors: F. J. Alcock (Geology), John W. Arnold (Entomology), W. A. Bell 
(Paleontology), J. Sherman Bleakney (Herpetology), Arthur H. Clarke, Jr. 
(Malacology), Willlvm G. Dore (Botany), J. R. Dymond (Ichthyology), W. Earl 
Godfrey (Ornithology), A. G. Huntsman (Marine Biology), Phillip M. Youngman 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist is published quarterly by the Ottawa Field-Naturalists' 
Qub with assistance of the affiliated societies listed on the inside back cover. Manuscripts 
representing personal observations or the results of original research in any branch of na- 
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The Canadian Field-Naturalist ^^^ 2 9 1964 

Volume 78 JULY-SEPTEMBER 1964 Number 3 


National Museum of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario 

William Copeland AicCalla, normal school teacher and internationally 
known amateur botanist, was born on November 8, 1872, at St. Catharines, 
Ontario, and died at Calgary, Alberta, on August 22, 1962. He grew up in St. 
Catharines where he received his early education; in the early 1890's he went 
to Cornell University but, unfortunately, had to discontinue his studies owing 
to indifferent health and eye troubles. However, he was at Cornell long 
enough to come under the lasting influence of Dr. L. H. Bailey and Dr. 
K. M. Wiegand. 

McCalla had been interested in plants from early childhood and in his teens 
took care of the plants in his father's conservatory at St. Catharines; about this 
time he also became deeply interested in photography. In the summer of 1899 
he made his first botanical collecting trip which took him to Banff in the 
Canadian Rockies. Among the plants brought back were many not previously 
known from Alberta and even some that proved undescribed. A distinctive 
western willow, a tiny purple Primula and a western Draba were named for 
McCalla by the specialists who described and recorded them as new to Science. 

For some years McCalla operated "Sunny Acres" fruit farm now a part 
of the city of St. Catharines. A victim of asthma, he was advised to leave 
Ontario and in 1913 moved with his family to Edmonton where for one year 
be became a partner in a construction firm that disappeared with the bursting 
of the great building boom. In 1914 he bought a farm near Bremner, 13 miles 
east of Edmonton. For some years he was free of asthma, but soon his health 
forced him to abandon farming. In 1922 he joined the staff of the Edmonton 
Normal School as librarian, and later as a teacher of Nature Study. In 1925 
he moved to Calgary where he taught Natural History at the Normal School 
until he retired in 1938. During these years hundreds of student teachers had 
the stimulating experience of field trips with him and of examining his Natural 
History specimens and photographs. For teaching purposes McCalla made 
nearly 1000 hand-coloured lantern slides of plants and animals. Many of these 
are now in the Department of Botany of the University of Alberta at Calgary, 
or in the Department of Entomology at Edmonton. 

Following his retirement McCalla was able to devote an increasing part 
of his free time to botanical studies, plant photography, and to extended field 
trips from Canada's western prairies to the coast of British Columbia, south 

Mailing date of this number: 23 December, 1964 




The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

Figure 1. William Copeland McCalla. 


Porsild: William Copeland McCalla 


Figure 2. Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga taxifolia) on steep bank above Bow River Falls, 
Banff, Alberta. 

134 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

through the western States to the Mexican border. On all these he was 
accompanied by Mrs. McCalla who took a devoted and active interest in his 
work; she was also an experienced camper and, besides cooking, kept notes and 
records for her husband. On most of these trips they carried camping equip- 
ment so as to be independent of commercial hostelries. Once, when revisiting 
the habitat of a rare plant, they camped near it for an entire week, until 
conditions were suitable for obtaining the photographs they had come there to 
make. This was before the coming of dependable light meters, electronic 
flashlights and miniature cameras, when the field photographer had to carry a 
portable dark-room for reloading his plate holders and for making test develop- 
ments of negatives. 

During these field trips McCalla kept adding to his growing herbarium in 
which he invariably deposited "voucher specimens" of all plants photographed. 
The winters following the field trips were spent developing and printing his 
negatives and in the study and classification of plant specimens. 

Widely recognized as an authority on the flora of Alberta, A4cCalla corres- 
ponded and exchanged plants with many Canadian and foreign botanists, giving 
freely of his time and personal observations. Many thousands of duplicates, 
often of rare or little known western plants, were presented to the herbaria of 
the National Museum of Canada at Ottawa, the Royal Botanical Gardens at 
Kew, England, the New York Botanical Garden, and the University of British 
Columbia. In 1960 McCalla presented his entire herbarium, numbering about 
14,000 sheets, to the University of Alberta, Edmonton, together with the 
negatives of his plant photographs. In the collecting and preparation of 
botanical specimens McCalla devoted meticulous care and thought, and those 
selected for his own herbarium, all carefully annotated, were of such exceptional 
perfection and beauty as is rarely attainable in standard herbarium practice. 

During seven field seasons in the Canadian Rockies I was often a guest in 
the hospitable McCalla residence on the North Hill in Calgary when evenings 
were spent examining specimens in McCalla's herbarium or in viewing selections 
from his large collection of exquisite colour transparencies or of black and 
white prints of wild flowers. A selection of 1411 enlarged wildflower photo- 
graphs, including many of landscapes and plant habitats, all carefully labelled 
and mounted in 25 large albums. Dr. McCalla presented to the National Museum 
of Canada. In a letter dated February 14, 1959, he wrote about these: 

"I have considered the matter and have come to the conclusion that nothing 
could give me the same satisfaction as to present as a gift the 25 albums, 
containing all 1411 photographic prints, to the National Museum of Canada. 

"These photographs were taken over a long period of time and under all 
kinds of conditions; there were frequent difficulties, I often breathed something 
like a prayer that I might be able to do justice to the beauty of Nature in front 
of the camera. 

"I had no thought of the financial value of what 1 was doing. The work 
was fascinating, challenging, sometimes disappointing, often rewarding— a grand 


PoRsiLD: William Copeland McCalla 


Figure 3. Western Flowering Dogwood (Comus Nuttallii) near Victoria, B.C. 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

Figure 4. Western Flowering Dogwood, | natural size. 

Figure 5. Flowering Bunchberry {Comus canadensis) , 


Porsild: William Copeland McCalla 


Figure 6. Flowering Bitter-root (Le%visia rediviva) near Cranbrook, B.C. i natural size. 

Figure 7. Pasque-flower or Prairie Crocus {Pulsatilla Ludoviciana) , near Calgary, Alberta. 
I natural size. 

138 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

avocation adding to the interest and joy of life. I am happy to have so many 
of them go to the National Museum where they will be useful and be given 
good care". 

The 25 albums of photographs are now in the National Museum of Canada 
where they will long remain an invaluable research tool and a lasting source of 
botanical information and aesthetic pleasure. The six plant portraits illustrating 
this article are truly representative of Dr. McCalla's photographic skill. 

To the hundreds of student teachers who attended his classes and examined 
his biological specimens or photographs, and to the many who from time to time 
were able to accompany McCalla in the field, the association with this gifted 
and knowledgeable student of Nature must have been truly inspiring. Several 
distinguished Canadian biologists have acknowledged their indebtedness to him 
for their initial interest in Nature and its many wonders. 

In his teaching, and not least in his private herbarium, now in the Univer- 
sity at Edmonton, in the thousands of duplicated specimens distributed to other 
herbaria and in the truly unique collection of photographs presented to the 
National Museum of Canada, McCalla has left an invaluable heritage to the 
botanical science, and a great monument to one of the ablest and yet most 
modest of Canadian botanists. It is most appropriate that the University of 
Alberta, in 1956, saw fit to confer upon William Copeland McCalla the degree 
of Doctor of Laws, Honoris Causa. 


The Kitchener- Waterloo Field-Naturalists' Club has collected and 
tabulated results of the 1963 Christmas Bird Counts from 26 clubs in 
Ontario. The tabulated data is contained on a single sheet 11 x 17 
inches. Photostatic copies of this interesting data can be obtained 
from F. W. Cooper, President, K.-W. Field-Naturalist' Club, 317 
Highland Road East, Kitchener, Ontario. The price is 25 cents 
per copy. 

It is interesting to note that a total of 133 species and 175,000 in- 
dividuals were reported by the participating clubs. 




George W. Argus 
W. P. Fraser Herbarium, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada 

The flora and vegetation of northern Saskatchewan is known primarily 
from the collections and publications of Professor Hugh M. Raup (1936, 1946) 
who explored the Saskatchewan portion of the Lake Athabasca region in 1935. 
Other collections from this area have been made by J. B. Tyrrell in 1892 and 
1893 (Tyrrell and Dowling, 1896), and more recently by Scotter (Scotter, 
1961; Thompson and Scotter, 1961) in the Black Lake region east of Lake 
Athabasca. Collections of bryophytes made by Mr. M. Welsh in northern 
Saskatchewan are included in Conard's list (1957). The Alberta section of 
Lake Athabasca is better known botanically than the Saskatchewan section and 
several expeditions were made in northeastern Alberta by H. Raup (1936) and 
Lucy Raup, who concentrated on the lichens (1928, 1930). More recently 
collections by Cody ( 1956) have added to the knowledge of the flora of Alberta. 
However, northwestern Saskatchewan has been infrequently visited by botanists 
and most collections are from the shores of Lake Athabasca, with the exception 
of Scotter's work in the Black Lake region. Prior to this study the vast inland 
sedimentary region south of Lake Athabasca was unknown botanically. 

During the summer of 1962 two locahties in the Lake Athabasca region of 
northwestern Saskatchewan were visited: Carswell Lake and Beartooth Island. 
These localities were visited as an incidental part of studies in the sand dune 
region on the south shore of Lake Athabasca. The time spent at each locality 
was short, three days at Carswell Lake (July 12-14) and two days on Beartooth 
Island (July 15 and 16), and the total number of collections small; however 
they have proved to be of floristic importance. 

The Carswell Lake region was of particular interest because of the 
anomalous limestone outcrops in this area and the promise that species unknown 
in the surrounding region may occur here. The sand blowouts on Beartooth 
Island led us to suspect that the island may support an unusual flora similar to 
that of the sand dunes on the south shore of the lake only 14 miles away. 
However, the flora of Beartooth Island proved to be like that of the north shore 
of Lake Athabasca and contained none of the endemics known from the south 
shore (cf. H. Raup, 1936). 

The 143 taxa listed here only represent a sample of the flora. For the area 
explored was small, many common species were not collected due to the press 
of time, and the mosses and lichens were only incidentally collected. However, 
of the total, 34 taxa are new to northern Saskatchewan, of which two vascular 
plants, 11 bryophytes, and three lichens are new to the province; 11 taxa are 
new to northwestern Saskatchewan but have been known from adjacent 
Alberta; and 33 taxa were previously uncollected from the south side of Lake 


140 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

The field research was supported by the Institute for Northern Studies, 
University of Saskatchewan, during my tenure as a National Research Council 
of Canada Postdoctorate Fellow. My field companion on the expedition was 
Dr. Robert Nero, ornithologist, University of Saskatchewan, Regina Campus. 
Dr. Nero (1963) has published an account of the ornithology of the Lake 
Athabaska region. At Carswell Lake we had the good fortune to accompany 
a party of geologists including Professor F. Edmunds and Mr. L. Beck and 
party. My appreciation is extended to the specialists who identified or verified 
specimens in certain difficult groups and to Dr. Dix for reading the manuscript 
and helpful suggestions, 

Carswell Lake 

Carswell Lake (locally known as Trout Lake) is located about 22 miles 
east of the provincial boundary and 32 miles south of Lake Athabasca (lat. 
58° 35' N., long. 109° 25' W.). The region south of Lake Athabasca is under- 
lain by sandstone of the Athabaska formation (Tyrrell and Dowhng, 1896). 
Rising out of the gently rolling terrain are a series of limestone escarpments 
produced by six ridges of fine-grained, highly folded and metamorphosed 
limestone extending in an arc westward from the southwestern end of Carswell 
Lake (Blake, 1956). Blake reports that this rock is unknown in the region 
north and immediately south of Lake Athabasca. Our camp was located near 
the lake at the foot of a cliff marking the edge of one of these ridges. Botanical 
exploration was mainly carried out in the limestone area. 

The vegetation in the vicinity of the limestone ridges is predominantly 
open Finus banksiana woods on the uplands and Picea mariana, Larix laricina 
muskeg on the lowlands. At the base of the cliffs are mixed Fmus banksia?ia, 
Populas tremuloides woods associated with the shrubs, Cornus alba ssp. 
stolonifera, Amelanchier alnifolia, and Prufius virginiana. Woods of Picea 
glauca are rare and only two small stands of that species were observed. The 
dry south-facing cliffs and the drier portions of the ridge tops support a 
xerophytic vegetation including Juniperus cofmnimis, J. horizontalis, Saxifraga 
tricuspidata, Erigeron compositus, et al. The limestone cliffs also support some 
taxa apparently confined to calcareous rocks in northern Saskatchewan, includ- 
ing Pellaea glabella var. occideiitalis and Draba cinerea. A wet limestone cliff 
over which water was falling contained an interesting assemblage of plants 
including Dryas dru?mnondii, Selaginella selaginoides, Anemone parviflora, 
Carex leptalea and the mosses Cinclidium stygium and Bryum pseudotriquetrmn. 

Beartooth Island 

Beartooth Island is a small sandy-gravel island about three-quarters of a mile 
long and one-half of a mile wide. It lies near the center of Lake Athabasca about 
eleven miles east of the provincial boundary. The island consists of sand 
overlying sandstone boulders and stones, and although it is mapped geologically 
as Athabasca sandstone no bedrock outcrops were observed. 

In the recent past Beartooth Island apparently supported well developed 
forests of Picea glauca and Betula papyrifera and the island was passed longingly 


Argus: Collections From NVV Saskatchewan 



Figure 1. Map of northwestern Saskatchewan. 

by the biologist F. Harper in 1914 and 1920 (pers. corres. cited by Nero, 1963). 
However, extensive cutting, presumably for use on wood burning vessels 
plying the lake, and a major fire about 25 to 30 years ago has changed the 
aspect of the vegetation considerably. The island now is predominantly sand 
blowouts and burn regeneration. Only two relatively undisturbed stands of 
Picea glauca Avoods and Picea fnariana muskeg occur on the island. Some 
indication of the age and development of the former Picea glauca woods is given 

142 The Canadian Field-Naturalist V^ol. 78 

by cut stumps on the eastern side of the island which are 8 to 18 inches in 
diameter at 3 feet above the ground and 115 to 125 years old. 

The blowouts are active although partly stabilized by mats of Empetrum 
hemtaphroditmn, tufts of Festuca saximontana and Poa glauca, and scattered 
individuals of Ficea glauca and Finns banksiana. Ficea glo'uca saplings in some 
blowouts were determined to be 17 to 21 years old, and a Flmis banksia?ta 
sapling was seventeen years old. In burns that did not blowout woody species 
are well established and the vegetation contains saplings of Ficea glauca and 
Fifius banksiana associated with a mixed shrub cover of Ledum groenlandicu?n 
and occasional Frunus peimsylvanica. The gravel beach surrounding the island 
is open and the sandstone cobbles and boulders are lichen covered. The older 
beach levels are vegetated by shrubs including Ribes glandulosum, Frimus 
pennsy Ivajjica, Sorbus scopidina, Rubus strigosus var. canadensis, Salix bebbiana, 
and S. planifolia. At one point on the shore shrubby specimens of Fopidus 
balsamijera were noted growing on a submerged stony beach. 

An Annotated List of Plants 

A complete set of specimens is deposited in the W. P. Eraser Herbarium, 
University of Saskatchewan. A second set of the vascular plants has been sent 
to the Department of Agriculture Herbarium, Ottawa. A duplicate set of 
mosses are in the Herbarium, National Museum of Canada, and a second set of 
lichens are in the United States National Herbarium, Washington, D.C. 

All specimens were identified by the author with the exception of the 
Polypodiaceae, Musci, and Lichenes which were determined by Drs. R. and A. 
Try on, H. Crum, and iVI. Hale respectively. Several other groups were verified 
or determined by specialists as indicated. 

Three symbols are used to indicate species of particular distributional 
importance: (NS) indicates taxa new to the flora of northern Saskatchewan, 
(A-NS) indicates taxa new to northwestern Saskatchewan but known from 
adajcent Alberta, and (LA-S) indicates taxa known from Lake Athabaska but 
new to the sedimentary region south of the lake. Taxa observed, but not 
collected, are cited. 

The collection numbers cited in this paper are those of the author. 


EQuiSETACEAE L. obscuTuin L. var. dendroidewn (Michx.) 

Equisetmn arveiise L. D. C. Eaton 

Carswell L.: on sandy lake shore, 609-62. Beartooth I.: with the preceding, 641-62. 

E. fiuviatile L. L. tristachywu Pursh 

Carswell L.: emergent aquatic on lake Beartooth I.: with the preceding, 640-62. 

shore, 612-62. 

E, ' , T ^ ,v INC selaginellaceae 

E.hyemale L. ssp. affine (tngelm.) Stone Selaginella rupestris (L.) Spreng 


Carswell L.: growing on open sand in 

Carswell L.: on sandv lake shore, 606-62. r,- , r • " ^ j ^u u £ i-~ 

■' ' Ptnus banksiana woods near the base of lime- 

lycopodiaceae stone cliff, rare, 591-62. 

Lycopodium annotinum L. var. annotinmn S. selaginoides (L.) Link (A-NS) 

Beartooth I.: in Picea glauca burn regener- Carswell L.: in wet sandy soil at edge of 

ation, 639-62. Carex meadow, 538-62; in moss mat on wet 


Argus: Collections From NW Saskatchewan 


limestone cliff near waterfall, associated with 
Bryum pseudotriquetrum, Ccimpylium stel- 
latum, and Cinclidimn stygiufn, 57S-62C. 


Determined by Drs. R. and A. Tryon 
Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bemh. (LA-S) 

Carswell L.: in crevices in limestone boul- 
der at base of cliff, 542-62, 546-62. 
Pellaea glabella Mett. ex Kuhn var. occiden- 

talis (E. Nels.) Butters (LA-S) 

Carswell L.: abundant in crevices in south- 
facing limestone cliff, 482-62, 591-62. The 
species was cited by H. Raup (1936) from 
the dolomite hills at Cornwall Bay on the 
north shore of Lake Athabasca. He noted 
that it seems to be confined to limestone or 
dolomitic rocks. 
Woodsia glabella R. Br. (LA-S) 

Carswell L.: in crevices in limestone boul- 
ders at base of chff, 541-62, 598-62. Known 
previously from one locality on the north 
shore of Lake Athabasca (H. Raup, 1936). 
This species may also be restricted to cal- 
careous habitats. 


Juniperus conmiunis L. var. depressa Pursh 

CarsweU L.: abundant on dry south-facing 
limestone cliffs, 495-62. 
J. horizontalis Moench (LA-S) 

Carswell L.: common on dry south-facing 
limestone cliffs, 496-62. 
Larix laricina (DuRoi) K. Koch 

Observed at Carswell Lake in muskegs 
associated with Ficea mariana. 
Picea glauca (Moench) Voss 

Observed infrequently at Carswell Lake, 
but the most abundant conifer on Beartooth 
P. mariana (Mill.) B. S. P. 

Observed in muskegs at Carswell Lake and 
Beartooth Island, uncommon at the latter 
Pinus banksiana Lamb. 

Carswell L.: on a sandy ridge near lime- 
stone cliff, associated with a sparse ground 
flora including Vaccinium myrtilloides and 
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, 515-62. Observed 
to occur in blowouts and burn regeneration 
on Beartooth Island. 


Typha latifolia L. (A-NS) 

Carswell L.: emergent aquatic on lake 
shore, 622-62. 


Potaniogeton filijormis Pers. var. borealis 

(Raf.) St. John (A-NS) 

Carswell L.: aquatic in lake, water 2 to 3 
feet deep, sand bottom, 624-62. 
P. graTnineus L. 

Carswell L.: aquatic, with the above, 


Determined or verified by Dr. W. Dore 

Cala?nagrostis canadensis (Michx.) Beauv. 

Carswell L.: uncommon in Picea glauca 
woods, 610-62. 
C. purpurascens R. Br. (LA-S) 

Carswell L.: in PiTms banksiana woods on 
limestone ridge, 545-62; common on dry 
face of limestone cliff, 490-62. 
Elymus innovatus Beal (NS) 

Carswell L.: in Pinus banksiana woods on 
limestone ridge, 544-62. Known previously 
from Ft. Smith and Calumet in northeastern 
Alberta but uncollected from western Lake 
Athabasca (H. Raup, 1936). Known in 
Saskatchewan from Methye Portage south- 
west of Cree Lake. 
Festuca saxi?nonta?ia Rydb. 

Carswell L.: in Pinus banksiana woods on 
limestone ridge, 480-62; sandy lake shore, 
605-62; Beartooth I: in partly stabilized sand 
blowout, 644-62; in burn regeneration, 642- 
62; on old gravel beach, 634-62. 
Poa glauca Vahl 

Carswell L.: on dry south-facing limestone 
cliff, 485-62; on sandy lake shore, 608-62. 
Beartooth I.: common on gravel beach, 
631-62, 633-62, 631-62; in partly stabihzed 
sand blowout, 645-62. 
P. pratensis L. 

Beartooth I.: on gravel beach, 632-62. 
P. interior Rydb. (LA-S) 

Carswell L.: on dry south -facing limestone 
cliff, 491-62. This species was not reported 
by H. Raup (1936) but it was collected at 
Ft. Smith by Cody (1956) and at Faraud and 
Dodge Lakes by Scotter (1961). The identity 
of this individual (491-62) was considered 
questionable by Dr. Dore; however, he 
noted, "some 'sprawly' cliff plants like this 
grow into P. interior in my garden!" 
Schizachne purpurascens (Torr.) Swallen 


Carswell L.: in Pinus banksiana woods on 
sand ridge, 558-62. 


Determined or verified by Dr. F. Hermann. 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

Car ex buxbaumia Wahl. 

Carswell L.: in Carex meadow at edge of 
pond, 559-62. 
C. capillaris L. ssp. chlorostachys (Stevens.) 

Love, et al. (C. capillaris var. elongata 

Olney) (LA-S) 

Carswell L.: on wet limestone cliflt near 
waterfall, 517-62, 51S-62. 
C. deflexa Hornem. 

Beartooth I.: forms small mats in bum 
regeneration on sandy soil, 638-62. 
C. disperma Wahl. (LA-S) 

Carswell L.: in wet Picea mariana, Salix 
spp. woods on limestone ridge, 584-62. 
C. eburnea Boott (LA-S) 

Carswell L.: on dry south-facing limestone 
cliflF, 493-62. Previously known from only 
one locality on the north shore of Lake 
Athabasca (H. Raup, 1936). 
C. foena Bailey (LA-S) 

Carswell L.: on sandy lake shore, 601-62. 
Collected previously by Scotter (1961) at 
Higginson Lake east of Lake Athabasca. 
C. interior Bailey (NS) 

Carswell L.: in Picea inariana, Larix lari- 
cina muskeg, 506-62. 
C. leptalea Wahl. (A-NS) 

Carswell L.: with the above, 505-62; on 
wet limestone cliff near waterfall, 512-62. 
C. rami Boott (NS) 

Carswell L.: on dry south-facing limestone 
cliff, 489-62. 
C. scirpoidea Wahl. (LA-S) 

Carswell L.: on edge of Carex meadow, 
associated with Carex buxbaumia and Anten- 
naria pulcherriina, 561-62. 
C. tonsa (Fern.) Bickn. 

Carswell L.: in Pinus banksiana woods on 
sandy limestone rubble, 461-62. 
Eriophorum viridicarinatum (Engelm.) Fern. 


Carswell L.: in Picea mariana muskeg, 

Jimcus balticus Willd. var. littoralis Engelm. 
Carswell L.: in Pinus banksiana woods on 
sand ridge, 541-62. 

Tofieldia glutinosa (Michx.) Pers. (NS) 

Carswell L.: in wet sandy soil at edge of 
Carex meadow, 536-62; in Picea tnariana 
muskeg, 511-62. Rare in northern Saskat- 
chewan and adjacent Alberta. Previously 
known only from the Wood Buffalo Park 
(H. Raup, 1935). 


Habenaria hyperborea (L.) R. Br. (LA-S) 

Carswell L.: in Picea mariana muskeg, 
512-62; in marsh at edge of pond, 615-62. 


Populus balsamifera L. 

Beartooth L: on submerged gravel beach, 
P. tre?mdoides Michx. 

Observed at Carswell Lake growing at the 
foot of limestone cliffs in association with 
Pinus banksiana. 
Salix bebbiana Sarg. 

Carswell L.: in Pinus banksiana woods on 
limestone ridge, 519-62, 520-62; in Picea 
mariana muskeg, 508-62. Beartooth I.: on old 
gravel beach, 628-62; on exposed gravel bar 
extending out from island, 636-62. This 
species occurs as shrubs 2 to 7 feet tall, on 
Beartooth Island decumbent specimens were 
noted. The decumbent specimen from Bear- 
tooth Island {636-62) is an unusual variant of 
5. bebbiana resembling material of the 
variety capreifolia Fernald from the Gaspe 
Peninsula, Quebec. Although considerable 
variation is expected in 5. bebbiana this speci- 
men with its long, elliptic to obovate leaves 
(6-7 cm. long) , densely tomentose immature 
leaves, prominent stipules (up to 10 mm. 
long), long pistillate aments (6-7 cm. long), 
and long capsules (9-11 mm. long) is alto- 
gether different from any material I have 
seen in western Canada. 
5. Candida Fluegge ex Willd. (NS) 

Carswell L.: locally common on the boggy 
margin of a pond, shrubs 5-8 feet tall, 516-62, 
523-62. The species is generally rare in 
northern Saskatchewan. 
S. myrtillijolia Anderss. (LA-S) 

Carswell L.: in Picea mariana muskeg, 
504-62; on wet limestone cliff near waterfall, 
S. pedicellaris Pursh (including var. hypo- 

glauca Fern.) 

Carswell L.: common in Picea mariana 
muskeg, 503-62, 510-62, 515-62. 
S. pedicellaris X S. planifolia (NS) 

Carswell L.: in Picea mariana muskeg, 
shrubs 1-3 feet tall, common, 498-62, 499-62, 
501-62, 502-62, 501-62, 514-62, 516-62, 522-62. 
This hybrid is common in muskegs in the 
boreal forest of Saskatchewan where the 
parental species occur in some abundance. 
A paper dealing with this hybrid and its 
possible connection with 5. athabascensis 
Raup is in preparation. 


Argus: Collections From NW Saskatchewan 


S. planifolia Pursh 

Carswell L.: common in Picea ?nariana 
muskeg, 4-5 feet tall, 500-62; shrub 12 feet 
tall, with the preceding, 509-62. Beartooth 
I.: on gravel beach, shrub 7 feet tall, 630-62. 
S. scouleriana Barr. 

Carswell L.: in Picea glauca woods, 611-62; 
on the edge of Piniis banksiana woods and a 
Picea mariana muskeg, 518-62. 
S. serissima (Bailey) Fern. (LA-S) 

Carswell L.: lake edge, rare, 604-62. Pre- 
viously known from one locality on the 
north shore of Lake Athabasca (H. Raup, 
1936) . Uncommon in northern Saskatchewan. 


Myrica gale L. 

Observed at Carswell Lake in a Picea 
mariana, Betula glandtilosa scrub on a boggy 
pond margin. 


Alnus crispa (Ait.) Pursh 

Carswell L.: in Pirrns banksiana woods on 
limestone ridge, 410-62. 
Betula glandulosa Michx. 

Carswell L.: on boggy pond margin, asso- 
ciated with Picea mariana, Myrica gale, 
and Ledum groenlandicum, 526-62. 
B. papyrifera Marsh. 

Observed at Carswell Lake and on Bear- 
tooth Island, uncommon. 


Rmnex mexicanus Meisn. 

Beartooth L: rare on old beach gravels, 
R. occidentalis S. Wats. (A-NS) 

Carswell L.: in marsh on lake edge, 620-62. 


Arenaria stricta Michx. ssp. dawsonensis 

(Britt.) Maguire (LA-S) 

Carswell L.: on a limestone scree slope 
below ridge, uncommon, 530-62. 
Stellaria longpipes Goldie 

Beartooth L: associated with the following 
species, 648-62. 
S. subvestita Greene (A-NS) 

Beartooth L: growing in a mat of Em- 
petrum hermaphroditum in a burn regenera- 
tion, with the previous species, 649-62. This 
prairie and foothills species is new to the 
flora of Saskatchewan. However, it does oc- 
cur in the Alberta portion of Lake Athabasca 
(Porsild, 1963 ) . It may be distinguished from 
S. longpipes in the field by its strongly 

pubescent internodes. Although in 649-62 
some of the sepals have fine cilia near the 
base similar to S. edivardsii (S. ciliatosepala) 
Dr. Porsild (pers. corres. 1963) feels that this 
material better fits his concept of S. sub- 


Ane?none multiflda Poir (LA-S) 

Carswell L.: in Pinus banksiana woods on 
limestone ridge, 466-62, 419-62. 
A. parviflora Michx. (LA-S) 

Carswell L.: on wet limestone cliff near 
waterfall, 568-62. Previously known in 
Saskatchewan from Tyrrell's collection from 
the "north shore of Lake Athabasca" (Tyr- 
rell and Dowling, 1896) . 
Aquilegia brevistyla Hook. (LA-S) 

Carswell L.: at base of limestone boulder 
in Pinus banksiana woods, rare, 543-62. 
Caltha palustris L. (NS) 

Carswell L.: in marsh on lake edge, 619-62. 
This collection represents a locality inter- 
mediate between Calumet, Athabasca River, 
Alberta and Great Slave Lake (H. Raup, 
Ranunculus aquatilis L. var. capillaceus 

(Thuill.) DC. (A-NS) 

Carswell L.: lake aquatic in water 2-3 feet 
deep, sand bottom, 621-62. 


Arabis holboellii Hornem. var. retrofracta 

(Graham) Rydb. (LA-S) 

Carswell L.: in Pinus banksiana woods on 
limestone ridge, 416-62; on limestone scree 
slope, 532-62. 
A. lyrata L. 

Carswell L.: in Pinus banksiana woods on 
limestone ridge, 475-62; in Pinus banksiana 
woods on limestone rubble at base of cliff, 
464-62, 595-62. 
Barbarea orthoceras Ledeb. 

Beartooth I.: on gravel beach at edge of 
water, uncommon, 654-62. 
Draba cinerea Adams (LA-S) 

Carswell L.: on dry south-facing limestone 
cUff, 492-62; in limestone rubble at base of 
cliff, 596-62. Apparently confined to cal- 
careous habitats in northern Saskatchewan 
(H. Raup, 1936). 


Drosera rotundifolia L. 

Carswell L.: on wet sandy soil at edge of 
Carex meadow, associated with Selaginella 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

selctginoides, Tofieldia glutinosa, and Cla- 
donia coccifera, 537-62. 

Mitella nuda L. (LA-S) 

Carswell L.: in Ficea mariana, Salix spp. 
woods in wet drainage area on limestone 
ridge, 563-62. 
Ribes glandulosum Grauer 

Beartooth I.: on old gravel beach, 629-62. 
Saxifraga tricuspidata Rottb. 

Carswell L.: in Finus banksiana woods on 
limestone ridge, 473-62; on dry south-facing 
limestone cliff, 483-62. 


Amelanchier alnifolia (Nutt.) Nutt. 

Carswell L.: in rubble at base of limestone 
cliff, S 94-62. 
Dryas drimmiondii Richards. (LA-S) 

Carswell L.: on wet limestone cliff near 
waterfall, locally abundant, 561-62. Ap- 
parently confined to limestone or dolomitic 
rocks in northern Saskatchewan (H. Raup, 
Fragaria virginiana Duch. ssp. glauca (Wats.) 

Staudt (LA-S) 

Carswell L.: in Finus banksiana woods on 
limestone ridge, common, 411-62. 
Fotentilla fruticosa L. (NS) 

Carswell L.: on boggy lake shore, 525-62. 
Not previously known from northern Sas- 
katchewan, but reported by Raup (1936) 
from Ft. Smith, Alberta. 
P. norvegica L. 

Carswell L.: in marsh at lake edge, 616-62. 
Beartooth I.: on gravel beach at edge of 
water, 656-62. 
F. palustris (L.) Scop. 

Carswell L.: in marsh at lake edge, asso- 
ciated with Caltha palustris and Cicuta 
mackenzieana, 611-62. 
P. pensylvanica L. (LA-S) 

Carswell L.: on dry south-facing lime- 
stone cliff, 488-62. 
Frunus pensylvanica L. f. 

Beartooth L: in Ficea glauca burn regener- 
ation, 650-62; on old gravel beach, 652-62. 
F. virginiana L. (NS) 

Carswell L.: in limestone rubble at base 
of cUff, 593-62. Apparently a significant 
northward extension of the Saskatchewan 
range of this southern boreal forest— prairie 
Rosa acicularis Lindl. > ;' ' • "• 

Carswell L.: in Fimis banksiana woods on 
limestone cliff, 521-62. , 

Rubus idaeus L. var. canadensis Richards. 

Beartooth L: on an old gravel beach ridge, 
Sorbus scopulina Greene 

Beartooth L: on old gravel beach ridge, 
uncommon, 653-62. 

Empetrum hennaphrodituTn (Lge.) Hagerup 
Beartooth L: forming large mats in sand 
blowouts, common, 643-62. 


Shepherdia canadensis (L.) Nutt. (LA-S) 

Carswell L.: in Finus banksiana woods on 
limestone ridge, 468-62. 

Hippuris vulgaris L. 

Carswell L.: emergent aquatic on lake 
shore, 625-62. 

Cicuta mackenzieana Raup 
Carswell L.: in marsh on lake edge, 613-62. 

Cornus alba L. ssp. stolonifera (Michx.) 

Wangerin (LA-S) 

Carswell L.: in limestone rubble at base of 
cliff, 592-62. Previously known in northern 
Saskatchewan from one locality on the north 
shore of Lake Athabasca (H. Raup, 1936). 

Fyrola asarifolia Michx. var. purpurea 

(Bunge) Fern. 

Carswell L.: on boggy edge of pond, asso- 
ciated with Betula glandiilosa and Salix 
Candida, 526-62 A. 


Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. 

Observed in Finus banksiana woods at 
Carswell Lake. 
Ledum groenlandicum Oeder 

Observed at Carswell Lake in Ficea 
mariana muskeg and on Beartooth Island in 
Ficea glauca burn regeneration. 
Vaccinium ?nyrtilloides Michx. 

Observed in Finus bafiksiana woods at 
Carswell Lake. 


Androsace septentrionalis L. (LA-S) 

Carswell L.: on dry south-facing limestone 
cliff, 481-62. Previously known from one 
locality on the north shore of Lake Atha- 
basca (H. Raup, 1936). 


Argus: Collections From NW Saskatchewan 


Moldavica parviflora (Nutt.) Britt. (LA-S) 
Carswell L.: on limestone scree slope, 
531-62. Previously known in northern Sas- 
katchewan from one locality on the north 
shore of Lake Athabasca, as Dracocephalum 
parvifloru?n Nutt. (H. Raup, 1936). 
Scutellaria galericulata L. (A-NS) 

Carswell L.: in marsh on lake edge, 614-62. 


Melampyrum lineare Desv. 

Carswell L.: on wet sandy soil at edge of 
Carex meadow, 535-62. 


Galium septentrionale R. & S. (G. boreale of 

authors) (A-NS) 

Carswell L.: on dry south-facing slope of 
limestone cliff, 494-62. 


Lonicera dioica L. var. glaucescens (Rydb.) 
Butters. (LA-S) 
Carswell L.: on limestone outcrop, 527-62. 


Campanula rotundifolia L. 

Carswell L.: in Pinus banksiana woods on 
limestone ridge, common, 414-62. 


Lobelia dortmanna L. (NS) 

Carswell L.: emergent aquatic in sand on 
lake edge, water 2-3 feet deep, only basal 
leaves collected in 1962, 626-62. The identity 
of this vegetative collection was later veri- 
fied by collections made in 1963 at Little 
GuU Lake, about 30 miles northward. This 
collection represents the second report of 
this principally eastern species in Saskat- 
chewan, the other is from Windrum Lake, 
appr. lat. 56° 02' N., long. 104° (Breitung, 


Determined or verified by Dr. A. Cronquist. 
Achillea millifolium L. var. nigrescens Meyer 


Carswell L.: in Pinus banksiana woods on 
limestone ridge, 411-62, 528-62. 
Antennaria pulcherrima (Hook.) Greene 


Carswell L.: at edge of Carex meadow, 
560-62. This record fills a gap in the distribu- 
tion of this species between Wood Buffalo 
Park (H. Raup, 1935) and McKague, Sas- 
katchewan (Breitung, 1957). 
A. rosea (D. C. Eaton) Greene (LA-S) 

Carswell L.: in Pirms banksiana woods on 
limestone ridge, 469-62. 
Artemisia campestris L. ssp. borealis (Pall.) 

Hall & Clements 

Carswell L.: on dry south-facing limestone 
cliff, 491-62. 
Aster juncifortnis Rydb. (A-NS) 

Carswell L.: on wet limestone cliff near 
waterfall, 569-62; on wet sand at edge of 
Carex meadow, 534-62. 
Erigeron compositus Pursh var. discoideus 

Gray (£. trifidus Hook.) (NS) 

Carswell L.: on dry south-facing limestone 
cliff, uncommon, 486-62. This represents a 
southward extension of this taxon from 
Great Slave Lake (H. Raup, 1936). 
E. glabellus Nutt. (NS) 

Carswell L.: in Pinus banksiana woods on 
limestone ridge, 418-62. Apparently the only 
record of this species between Rocky Lake, 
Manitoba, 70 miles north of The Pas (Scog- 
gan, 1957) and Wood Buffalo Park, Alberta 
(H. Raup, 1935). 
E. hyssopifolius Michx. 

Carswell L.: on limestone outcrop, 529-62. 
Petasites frigidus (L.) Fries var. palmatus 

(Ait.) Cronq. 

Carswell L.: in Picea mariana, Salix spp. 
woods in Avet drainage area on limestone 
ridge, 565-62. 
P. sagittatus (Pursh) Gray (LA-S) 

Carswell L.: with the preceding, 562-62. 
Senecio streptanthifolius Greene (LA-S) 

Carswell L.: in Pimis banksiana woods on 
sandy limestone rubble, 465-62; in similar 
woods on limestone ridge, 412-62. 
Solidago hispida Muhl. (NS) 

Carswell L.: on limestone scree slope, un- 
common, 533-62. A northern extension of 
the range of this principally southern species. 


Genera arranged in alphabetical order. 
Identified by Dr. H. Crum. 
Abietinella abietina (Hedw.) Fleisch. -• Pinus banksiana, Populus tremuloides woods, 

Carswell L.: on limestone boulders in 581-62A, 589-62. 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

Aniblystigiella spriicei (Bruch) Loeske {A. 

jungermannioides (Brid.) Giac.) (NS) 

Carswell L.: with the preceding, 584-62. 
New to the flora of Saskatchewan. 
Brachythecium salebrosiim (Web. & Mohr) 

B.S.G. (NS) 

Carswell L.: with the preceding, 581-62. 
Not previously known in Saskatchewan 
north of latitude 56° (Conard, 1957). 
Bry oerythrophy Hum recurvirostrum 

(Hedw.) Chen (NS) 

Carswell L.: with the preceding, 586-62. 
Not previously known in Saskatchewan 
north of latitude 56° (Conard, 1957). 
Bryuni lacustre Bland (NS) 

Beartooth I.: in wet clay slump below 
Picea ?nariana muskeg, 651-62. New to the 
flora of Saskatchewan. 
B. pseudotriquetriim (Hedw.) Schwaegr. 


Carswell L.: on wet limestone cliff near 
waterfall, 51 4-62 A. Not previously known 
in Saskatchewan north of latitude 55° 
(Conard, 1957). 
Coffipylium stellatum (Hedw.) Jens. (NS) 

Carswell L.: with the preceding, 51 4-62 A. 
Not previously known in Saskatchewan 
north of latitude 56° (Conard, 1957). 
Cinclidium stygium Sw. (NS) 

Carswell L.: with the preceding, 514-62B. 
New to northern Saskatchewan. 
Dicranum rugonmi Brid. 

Carswell L.: on limestone boulders in 
Pinus banksiana, Populus tremuloides woods, 
5 80-62 A. 
Distichium capillaceum (Hedw.) B.S.G. 

Carswell L.: with the preceding, 511-62. 
Ditrichum flexicaule (Schwaegr.) Hampe 


Carswell L.: with the preceding, 581-62, 
5 88 -62 A. New to the flora of Saskatchewan. 
Encalypta procera Bruch (NS) 

Carswell L.: with the preceding, 581-62, 
584-62. New to the flora of Saskatchewan. 
E. vulgaris Hedw. (NS) 

Carswell L.: with the preceding, 511-62. 
New to the flora of Saskatchewan. 
Grin?fma apocarpa Hedw. var. siricta 

(Turn.) Hook. & Tayl. (NS) 

Carswell L.: with the preceding, 588-62B. 
New to the flora of Saskatchewan. 
Hypmim cupressijonne Hedw. (NS) 

Carswell L.: with the preceding, 516-62, 
581-62B, 583-62, 612-62. Not previously 
known in Saskatchewan north of latitude 
56° (Conard, 1957). 
H. fastigiatum Brid. (NS) 

Carswell L.: with the preceding, 581-62. 
New to the flora of Saskatchewan. 
Neckera pennata Hedw. 

Carswell L.: with the preceding, 518-62. 
Orthotrichimi ctnomalwu Hedw. 

Carswell L.: with the preceding, 579-62. 
Pleuroziimi schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. 

Carswell L.: with the preceding, 580-62B; 
in wet Picea mariana, Salix spp. woods on 
limestone ridge, 566-62. 
Rhytidium rugosimt (Hedw.) Kindb. (NS) 

Carswell L.: on limestone boulders in 
Pinus banksiana, Populus tremuloides woods, 
589-62. New to the flora of Saskatchewan. 
Tortella tortuosa (Hedw.) Limpr. (NS) 

Carswell L.: with the preceding, 585-62. 
New to the flora of Saskatchewan. 
Tortilla ruralis (Hedw.) Crome (NS) 

Carswell L.: with the preceding, 581-62B. 
New to the flora of Saskatchewan. 


Genera arranged in alphabetical order. 
Identified by Dr. M. Hale and by Dr. J. W. Thompson. 

Caloplaca elegans (Link.) Th. Fr. 
Carswell L.: on dry south-facing lime- 
stone cliff, 603-62A, 603-62C, 603-62D; 
with Physcia sciastra, 603-62B. 

Candelariella vitellina (Ehrh.) Miill. Arg. 
Beartooth I.: on beach cobbles, 647-62E. 

Cladonia cemaurocrea (Flk.) Schaer. 

Carswell L.: on limestone boulder in Pinus 
banksiana, Populus tremuloides woods, 

C. coccifera (L.) Willd. 
Carswell L.: in wet sandy soil at edge of 
Carex meadow, 539-62. 

Dermatocarpon miniatimi (L.) Mann. 

Carswell L.: on dry south-facing lime- 
stone cliff, 600-62. 
New to the flora of Saskatchewan. 

Lecanora melanophthahna (DC.) Ram. (NS) 
Beartooth I.: on beach cobbles, with Leca- 
nora polytropa, Rhizocarpon disporum, R. 
geographicum, and Umbilicaria byper- 
borea, 641-62B. 
New to the flora of Saskatchewan. 

Lecanora polytropa (Ehrh.) Rabenh. (NS) 
Beartooth I.: on beach cobbles, with Leca- 


Argus: Collections From NW Saskatchewan 


nora melanophthalma, Rhizocarpon dis- 
porum, R. geographicimi, and Umbilicaria 
hyperborea, 641-62B. 
New to the flora of Saskatchewan. 
Lecidea rubiformis Wahl. (NS) 
Carswell L.: on dry south -facing limestone 
cliff, 599-62. 
New to the flora of Saskatchewan. 
Parmelia centrifuga (L.) Ach. 

Beartooth I.: on beach cobbles, 641-62D. 
P. conspersa (Ach.) Ach. (A-NS) 
Beartooth I.: on beach cobbles, 641-62]. 
New to the flora of Saskatchewan. 
P. lineola Berry (NS) 
Beartooth I.: on beach cobbles, 641-62K. 
New to the flora of Saskatchewan. 
Physcia muscigena (Ach.) Nyl. (NS) 

Carswell L.: on dry south-facing limestone 
cUfF, 601-62. 
New to the flora of Saskatchewan. 
P. sciastra (Ach.) Du Rietz (NS) 
Carswell L.: on limestone cliffy, with Calo- 
placa elegans, 603-62B. 
New to the flora of Saskatchewan. 

Ranmlimt intermedia Nyl. (NS) 
Beartooth I.: on beach cobbles, 647-62F. 
New to the flora of Saskatchewan. 

Rhizocarpon disporimi (Naeg.) Miill. Arg. 

Beartooth I.: on beach cobbles, with 
Rhizocarpon geographicum, Lecanora 
melanophthalma, L. polytropa, and Um- 
bilicaria hyperborea, 641-62B. 
New to the flora of Saskatchewan. 

R. geographicimi (L.) DC. (NS) 

Beartooth I.: with the preceding and assoc- 
ciated with the same species, 641-62B. 
New to the flora of Saskatchewan. 

R. obscuratum (Ach.) Mass. 

Beartooth I.: on beach cobbles, 641-62C. 

Umbilicaria hyperborea (Ach.) Hoffm. 
Beartooth I.: on beach cobbles, with Leca- 
nora ?}telanophthal?na, L. polytropa, Rhizo- 
carpon disporum, and R. geographicu?n, 

Xanthoria candelaria (L.) Arn. 

Beartooth I.: on beach cobbles, 641-62G. 


Alcock, F. J. 1936. Geology of Lake Atha- 
basca region, Saskatchewan. Geological 
Survey of Canada Memoir 196. 

Blake, D. A. 1956. Geological notes on 
the region south of Lake Athabasca and 
Black Lake, Saskatchewan and Alberta. 
Geological Survey of Canada Paper 55-33. 

Breitung, a. J. 1957. Annotated catalogue 
of the vascular flora of Saskatchewan. 
American Midland Naturalist 58:1-72. 

Cody, W. J. 1956. New plant records for 
northern Alberta and southern Mackenzie. 
Canadian Field-Naturalist 70:101-130. 

CoNARD, H. 1957. Bryophytes of Saskat- 
chewan, Bryologist 60:338-343. 

Nero, R. 1963. Birds of the Lake Athabasca 
region, Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan Na- 
tural History Society, Regina. Special 
Publication 5. 

PoRsiLD, A. E. 1963. Stellaria longipes 
Goldie and its allies in North America. 
National Museum of Canada Bulletin 

Raup, H. M. 1935. Botanical investigations 
in the Wood Buffalo Park. National 
Museum of Canada Bulletin 74:1-174. 

. 1936. Phytogeographic studies 

in the Athabasca - Great Slave Lake re- 
gion. I. Catalogue of the vascular plants. 
Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 17: 

-. 1946. Phytogeographic studies 

in the Athabaska - Great Slave Lake re- 
gion. IL Journal Arnold Arboretum 27: 

Raup, L. C. 1928. A list of the lichens of 
the Athabaska Lake region of northwestern 
Canada. Bryologist 31:83-85, 100-104. 

. 1930. Lichens of the Shelter 

Point region, Athabasca Lake. Bryologist 

ScoTTER, G. W. 1961. Botanical collections 
in the Black Lake region of northern 
Saskatchewan, 1960. Blue Jay 19:28-33. 

Thompson, J. W. and G. W. Scotter. 1961. 
Lichens of northern Saskatchewan. Bryol- 
ogist 64:240-247. 

Tyrrell, J. B. and D. B. Dowling. 1896. 
Report on the country between Athabasca 
Lake and Churchill River, etc. Geological 
Survey of Canada Annual Report for 1894, 
vol. 8, pt. D. 

Received for publication 10 October 1963 


T, C. Brayshaw 

Forest Research Branch, Forest Experiment Station, Chalk River, Ontario 

While collecting in the Chalk River area during the past few years, the 
author has found several species growing beyond their previously known range 
limits. Some of these are obviously recent arrivals which have followed 
railways or roads into the district, but others are undoubtedly naturally 
occurring species that hitherto have gone unrecorded. 

The following species are considered worthy of note and are treated in 
detail below: 

Isoetes macrospora Dur. 

Dryopteris fragrans (L.) Schott var. remot'msciila Komarov 

Junipenis virginiana L. var. crebra Fern. & Griscom 

Najas gracillima (A. Br.) Adagnus 

Butoinus umbellatics L. 

Fanicwn virgatum L. 

Epipactis Helleborine (L.) Crantz 

Thalictrimi venidosimt Trel. 

Saxifraga Aizoon Jacq. var. fieoqaea Butters 

Fotentilla Hippiana Lehm. 

P. gracilis Dougl. var. pulcherrima (Lehm.) Fern. 

P. rivdis Nutt. var. millegrana (Engelm.) S. Wats. 

Rhus aromatica Ait. 

Cephalanthus occidentalis L. 

In citing herbarium specimens, the herbaria in which they are located are 
indicated by their codes, as follows: 

CAN National Museum of Canada, Ottawa. 

DAO Plant Research Institute, Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa. 

PFES Petawawa Forest Experiment Station, Chalk River, Ontario. 

TRT Department of Botany, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. 

The area within which most of these records occur is indicated in Figure 1 . 
Figures 2 and 3 show the distributions of two species; in these maps, solid spots 
indicate the sites of collections and open circles sight reports only. 

Isoetes macrospora Dur. Chalk River. It occurs in water with a silty 

This species of quillwort is distinguished bottom, in company with 7. riparia and /. 

from the locally common Isoetes riparia nmricata Dur. It probably would not have 

Engelm. by its larger megaspores (0.6-0.8 mm been found but for the fact that at the time 

diameter) with low-crested reticulate ridges of collection, the river level, lower than at 

and its short, broadly deltoid ligule. It has any time in the past fifty years, permitted the 

been found at only one locality in the dis- discovery of plants that are normally 

trict: King Point on the Ottawa River near covered by several feet of water. 

'Department of Forestry, Canada, Forest Research Branch Contribution No. 629 



Brayshaw: Plant Records From Chalk River 


Figure 1. Map of the Chalk River district (top). 
Figure 2. Distribution of Dryopteris fragrans var. remotiuscula in the Chalk River 

district (bottom, left). 
Figure 3. Distribution of Cephalanthus occidentalis in the Chalk River District 
(bottom, right). 

In Canada, /. macrospora is widely distri- in the eastern Clay Belt region of Quebec 
buted along the Atlantic seaboard, in Que- indicate. It is also known from inland re- 
bec, the Maritime Provinces and Newfound- gions of the eastern United States. So far as 
land; but it is occasionally present further the writer is aware, this is the first record of 
inland, as records from Amos and Senneterre the species in Ontario. However, its pre- 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

sently known distribution suggests that it 
may be found in other parts of the province. 

Specimen 4^70 has been examined by Dr. 
B. Boivin of the Plant Research Institute, 
Ottawa, who has confirmed the identity. 
Specimen 4425 is similar, but with the im- 
mature megaspores only 0.5-0.6 mm in di- 

Specimens: King Point, Chalk River, 
Ontario, 2 September 1962, Brayshaw (PFES 
4470); King Point, August 1962, Brayshaw 
(PFES 4425). 

Dryopteris fragrans (L.) Schott var. reino- 

tiuscula Komarov 

This arctic and subarctic fern, known 
from a number of points on the north shore 
of Lake Superior, the Gulf of St. Lawrence 
and further north, has been collected at two 
localities and sighted at two others in this 
district. All the plants found so far are in 
the valley of the Barron River (see Figure 
2) growing on vertical or near-vertical 
north-facing cliffs overlooking water. These 
are naturally cool habitats, seldom if ever 
receiving direct sunlight. It may or may not 
be significant with regard to the palatability 
of this species to deer that all plants found 
are above a conspicuous browse-line that 
follows the shores here. 

The local occurrence of this fern is no 
doubt a function both of its ecological re- 
quirements and of the history of the area. 
The Barron River, at present a clear stream 
with a small flow volume, runs for several 
miles through a series of gorges cut into the 
Precambrian Shield to a maximum depth of 
about 400 feet, with long deep still reaches 
through the depths of the gorges. In its 
present form this river is obviously incapable 
of eroding such a formation. This fact, to- 
gether with the disjunct occurrences of at 
least two plants of generally more northern 
distribution (see also under Saxifraga Ai- 
zoon), suggests that possibly in the late Plei- 
stocene Epoch (while the ice still covered 
the Ottawa and Petawawa River valleys to 
the north) the Barron carried the main dis- 
charge of water from the land to the west, 
and possibly even from the upper Great 

In addition to the two collections cited 
belo^v, the species has been observed w^ithout 
collection at two points in the Barron River 
Caiion (the deepest part of the series of 
gorges, just above the point where the river 

leaves Algonquin Park). One of these sites 
is close to the station for Saxifraga Aizoon. 
Specimens: S bank of Barron R., 2 miles E 
of Barron River road, 13 October 1961, Bray- 
shaw (PFES 3909); S shore of Carcajou Bay, 
Achray, Algonquin Park (with isolated 
colony of Alnus crispa), 7 July 1962, Bray- 
shaw (PFES 41 S7). 

Juniperus virginiana L. var crebra Fern. & 


The previously known northern limit of 
red juniper in this part of the country was 
at Deacon, near Killaloe, in the Bonnechere 
Valley. However, it has recently been found 
at two localities near Chalk River. 

On ledges on the vertical south-facing 
cliffs of Oiseau Rock overlooking the Ot- 
tawa River, several trees (some with fruit) 
up to 25 feet tall have been found. This site 
is an isolated, warm, dry, sunny habitat, 
where the trees obviously form a permanent 
stand. However, the second locality is in a 
red pine plantation on the Petawawa Forest 
Experiment Station, where the junipers must 
have arrived fairly recently. One of the two 
very stunted bushes found there showed 
clear signs of having been repeatedly 
browsed; although the plant was only some 
two feet high, a low branch from it was 
found to be 10 years old. The plants pro- 
bably originated from seeds carried by birds 
from the Oiseau Rock stand, five miles ENE 
of this site. 

Specimens: Oiseau Rock, Chalk River, 18 
July 1961, Bravshaw and Van Wagner 
(PFES 3486; duplicate in TRT) . Two miles 
E of Chalk River, 1 November 1961, Mayo 
& Brayshaw (PES 3745). 

Najas gracillima (A. Br.) Magnus 

Though this species is reported from much 
of the eastern United States, in Canada it 
has previously been collected only in Nova 
Scotia. Its discovery near Chalk River is, so 
far as the author is aware, the first record 
for Ontario. 

It is present in two rivers, the Barron and 
Chalk, and also in Corry Lake (on the Chalk 
River). In these waters it is not uncommon, 
occurring mixed with the more widely dis- 
tributed N. flexilis (Willd.) Rostk. and 
Schmidt. N. gracillrina can be distinguished 
from N. flexilis at sight by its more diffuse 
appearance, caused largely by its significantly 
narrower and more thread-like leaves. The 


Brayshaw: Plant Records From Chalk River 


wider leaves of N. flexilis produce an overall 
greener, denser foliage which hides objects 
beyond it; whereas such objects are generally 
visible through a plant of N. gracillima. 

Specimens: The Canadian records of N. 
gracillima known to the author are as fol- 
lows: NOVA SCOTIA: Charlotte Lake, 
Queens Co., 16 August 1954, E. C. Smith 
et al. 1234S (CAN); Cameron Lake, Hants 
Co., 18 August 1954, E. C. Smith et al. 12500 
(CAN); ONTARIO: Corry Lake, Chalk 
River, 5 September 1958; Brayshaw (PFES 
213); same locality, 30 August 1962, Bray- 
shaw (PFES 4466) ; Chalk R. above Corry L., 
3 September 1962, Brayshaw (PFES 4418, 
specimen now in DAO) ; Barron River at 
Brigham Chute, Algonquin Park, 8 Septem- 
ber 1962, Brayshaw (PFES 4491). 

Butornus umbellatiis L. 

The flowering rush, a European marsh 
plant first established near Montreal, has 
now extended its range up the Ottawa River 
as far as Pembroke. It was first seen there 
by the author in 1958, but was not collected 
until 1962. It grows on a marshy shore at the 
mouth of Indian River, accompanied by 
Spargamum eurycarpunm, Scirpits fluviatilis 
and Iris pseudacorus. 

Specimen: Pembroke, 14 July 1962, Bray- 
shaw (PFES 4331). 

Epipactis Helleborine (L.) Crantz 

This, the only European orchid to become 
established wild in this country, has recently 
been found in the district. In 1961 it was 
found in an old clearing a mile south of the 
Forest Experiment Station Headquarters. 

Specimen: Chalk River, Petawawa Forest 
Experiment Station, 29 August 1961, Bray 
shaw (PFES 3519). 

Fanicuni virgatuTn L. 

Known from the St. Lawrence Valley and 
Great Lakes region in southern Ontario, this 
grass has recently arrived in the Chalk River 
district by rail. It was found on the embank- 
ment of the Canadian Pacific Railway some 
three miles SE of Chalk River. So far as it 
is known to the author, this is its first re- 
corded appearance in the Ottawa Valley. 

Specimen: Chalk River, 29 August 1961, 
Brayshaw (PFES 3604). 

Thalictrum venulosum Trel. 

This subarctic and prairie meadow-rue has 
not previously been reported from the 

southern half of Ontario. It has established 
itself in a small but spreading colony on the 
railway embankment not far from the above- 
mentioned site for Fanicum virgatum and 
undoubtedly has entered the district by the 
same means. 

Specimen: Chalk River, 16 August 1961, 
Brayshaw (PFES 4506). 

Saxifraga Aizoon Jacq. var. neogaea Butters 
The presence of this unexpected saxifrage 
in the district was first drawn to the author's 
attention by the late Dr. A. M. Moore of 
Deep River. A calciphilous plant of arctic 
distribution, 5. Aizoon grows in this area in 
two small colonies on near-vertical north- 
facing cliffs in the gorge of the Barron River 
in Algonquin Park. The rocks are non- 
calcareous, but the presence of a white limy 
surface deposit on south-facing cliffs farther 
down the gorge suggests that lime-bearing 
seepage-water must be the source of calcium 
for these plants. Dryopteris fragrans has 
been seen close to one of the colonies of 
this saxifrage. 

Specimen: S. bank of Barron River canon, 
Algonquin Park, 2 July 1962, Bravshaw 
(PFES 4139) . 

Potentilla Hippiana Lehm. and P. gracilis 
Dougl. var. pulcherrima (Lehm.) Fern. 
Both these species are native to the Great 
Plains region from Minnesota westward 
{P. Hippiana is also known from northern 
Michigan). Both have been found by Mrs. 
M. I. Moore, growing within a few yards of 
each other in an old pasture south of Deep 
River. Their locality suggests introduction 
in imported hay. This probably occurred 
many years ago, since the pasture is now 
largely overgrown with bush and does not 
appear to have been in regular use for a long 

Specimen: P. Hippiafia: Wylie Road, 
Deep River, M. I. Moore (PFES 3600); 
P. gracilis var. pulcherrii?ia: Wylie Road, 
Deep River, M. I. Moore (PFES 3601). 

Potentilla rivalis Nutt. var. millegrana 

(Engelm.) S. Wats. 

The finding of this species in the forest 
here marks a considerable eastward exten- 
sion of its known range, since it has not pre- 
viously been recorded east of Sauk Ste. 

Specimen: Maunsell Lake, Chalk River, 16 
July 1957, Brayshaw (PFES 2138) . 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

Rhus arojnatica Ait. 

This low shrub which is distributed 
around the shores of the Great Lakes and 
along the southern fringe of the Canadian 
Shield, with an isolated population in the 
Ottawa district, has not previously been 
recorded from further up the Ottawa Valley 
than Pontiac Station, 30 miles west of Hull. 
It is present at the First Chute on the Barron 
River at the southern boundary of the 
Petawawa Forest Experiment Station. Only 
one small clump has been found at this 
locality, but Mrs. M. I. Moore has recently 
shown the writer a specimen collected on 
Oiseau Rock. 

Specimen: Barron River at First Chute, 
Petawawa Forest Experiment Station, 3 
September 1961, Brayshaw (PFES 55/5; 
duplicate in TRT). 

Cephalanthus occidentalis L. 

Already known from the Barron River, 
this marsh-inhabiting shrub has been found 
at several points in the valley of the Peta- 
wawa River which joins the Barron in Lac 

du Bois Dur near Petawawa. In addition to 
the points on the Petawawa River, button- 
bush has been found at a few places around 
the shore of Carrier Lake and along Carrier 
Creek, the highest and northernmost locality 
so far being on the creek just below the out- 
let of Moosegrove Lake, half a mile above 
the head of Carrier Lake. This point is about 
eight miles north of the previously recorded 
station on the Barron River (see Figure 3). 
It should be looked for along the upper 
reaches of the Petawawa River. 

Dr. D. A. Fraser of this Station informs me 
that he recently saw, but did not collect, a 
plant on an island in the eastern end of 
Sturgeon (Chalk) Lake, about five miles ESE 
of Chalk River village. 

Specimens: Petawawa River below Half- 
mile Rapid, 2 September 1961, Brayshaw 
(PFES 3611); rocky island in Carrier Lake, 
6 October 1960, Brayshaw (PFES 3205); 
Carrier Creek below Moosegrove Lake, 
Petawawa Forest Experiment Station, 20 
October 1962, Brayshaw (PFES 4509) . 

Received for publication 17 October 1963 



Stanley W. Gorham 
National Museum of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario 

The following notes, most of which were made during the years 1948-1953, 
deal with the amphibians of the Browns Flat area, Kings County, New Bruns- 
wick, The Browns Flat area here defined (Figure 1 ) includes the village itself 
and the area for 10 miles along the western shores of the Saint John River 
from Victoria Creek, near Greenwich Hill, northeast to the most northeasterly 
part of Oak Point village. The average width of this area, between the river 
and the Kings-Queens County line, is two to four miles. The area is about 
1 5 miles due north of the city of Saint John. 

The Browns Flat area is a rather hilly and rolling region of the southern 
Saint John River valley. The greater portion of the cleared land is within a 
mile of the river; the remainder of the area has a heavy softwood growth with 
a hardwood growth on the ridges. The greatest elevation is Mount Serjeant 
(1000 feet), three miles northwest of Browns Flat village. 


GoRHAM: Amphibians of Browns Flat 



SEcoNDflRV Roads 


Figure 1. Map of Browns Flat Area 

There are three main drainage systems in this area emptying into the Saint 
John River: Devils Back Brook at Victoria Creek, near Greenwich Hill 
village; Jones Creek Brook at Jones Creek, near Central Greenwich village; 
Flaglor Brook at Marley Creek, approximately one-half mile southwest of Oak 
Point. There are also numerous smaller spring-fed brooks which empty 
directly into the Saint John River. There are six lakes in the area and many 

156 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

ponds, bogs and swamps. Clark Lake, three-quarters of a mile in length, is the 
largest lake. The ice is generally out of the lakes by the last week of April 
but it may be out as early as April 10, or as late as May 5. 

The greatest width of the Saint John River within this area is about one 
and one-half miles. There are five islands: Catons Island, near Browns Flat and 
Glenwood, is about one mile in length and mainly wooded; Rocky Island and 
Isle of Pines, opposite Glenwood and Central Greenwich, are connected by 
intervale land but are in themselves mainly wooded; Rush Island, one-quarter 
mile south of Oak Point, is a low grassy island which is underwater during the 
spring freshet; Grassy Island, opposite Oak Point village, is approximately 
three-quarters of a mile in length and is a low grassy island which is usually 
covered by water during the spring freshet. The river level raises as high as 
twelve to fifteen feet during April and May. 

My interest in amphibians has always been keen but it was Mr. W. Austin 
Squires, Curator of Natural Science Department, New Brunswick Museum, 
who impressed upon me the importance of keeping notes in regard to early 
spring appearance of amphibians. Mr. Squires also supplied me with a manu- 
script checklist of the amphibians (also reptiles, birds and mammals) of New 
Brunswick. From 1953 to 1957 Dr. J. Sherman Bleakney, Curator of Herpet- 
ology, National Museum of Canada was always willing to help me with my 
queries regarding the amphibians of New Brunswick. Mr. Francis R. Cook, 
the present Curator of Herpetology at the National Museum of Canada, has 
helped me in every way possible with my inquiries regarding New Brunswick 
amphibians. Through the courtesy of Dr. W. B. Scott I was allowed to 
examine the New Brunswick amphibian specimens in the collection of the 
Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. 

Ambysto?na viaculatimi, Spotted Salaman- New Brunswick material formerly referred 

DER (local name — ^yellow-spotted lizard) to Amby stoma je-ffersonianimi in the Na- 

This species was most commonly seen tional Museum of Canada has been identi- 

during the spring when the adults travelled fled as Ambystoma laterale by Thomas M. 

to the breeding ponds and ditches. The Uzzell, Jr. This species was found in the 

roadside ditches along both the main and spring in a similar habitat as the, Spotted 

secondary roads, railway ditches and mead- Salamander but sometimes frequented shal- 

ow and woodland ponds were very good lower ditches. A good collecting spot in 

spots to observe the Spotted Salamander at early April was at Oak Point in a roadside 

that time of year. On an early morning ditch where the main highway crosses the 

(April 1950) after a night's rain and over a railway track, another was the railway ditch 

distance of one mile of main highway, I near Grandview station at Browns Flat, 

counted twenty Spotted Salamanders which Whether this species was as plentiful as 

had been killed by automobiles. My notes the Spotted Salamander I cannot say; how- 

for the first spring appearance are April 3, ever, over a mile of road during the April 

1948; April 4, 1949; April 5, 1950; April 3, morning when twenty dead Spotted Sala- 

1951. In the fall I have seen Spotted Sala- manders were picked up, I could not find a 

manders on several occasions under logs, but single Blue -spotted Salamander. One of the 

never in ponds, as late as October 19, 1950 earliest appearance dates was April 9, 1953. 

and October 11, 1951. Other dates are from April 15 to the end 

of April. During the summer months I have 

Avibystofna laterale, Blue-spotted Salaman- taken Blue-spotted Salamanders under wood 

DER (local names — blue-spotted lizard, piles. November 5, 1950 is the latest record 

black lizard, big lizard) I have and this was a half-grown specimen. 


Gorham: Amphibians of Browns Flat 


Notophthalmus viridescens, Red-spotted 
Nevtt (local names — red lizard, green 
lizard, trout lizard) 

The adults of this species were fairly 
common at Browns Flat during the latter 
part of April and early May where they 
could be found in muddy woodland ponds 
and shallow lakes. In late April, I saw Red- 
spotted Newts in the railway ditch at ap- 
proximately one mile above Victoria Sta- 
tion and in Galilee Lake (artificial) at 
Browns Flat, also at Clark Lake in the shal- 
low muddy waters near the outlet. Red- 
spotted Newts could usually be observed 
during the summer along the shallower 
edges of Lily Lake, Browns Flat. The red 
eft or immature of this species could often 
be found under woodpiles or slabs of wood 
during the summer. The earliest appearance 
date for the red eft was May 15, 1955 when 
a specimen was found in a rotted log while 
I w^as looking for Red -backed Salamanders. 
The latest date the Red-spotted Newt was 
observed in ponds was October 20, 1951. 

DesTnognathus fuscus, Dusky Salamander 
(local names — spring lizard, black lizard, 
brook lizard, well lizard) 
This is a common salamander of wells, 
springs and spring-fed brooks. I have taken 
Dusky Salamanders and Two-lined Sala- 
manders under the same stone only a few 
inches apart. However, certain habitats 
where the Two-lined Salamanders are col- 
lected, for example, large permanent streams 
which are not spring-fed, one is not likely 
to find the Dusky Salamander. The spring 
appearance of this species was May 2, 1951 
and April 20, 1952. The Dusky Salamander 
was most plentiful during the months of 
June, July, August and early September and 
was found in decreasing numbers up until 
November. I have seen Dusky Salamanders 
dug from the bottom of cold springs in 
early December. 

Eurycea bislineata, Two-lined Salamander 
(local names — brook lizard, brown lizard) 
This was a common salamander of the 
large permanent gravelly and rock bottom 
brooks and streams. They also frequented 
smaller brooks which were spring-fed, I 
collected Two-lined Salamanders in the 
Devils Back Brook during early May. It 
was very common during the months of 
June and early July in the spring-fed Lindsay 
Brook (too small to be included on map) 
about one-third mile from Browns Flat 

centre. The Two-lined Salamander was 
most common in June, early July and Sep- 
tember and in varying numbers during the 
latter part of July, August and early 

Plethodon cinereus, Red-backed Salamander 
(local names — red-back lizard, wood 

The Red-backed Salamander was very 
common in the wooded swamps (mostly 
cedar, some black spruce) during the late 
spring and summer where they could be 
found in partly rotted fallen trees and 
stumps. On May 15, 1955, I collected them 
in partly rotted logs in a cedar swamp ap- 
proximately one mile north of Browns Flat 
centre. In addition I have one report of 
this salamander in late April 1953 when it 
was found in a rotted log. During the last 
week of July 1956 I took a specimen from 
under a partly submerged stone in a brook 
while collecting Two-lined Salamanders two 
miles southwest of Browns Flat. In the 
middle of August 1958, about one mile north 
of Browns Flat centre, Red-backed Sala- 
mander eggs were found in a partly rotted 
cedar log. This salamander was not com- 
monly collected after the heavy frosts of 
mid-October but individuals have been 
taken in early November under rotted cedar 
logs in a swamp. 

Biifo americcmus, American Toad (local 

name — -toad) 

This was probably the best known of the 
amphibians in Browns Flat area. They could 
be heard calling in late April, May and early 
June in most roadside ditches and ponds. 
The earliest calling dates were May 1, 1950 
and April 30, 1951. The latest date I have 
heard an American Toad calling from a 
breeding pond was on July 30, 1952. On May 
1, 1951, I observed an American Toad in a 
small burrow where it had apparently spent 
the winter. The burrow was on a bare sec- 
tion of a side hill which had been covered 
by snow until quite recently. The toad had 
apparently picked a spot where there was 
little danger of frost penetration as small 
potatoes which were left in the ground 
at this spot the previous fall were untouched 
by frost and sprouted later. This showed 
a frost penetration of not more than four 
to six inches. As the weather remained quite 
cool it was usually only in the afternoons 
that the toad would have its head out of the 
burrow getting the sun. It appeared to be a 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

male. Each day I visited the burrow and it 
was not until May 25 after a heavy rain that 
the toad disappeared. I examined the bur- 
row and it was about six to eight inches in 
depth. On July 2, 1952, after a month's 
drought, many recently transformed and 
transforming American Toads were observed 
on the edge of a drying pool. They were so 
small that they were being picked up by 
Chipping Sparrows. Adult American Toads 
were observed in varying numbers until the 
end of October and the first week in 
November, usually under stones or rotted 
logs and wood. 

Hyla crucifer, Spring Peeper (local name — 


This small amphibian was very common 
in the meadow and woodland ponds and 
roadside ditches in the spring from the 
middle of April onward. It was heard call- 
ing on April 19, 1950, April 6, 1951 and 
April 10, 1952. Spring Peepers were picked 
up dead on the highway road on April 4, 
1951 and April 7, 1952. The latest date I 
have heard a Spring Peeper calling from 
a breeding pond was July 12, 1951. The 
chorus is usually over by late June. On 
July 19, 1956, transformed and transforming 
Spring Peepers were collected, some still 
had their tails and had climbed up in the 
bushes which bordered the edge of a pond. 
In August, September and October I heard 
individual Spring Peepers caUing from trees, 
particularly before a shower or rainstorm. 
On November 15, 1949, it was very mild 
and Spring Peepers were calling occasion- 
ally from trees. On October 1-18, 1950 in- 
dividual Spring Peepers were heard caUing 
from trees. October 22, 1950, was extremely 
cold — one of the coldest days on record 
for that date — with several inches of snow. 
November 17, 1950, the weather was mild 
and Spring Peepers were heard calling from 
trees. December 12, 1950, was very mild 
with a temperature of 60° F.; a single Spring 
Peeper was heard calling from a bush very 
low to the ground or on the ground but it 
could not be located. On November 1, 1951, 
the weather was cold and Spring Peepers 
were not heard after that date. 

Rafia sylvatica, Wood Frog (local name — 

brown frog) 

This frog was an early spring caller at 
Browns Flat and was commonly found in 
woodland ponds as well as ditches and ponds 
bordering woodlands. Early spring appear- 

ance was noted on April 9, 1949; April 19, 
1950; April 10, 1952 and April 9, 1953. 
Calling lasts until mid-May. During the 
summer adults were often seen in damp 
woodland areas. On November 17, 1949, a 
Wood Frog was heard calling from the edge 
of a pond. On November 17, 1950 a Wood 
Frog was heard calling from a damp section 
of an apple orchard but it could not be 
located. On November 27, 1950, a Wood 
Frog was heard calling and was located in 
leaves under a maple tree. On December 3, 
1950, it was mild and a Wood Frog was 
heard calling and was located in leaves only 
a short distance from the tree where the 
November 27 frog was observed. This frog 
was smaller than the one seen on Novem- 
ber 27. 

Rana pipiens, Leopard Frog (local names — 

spotted frog, meadow frog) 

This species was common around the end 
of April and early May where they were 
heard calling from ponds, ditches and along 
the shores of lakes. On May 6, 1949, and 
April 30, 1950, they were heard calling. 
The Leopard Frog called until mid-June 
although the main chorus was usually over 
by the end of May. During the summer 
months they are numerous in the meadow- 
lands and occasionally they were seen in 
this habitat until the end of October. On 
October 23, 1949, a Leopard Frog was ob- 
served in the water at Grassy Island in the 
Saint John River opposite Oak Point. 
Grassy Island is about one-third of a mile 
from the nearest mainland. There is a fifteen 
inch rise and fall of tide in the river at Oak 
Point during the summer and early autumn, 
with slightly less rise and fall of tide if the 
autumn rains have been heavy. During the 
summer when the river is low the water is 
known to be slightly brackish, although 
never to the point where it is unfit for cattle 
to drink. 

Rana palustris, Pickerel Frog (local name^ — 

spotted frog) 

During the spring this species may be 
found in ponds, roadside ditches and lakes. 
In the breeding season they are considerably 
more plentiful in lakes than the Leopard 
Frogs. I have heard Pickerel Frogs calling 
in late April from ponds and roadside 
ditches but the main chorus is to be 
heard in May from the larger po-nds and 
lakes. When Leopard Frogs and Pickerel 
Frogs were calling from the same habitat 


Gorham: Amphibians of Browns Flat 


it was somewhat difficult to distinguish the 
call. Early spring calling was noted on April 
29, 1950, from a roadside ditch. On April 3, 
1952, a live adult Pickerel Frog was found 
in a well. During the haying season of July 
and August I have seen adult Pickerel Frogs 
in the hayfield, although in not as large 
numbers as the Leopard Frogs. By late 
August and early September I have seen 
hundreds of young Pickerel Frogs on the 
bogs near Lily Lake, Browns Flat and at 
Clark Lake, north of Oak Point. On Nov- 
ember 28, 1950, an adult Pickerel Frog was 
found in a cold spring. On January 18, 1951, 
three adult Pickerel Frogs were found dead 
in a cold spring where they had apparently 
been hibernating. 

Rana clamitans, Green Frog (local names — 

green frog, bullfrog) 

This species was common in the ponds, 
ditches and springs during the spring, sum- 
mer and fall. On March 27, 1954 I took a 
Green Frog from under a slab of wood 
in a ditch about a mile north of Browns 
Flat. Snow was still on both sides of the 
ditch so the frog had apparently spent the 

winter there. Green Frogs called from late 
April until mid-June but the main chorus 
ends around the latter part of May. During 
the haying season I have seen half-grown 
Green Frogs in the damp sections of mead- 
owlands. Green Frogs, both adult and 
juvenile, have been observed around springs 
in early November. 

Rana catesbeiana, Bullfrog (local name — 


This species is common in the lakes and 
larger ponds during the latter part of the 
spring and summer months. I have also 
taken both half-grown and adult Bullfrogs 
in roadside ditches and springs. On April 
20, 1952 a large Bullfrog was found in a 
cold spring. During the summer months I 
have observed half-grown Bullfrogs in damp 
meadowlands. I have taken half-grown 
Bullfrogs under stones along the shores of 
lakes in mid-October and have also observ- 
ed a few Bullfrogs around cold springs in 
early November. After September 20 or 
October 1, depending on weather condi- 
tions. Bullfrogs were never seen resting on 
lily pads in the lakes and ponds. 

It is possible that Rmia septentrionalis, the Mink Frog, occurs in the Browns 
Flat area but I have never collected or observed it there. This may have been 
due to insufficient collecting at favourable localities. Bleakney (1958) mentions 
this species as common in northern and south-central New Brunswick with 
records from the counties of Madawaska, Restigouche, York, Saint John and 
Albert. Logier and Toner (1961) mention an additional record for York 
County and there is a specimen (No. 5931) in the Royal Ontario Museum 
from Digdeguash River, Dumbarton Township, Charlotte County, which was 
collected by W. B. Scott and E. J. Crossman in May 1958. While on field 
work for the National Museum of Canada during late August 1959 I found 
the Mink Frog to be the most common species at Twin Lakes, about 12 miles 
north of St. Andrews and about 12 miles northeast of St. Stephen. Nineteen 
specimens were collected at that time and later deposited in the National Mu- 
seum of Canada (NMC 4970, NiVIC 4979). No Mink Frogs were observed 
in other lakes in the same general area. However in a small lake near Piske- 
hagen (in Sunbury County near the Charlotte County border) Mink Frogs 
were observed. Most of the Mink Frogs were observed resting on lily pads 
and appeared to hold the head and back lower than a Bullfrog would in a 
similar position. I have never observed or heard Hyla versicolor, the Gray 
Treefrog, in the Browns Flat area; however, it has been taken near Fredericton 
which is approximately sixty-five miles to the north. There are two specimens 
in the Royal Ontario Museum (Nos. 4605-4606) which were taken by C. E. 
Atwood on June 26, 1935 "/z mile from the mouth of the Nashwaak River". 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

Bleakney (1958) also reported this species from vicinity of Fredericton. Hemi- 
dactylhim scutatum, the Four-toed Salamander, is found in Ontario, Quebec 
and Nova Scotia and with sufficient collecting in favourable localities it is likely 
that it vi/ill be taken in New Brunswick. The bogs bordering some of the 
lakes in the Browns Flat area may be suitable habitat for this species but although 
I have looked for it my efforts have been unsuccessful. 

Comparative data (earliest spring appearance, or earliest calling date) with 
Logier (1952): 

Browns Flat area, southern 

New Brunswick Ontario 

Antby stoma maculatinn April 3 early April 

Ambystonm later ale April 9 early April 

Notophthalrmis viridescens late April middle or late 


Des?nognathtis jiisciis April 20 

Eurycea bislineata early May 

Flethodon cinereits middle May 

Biijo americanus late April late April 

Hyla criicifer April 4 April 

Ra77a sylvatica April 9 late March 

or early April 
Ra7ia pipiefjs April 30 April 

Rana paliistris April 29 

Rana clamitans late April 

Ran\a catesbeiana April 20 

Of the six species of salamanders and nine species of frogs and toads known 
from New Brunswick, thirteen are found in the Browns Flat area. Nova 
Scotia has five species of salamanders (one of which has not yet been found in 
New Brunswick) and eight species of frogs and toads. Prince Edward Island 
has four species of salamanders and five species of frogs and toads. (Bleakney, 
1958; Logier and Toner, 1961; Cook, hi Press). 


Bleakney, J. S. 1958. A zoogeographical Irwin & Co., Ltd., Toronto: 1-127 

study of the amphibians and reptiles of Logier, E. B. S. and G. C. Toner. 1961. 

Eastern Canada. National Museum of Check list of the amphibians and reptiles 

Canada Bulletin, No. 155:1-119. of Canada and Alaska. Royal Ontario 

Cook, F. R. [In Press.] An analysis of the Museum, Life Sciences Division, Contri- 

herpetofauna of Prince Edward Island. bution 53:1-92. 

National Museum of Canada Bulletin. Squires, W. A. [1948]. Check list of the 

Logier, E. B. S. 1952. Frogs, toads and amphibians of New Brunswick (Unpub- 

salamanden of Eastern Canada. Clarke, lished manuscript). 

Received for publication 24 October 1963 


Harry G. Lumsden 
Ontario Department of Lands and Forests, iUaple, Ontario 

For some years Indians in Northern Ontario have reportd the occurrence of 
Rock Ptarmigan on the Ontario coast of Hudson Bay. The purpose of this 
paper is to place on record the recent information on the status of the bird in 
Ontario and Manitoba and to summarize the history of its discovery in the 
Hudson Bay area. 

Early Records 
The earliest mention of the occurrence of Rock Ptarmigan on the south- 
western Hudson Bay coast is that of Isham who completed his Observations on 
Hudsotis Bay in 1743 (Rich and Johnson, 1949). He describes wood partridges 
(Spruce Grouse Canachites canadensis), willow partridges (Willow Ptarmigan 
Lagopiis lagopus) and rock partridges saying that the last are smallest and are 
white with black from the eve to the bill and with 14 black tail feathers. 

Isham was stationed at York Factory and Churchill during his years of 
service with the Hudson's Bay Company in Canada, and probably became 
familiar with the bird during its winter invasions of that area. 

There is another early mention of the occurrence of Rock Ptarmigan on 
the south shore of Hudson Bay in another manuscript titled OhservatioTis on 
Hudson's Bay (about 1782). This manuscript has been attributed to Dr. 
Thomas Hutchins, but Glover (in Rich and Johnson, 1951), has pointed out 
that it is in all probability by Andrew Graham. Glover wrote as follows about 
this manuscript ". . . . long attributed to Thomas Hutchins .... is in many places 
identically worded with other versions of Graham's "Observations" and contains 
internal evidence showing that Hutchins could not have written it. To 
Graham, then, is due the credit for the information on birds and animals for 
which naturalists using this manuscript have made acknowledgement to 

The first of those who used this manuscript was probably Pennant who 
quoted part of Graham's section on the Rock Ptarmigan almost verbatim in the 
second edition of his Arctic Zoology (1792). (First edition 1784-87 not seen.) 
He then clearly had access to Graham's manuscript. 

At the time that Pennant was preparing and publishing the first edition of 
his work, Dr. Thomas Hutchins was the corresponding secretary of the 
Hudson's Bay Company in London; it is very likely that Pennant met him 
because in the second edition of his Arctic Zoology he wrote that: "I was 
unspeakably obliged for his [Hutchins] judicious remarks made during 16 
years residence in Hudson's Bay of which he most liberally indulged me with 
the perusal." This is clearly an acknowledgement of the loan of a manuscript. 
Could this have been the one by Graham? The warmth of his remarks suggest 


162 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

a personal acquaintanceship. Pennant's acknowledgement of help from Andrew 
Graham is far less warm, it merely mentions "numbers of observations" and 
"the use of multitudes of specimens of animals transmitted by him to the late 
Museum of the Royal Society," 

Graham (about 1782) had this to say about the Rock Ptarmigan. "Us- 
cathachish. Is a bird of the Grous Genus and denominated by us the rock 
partridge. At all seasons of the year it frequents dry rocky ground and Juniper 
plains. Its natural history corresponds with the Ptermigan only it is a size 
smaller; has a black line under each eye and makes a croaking noise which is 
performed with a stretched neck and seeming difficulty. They are numerous 
on the extremes of the Bay and never visit our middle settlements but when the 
Ptermigans are scarce and too truly denotes a hard winter with the poor natives." 

Manning (1952) has pointed out that Pennant's description of the Rock 
Ptarmigan (which was really Graham's) was the basis for Gmelin's (1789 not 
seen) formal description of Tetrao rupestris. The type locality was given as 
"in borealibus oris ad sinum Hudsonis = shores of Hudson Bay" (American 
Ornithologists Union Check List, 1957). Graham encountered the southern 
race of the Rock Ptarmigan, now known as Logapus mutus rupestris some time 
during his service on Hudson Bay. The only trading posts at which he served 
in Canada, prior to the completion of his observations, according to A. M. 
Johnson (Archivist, Hudson's Bay Company, pers. covi.) were Fort Prince of 
Wales, at the mouth of the Churchill River and opposite the present site of 
Churchill, York Factory, and Fort Severn. Rock Ptarmigan are likely to occur 
at all three of these localities (see below) but are far more regular in occurrence 
and more abundant in the Churchill area. It is reasonable then to restrict the 
type locality of this form to "Fort Prince of Wales, Manitoba". 

Swainson and Richardson (1831) in listing two species of Rock Ptarmigan 
did not recognize as we do today a single species with a circumpolar distribu- 
tion. They quoted Graham with the credit again going to Hutchins under 
the heading Tetrao rupestris and added ". . . . is found on Melville peninsula and 
the barren grounds seldom going further south in winter than Latitude 63° in 
the interior but descending along the coast of Hudson's Bay to Latitude 58° 
and in severe seasons still further southward." Under the heading Tetrao 
mutus they list " .... a specimen in summer plumage sent to Sir John Franklin 
from Churchill river [which] was identified by John Sabine esq. with the Scotch 
Ptarmigan thus establishing it as an inhabitant of the American continent." 

Hellmayr and Conover (1942) state that Audubon gave the range for his 
Lagopus americanus as "Melville Island, Churchill River", and further remark 
that Audubon later quoted Richardson as his authority for the Churchill River 
locality. Today we recognize that different races of Rock Ptarmigan occur 
at these two localities. Hellmayr and Conover (1942) therefore recognize the 
priority of Audubon's name for the northern race with the type locally 
"Melville Island". Gmelin's name rupestris, however, applies to the southern 
race which occurs at "Churchill River" with the type locality restricted here 
to "Fort Prince of Wales, Manitoba", 


LuMSDEN : Rock Ptarmigan 


Figure 1. Localities in Ontario and Manitoba mentioned in the text. 

In 1845 Dr. Gillespie Jr. of the Hudson's Bay Company presented a 
collection of birds to the Edinburgh Museum among which was a pair of Rock 
Ptarmigan in winter plumage (Clarke, 1890). They were collected by him 
during his residence at Fort Churchill. 

Macoun (1900) wrote somewhat inconsistently that: "No authentic 
records of its being taken in Ontario or southern Quebec have been seen and 
the same statement may be made of Manitoba and westward." However, he 
later quotes Richardson's statement that they descend along the Hudson's Bay 
coast to Lat. 58° (which would include the Churchill area), and in severe seasons 
to Lat. 55°. This latitude was actually not mentioned by Swainson and 
Richardson (1831); it does, however, include the whole Hudson Bay coast of 

According to Preble ( 1902) the people of Fort Churchill say that the species 
occurs at that post regularly in winter. 

Recent Records and Reports from Manitoba 
Taverner and Sutton (1934) reported that: "Lloyd, who was stationed at 
Churchill for several years, saw Rock Ptarmigan every winter, but he was of 
the opinion that the species never occurs regularly in summer." They found 
Rock Ptarmigan rather numerous at Churchill in May and early June, 1931. 
They recorded their last observation of the species on July 10. In 1930 the 
only one they collected was an autumn plumaged bird taken on August 19 near 

164 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

Fort Prince of Wales. They reported this to be a female but W. E. Godfrey, 
Curator of Birds, National Museum of Canada, in a personal communication 
states that the only specimen in the National Museum taken on that date at that 
locality was an adult male. 

Figure 1 shows the localities round the Hudson Bay coast of Ontario and 
Manitoba mentioned in the text and the places from which Rock Ptarmigan have 
been reported. 

There seems to be no specimen evidence at present of Rock Ptarmigan 
breeding anywhere in Manitoba, although the iManitoba Department of Mines 
and Natural Resources (1945) suggests that the species may breed in the 
Churchill area. 

In the Registered Trapline annual reports for Manitoba there are three 
recent references to the occurrence of Rock Ptarmigan in that province. All 
refer to the winter season. 

Mr. T. M. Nichol (1954) then with the Manitoba Game Branch in his 
1953-54 report mentions that: ". . . . The Kaska trappers reported an increase in 
rock ptarmigan." Again in his 1954-55 report he states that: ". . . . A few rock 
ptarmigan were reported from the Kaska group." The Kaska Indians occupy 
the coastal area east of Cape Tatnum adjacent to the Ontario Boundary. 

The third reference to the species was made by Mr. W. R. Burns (1957) 
Manitoba Game Branch in his 1956-57 report for the Churchill area. He states 
that both Willow and Rock Ptarmigan were found in the Churchill area but 
the latter were scarce. 

Sometimes Rock Ptarmigan may penetrate inland south of the area occupied 
by the Kaska Indians. At Shamattawa, Mr. Stephen Redhead told me that he 
saw a flock of three during the winter of 1961-62 about five miles northwest 
of the village on the God's River. 

Recent Records and Reports from the Hudson Bay Area of Ontario 

The Indians living in the northern part of the Patricia portion of Ontario 
know the Rock Ptarmigan well and call the bird "Apistabemish". They say 
that flocks appear on their traplines in winter only, at intervals of six or eight 
years. Unless otherwise stated, the reports on the distribution of the Rock 
Ptarmigan in Ontario which follow were derived from personal communications. 

Mr. Joseph Chokomolin told me that during the hard winter of 1935 his 
brother John killed six small ptarmigan, at the mouth of the Sutton River. He 
said that they all had black feathers between the eye and the bill. 

During the winter of 1956-57, Conservation Officer T. M. Nichol, then 
with the Ontario Department of Lands and Forests, reported a single Rock 
Ptarmigan on the airport at Weenusk. 

During he winter of 1960-61, a small flight of Rock Ptarmigan penetrated 
as far as the region of Shagamu Lake (55''05'N, 87°05'W). Mr. Michel 
Hunter, the chief of the Weenusk Indian band, shot about 1 5 Rock Ptarmigan 
there on his trapline. He also killed over 100 Willow Ptarmigan during the 
same winter. He saved one Rock Ptarmigan and took it to Weenusk as a 
specimen but it was later destroyed in error. 

1964 Lumsden: Rock Ptarmigan 165 

The winter of 1961-62 was marked by a major flight of both Willow and 
Rock ptarmigan into the Hudson Bay area of Ontario. Rock Ptarmigan were 
most abundant close to the coast but one Ontario report refers to birds in the 
interior. Mr. Joseph Morris, the chief of the Big Trout Lake Indian band, 
told me that he saw a flock of about 30 Rock Ptarmigan ten miles north of 
Sherman Lake at 54°38'N, 91°25'W; which is about 180 miles from the Hudson 
Bay coast. 

At Fort Severn Willow Ptarmigan were extremely abundant and both Mr. 
Fred Close of the Hudson's Bay Company and Mr. Angus Miles reported that 
many thousands were killed for food by the villagers during the winter. Mr. 
Close told me that about one in fifty was a Rock Ptarmigan. He personally 
killed three Rock Ptarmigan in one day but kept no record of the total number 
he killed during the winter. 

Mr. Mason Koostachin reported that there were about 20 Rock Ptarmigan 
among the Willow Ptarmigan he killed near Fort Severn during the winter 
of 1961-62. 

At Weenusk also. Rock Ptarmigan were abundant and Mr. Michel Hunter 
said he saw flocks numbering from 25 to 60 birds. Thev fed in the willows 
along the coast and frequently flew out onto the sea ice where he saw them 
while trapping arctic foxes. He killed 30-35 Rock Ptarmigan and 60-70 Willow 
Ptarmigan during the winter while trapping west of the mouth of the Weenusk 
River. He reported that they arrived just before Christmas, 1961, and did not 
leave until the snow began to thaw at the end of March, 1962. 

Mr. Moses Koostachin reported that Rock Ptarmigan were present on his 
trapline, which Hes east of the mouth of the Weenusk River, during the winter 
of 1961-62. His son John George Koostachin killed two there that winter. 

Mr. Xavier Sutherland told me that Rock Ptarmigan occur regularly in 
winter on Cape Henrietta Maria and birds were present in 1960-61 and 1961-62. 

Seven specimens were preserved from the 1961-62 flight, one is in the Royal 
Ontario Museum of Zoology and Palaeontology and six are at the Southern 
Research Station, Maple. There were three males and one female killed in 
January, 1962 by Mr. Elijah Stoney and Mr. Peter Patrick at Fort Severn; and 
two males and one female killed on March 25, 1962 by Mr. Michel Hunter at 

Recent Reports from the James Bay Area 

Baillie (1956) has suggested, on the basis of a report from Mr. Sam Waller, 
who lived at Moosonee for some years, that Rock Ptarmigan might be found 
some winters in the James Bay region. According to Mr. Simeon Scott and 
other Indians, who were present at Fort Albany when I enquired. Rock 
Ptarmigan are never found north of Moosonee on the west side of James Bay. 
They all said that Cape Henrietta Maria was the nearest place where the species 
might be found. 

In Qubec, on the east side of James Bay, however, the situation is quite 
different. Mr. Josie Sim at Fort George said that both species of ptarmigan 

166 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

occur there. The Rock Ptarmigan appear only in winter, they come every 
year and occasionally in great numbers. 

Farther south at Rupert House, Mr. Willie Weestchee and Mr. Isiah Salt 
told me that the Rock Ptarmigan, which they call "Skangish", appear nearly 
every winter. 

Rupert House lies about 80 miles east and a little north of Moosonee on the 
southern end of James Bay. I seems likely then that if Rock Ptarmigan do 
occur at Moosonee, they come from the Quebec side of James Bay and not 
from the west. 

Taverner and Sutton's ( 1934) summary of the status of the Rock Ptarmigan 
in the Churchill area of Manitoba as "a winter visitor irregularly common", can 
probably not be improved. In Ontario the species should be regarded as a 
periodic winter visitor in the extreme north occurring sometimes in substantial 
numbers, and of hypothetical occurrence at the southern end of James Bay. 


I should like to acknowledge the help of Miss A. M. Johnson, Archivist 
and Mrs. S. S. Smith, Librarian of the Hudson's Bay Company, who supplied 
me with biographical sketches of Thomas Hutchins and Andrew Graham and 
drew my attention to the correct authorship of the manuscript "Observations 
on Hudson's Bay". The quotation on Rock Ptarmigan from this manuscript 
is published by permission of the Governor and Committee of the Hudson's 
Bay Company. Dr. E. F. Bossenmaier sent unpublished references on the 
occurrence of Rock Ptarmigan in Manitoba and gave permission for publication. 
Finally, I am grateful to Mr. M. Hunter, Mr. E. Stoney and Mr. P. Patrick who 
collected specimens and preserved them for me. 


American Ornithologists' Union. 1957. Ottawa. 207 pp. 

Check List of North American Birds. Manitoba Department of Mines and Na- 

Baltimore, Maryland. 133 pp. tural Resorces. 1945. Game Birds and 

Baillie, J. L. 1956. Ontario Grouse. Royal Animals of Manitoba. 47 pp. 

Ontario Museum. 14 pp. Manning, T. H. 1952. Birds of the West 

Burns, W. R. 1957. Manitoba Game James Bay and Southern Hudson Bay 

Branch Regulated Trapline Annual Re- Coasts. National Museum of Canada, Bul- 

port, 1956-57. Unpublished. 116 pp. letin 25. 38 pp. 

Clarke, W. E. 1890. On a collection of Nichol, T. M. 1954. Manitoba Game 

birds from Fort Churchill, Hudson's Bay. Branch Regulated Trapline Annual Re- 

The Auk 8(4): 321. port 1953-54. Unpublished. 89 pp. 

Gmelin, J. F. 1788. Systema Naturae 1 . 1955. Manitoba Game Branch 

(pt. 2). 751 pp. Regulated Traplines Annual Report 1954- 

Graham, a. About 1782. Observations on 55. Unpublished. 49 pp. 

Hudson's Bay. Unpublished ms. Hudson's Pennant, T. 1792. Arctic Zoology. Second 

Bay Company archives. E 2/13. 97 pp. Edition. Vol. 1. London. 364 pp. 

Hellmayr, C. E. and B. Conover. 1942. Preble, E. A. 1902. A Biological Investiga- 

Catalogue of Birds of the Americas and tion of the Hudson Bay Region. North 

the Adjacent Islands. Zoological (1) America Fauna No. 22, Washington. 104 

Series. Field Museum of Natural History pp. 

13(pt. 1) Pub. 514:205-207. Rich, E. E. and A. M. Johnson. 1949. James 

Macoun, J. 1900. Catalogue of Canadian Ishams Observations on Hudson Bay 1743. 

Birds, Part 1. Geological Survey of Canada, The Champlain Society, Toronto. 123 pp 

1964 LuMSDEN: Rock Ptarmigan 167 

. 1951. Cumberland House Jour- Fauna Boreali-Americana Part 2. London. 

nals and Inland Journal 1775-82. Hudson's pp. 350-354. 

Bay Record Society, Vol. 14. London. Taverner, P. A. and G. M. Sutton. 1934. 

Introduction XVIII. The Birds of Churchill, Manitoba. Annals 

SwAiNSON, W. and J. Richardson. 1831. of the Carnegie Museum 23. 43 pp. 

Received for publication 20 January 1964 


D. E. McAllister 
National Museum of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario 

Few collections have been made in the eastern waters of Canada's inland sea, 
Hudson Bay. Vladykov (1933) and Dymond (1933) describe the marine fish 
and summarize past literature. Dunbar and Hildebrand (1952) describe the 
fishes of Ungava Bay. The only further marine ichthyofaunal study has been 
that of Edwards (1961) on the fishes of Richmond Gulf. However, reports on 
single species have appeared: McPhail (1961) on Arctic charr and (1963) on 
ninespine stickleback, Legendre (1961) on the Greenland cod and Scott (1960) 
on the round whitefish. McAllister (1960) provided a key to the marine Arctic 
Canadian fishes, including Hudson Bay. References to the literature up to 
1960 on freshwater fishes may be obtained from Harper (1961) and Fowler 
(1961). Power and Oliver (1961) give freshwater records from the southern 
Ungava Bay drainage. 

The area must still be considered poorly known as each study has revealed 
further species. In Richmond Gulf, for example, the National Museum of 
Canada expedition in only ten marine stations was able to add four species to 
Edward's (1961) list— the lumpfish, round whitefish, lake whitefish, and the 
Arctic sculpin. One collection by the Fisheries Research Board in 1959 has 
been found to contain a further species, the American plaice, Hippoglossoides 
platessoides. Further work would be worthwhile, particularly in the deeper 

This paper briefly reports on marine and freshwater fishes collected by 
the National Museum of Canada expedition to eastern Hudson Bay in the 
summer of 1963. The author and Dr. A. H. Clarke, Jr., assisted by Mr. H. D. 
Athearn, collected fishes, molluscs, and other invertebrates from Port Harrison 
in the north to Moosonee, James Bay, in the south. Additional collections 
made by John G. Robertson at Povungnituk in 1963 are also reported on. 
Figure 1 shows the locality of the collecting sites; Table 1 presents the field data. 

The author left Ottawa on July 7, by train and arrived at Moosonee July 8. 
On July 10 he took off by Canso aircraft for Port Harrison and en route picked 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Table 1. — Field Data for Collections 

Vol. 78 

Coll. No. 






Depth - 




P.Q.: Povungnituk 


stones, pebbles 


seal net 


P.Q.: Povungnituk 



algae and seaweed 

gill net 


P.Q.: Povungnituk 



algae and seaweed 
stones, pebbles 


line with spoon 
gill net 


P.Q.: Povungnituk 



algae and seaweed 
stones, pebbles 


line with spoon 


P.Q.: Small stream 
Povungnituk R. 


algae, rocky 


gill net 


P.Q.: Povungnituk 



algae and seaweed 


line with spoon 


P.Q.: Povungnituk 



algae and seaweed 


algae, rocky 


line with spoon 


P.Q.: Povungnituk 


3 inch gill net 


P.Q.: Povungnituk 



algae, rocky 


gill net 


P.Q.: Povungnituk 





gill net 


P.Q.: Povungnituk 



algae and seaweed 


line with spoon 


P.Q.: Povungnituk 



algae, rocky 


gill net 


P.Q.: Povungnituk 







P.Q.: Povungnituk 





gill net 


P.Q.: Small stream 
Povungnituk R. 


algae, rocky 


gill net 





algae, rocky 


gill net 





algae, rocky 


gill net 


P.Q. :PovungnitukR. 





line with spoon 





algae, rocky 


gill net 


P.Q.: Head Five 
Mile Inlet 

7.9 parts 
per thou- 


algae, sand 


bag seine 


P.Q.: Head Five 
Mile Inlet 

7.9 parts 
per thou- 






P.Q.: Rivermouth, 
head Five Mile 

N.W.T.: off n. end 





3-inch gill net 



ca. 4 



2-foot dredge 

Patterson I. 


P.Q.: rill tributary 
to lake 3 mi. ne. 
Port Harrison 



grass, pebbles, 

0-2 1 



P.Q.: mainland opp. 
Hotchkiss Is. 

28 parts 
per thou- 




bag seine 


P.Q.: mainland opp. 
Hotchkiss Is. 



boulders, gravel 


l-and 2|-inch 
gill net 


P.Q.: mainland opp. 
Hotchkiss Is. 



sand and clay 
few boulders 




P.Q.: bay i mi. off 
mouth Kikkerteluk 

P.Q.: mouth 




J- and 2i-inch 
gill net 


rock and sand 


3-inch gill net 

Kikkerteluk R. 


P.Q.: 2 mi. above 
mouth Kikkerteluk 

N.W.T.: Tottenham 










J- and 2i-inch 

Bayi ne. end 


gill net 

B rough ton I. 

at surface 


N.S.T.: Tottenham 
ne. end Broughton 

24 parts 
per thou- 


fucus, boulders 




N.W.T.: lakes, 
centre Broughton 

N.W.T.: side pool, 



gravel, sand, 


line with 



+ 14 

grass, sand, silt 



upper lake, centre 

Broughton I. 


N.W.T.: found on 
shore e. central 
Broughton I. 


N.W.T.: bay, s. end 
Mowat I. 





}- and 2i-inch 
gill net 


N.W.T.: bay, s. 
end Mowat I. 


10 at surface 

fucus, rocky 



jigging with 


P.Q.: Nastapoka R. 
2 mi. above mouth 


sand, gravel 



'Suggested name for unnamed bay at 57°25'N, 76°49'W, at northeast end of Broughton Island (see fig. 1 and 4). 
Named after Const. R. L. Tottenham of the Northwest Mounted Police. 


McAllister: Fish From Hudson Bay 


Table 1. — cont'd. 

Coll. No. 





Depth - 




N.W.T.: bay, ne. 
end Anderson I. 



sea urchins, 
brittle stars 


gill net 


N.W.T.: stream, 
enters bay ne. end 
Anderson I. 



algae clumps 
sand, silt, 

12 12 



N.W.T.:lake, 35-ft. 
altitude ne. end 
Anderson I. 


boulders and sand 




N.W.T.: tide pool 
s. tip Ross I. 



rocky with 
boulders and 




P.Q.: pool, lake 
outlet s. side large 
island, Richmond 


weeds, sand 




P.Q. : bay s. side 
large island, 
Richmond Gulf 

ca. 14-16 
parts per 




bag, seine 


P.Q.: bay s. side 
large island, 
Richmond Gulf 

+ 16 

parts per 

10 at surface 

sand, silt 


f- and 2i-inch 
gill net 


P.Q.: bay s. side 
large island, 
Richmond Gulf 



algae, boulders 




P.Q.: Deer R. 2 mi. 
above mouth, 
Richmond Gulf 



algae, boulders 


gill net 


P.Q.: Richmond 
Guii 2 mi. w. Deer 
R. mouth 


mud and clay 


2-foot dredge 


P.Q.: Richmond 
Gulf 3 mi. nw. 
Deer R. mouth 


floating 4-inch 
gill net 


P.Q.: island off 
Charr Lake^ w. 
central Richmond 

ca. 16 
parts per 


fucus, boulders 
and sand, rocky 




P.Q.: Charr L. 2, w. 
central Richmond 



P.Q.: just outside 
Clearwater R. 




bag seine 


P.Q. : Clearwater R. 
just below rapids 
at mouth 




2-inch gill net 


P.Q.: lagoon, mouth 
of Clearwater R. 





f- and 2j-inch 
gill net 


P.Q.: bog pond, 
shore Clearwater 
R. lagoon 


grass, moss, 
black mud 




P.Q.: bay, s. of e. 
end of Gulf 
Hazard, in 
Richmond Gulf 


at surface 

boulders and sand 


jigging with 


P.Q.: bay, s. side of 
e. end of Gulf 


algae mat on 

0-2 i 

bag seine 


P.Q. : bay, s. of e. 
end of Gulf 
Hazard, in 
Richmond Gulf 


sea urchins and 


1- and 25-inch 
gill net 


P.Q.: bay, s. of e. 
end of Gulf 
Hazard, in 
Richmond Gulf 


boulders, sand 


2-inch gill net 


N.W.T.:n. end of 
Castle I. in e. end 
of Boat Passage 

P.Q.: bay n. central 


fucus, sea urchins 
mussels, rocky 


J- and 2|-inch 
gill net 



ca. 18 

sand and detritus 

0-2 i 

bag seine 

shore Burton L. 



P.Q.: creek, n. 
central shore 
Burton L. 


mud, gravel 


bag seine 


P.Q.: middle branch 
Roggan R. 






Ont.: Moose R. at 





bag seine 


Ont. : creek 
tributary to 
Moosonee 3 mi. 
above mouth at 






'Unofficial local name for lake, unnamed on charts. 

170 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

up Dr. Clarke and Mr. Athearn at Great Whale River. We collected in the Port 
Harrison area until July 13, when we left via chartered trap boat (see Figure 7) 
for Great Whale River. Collections were made on route to Great Whale 
River at numerous points. On July 23 the expedition arrived in Great Whale 
River; the boat and crew then returned to Port Harrison. A chartered flight 
was made to Burton Lake and Roggan River on July 24. The following day 
we left via Canso for Moosonee. Final fish collections were made on July 25 
and 26 in the Moosonee area. The author then returned to Ottawa by train. 


Ice was reported to have broken up on the Moose River at Moosonee on 
May 18 and on James Bay on June 18. On the trip up, little ice was seen on 
James Bay. In Hudson Bay there were rare patches of ice south of Great 
Whale River, a few broader patches northward; rivers and lakes were com- 
pletely ice free, but a few ravines had snow. On the return trip by boat only 
a single piece of ice was seen. Weather during the boat trip varied from cool 
to warm, never approaching freezing. About half the days were cloudy, and 
most cloudy days had some rain. Winds were light, the maximum being 
about 40 mph. In Richmond Gulf swimming was comfortably indulged in. 
Water temperatures at collecting stations varied from 3° to 18° C in brackish 
and salt waters (the highest temperatures of 14 and 18° C in Richmond Gulf, 
10° C elsewhere) and from 10.5 to ca. 18° C in freshwater (except in Moosonee 
area where 20.5° and 24° were recorded). In Gulf Hazard, which joins 
Hudson Bay to Richmond Gulf, surface temperatures were cooled to 3.5 ° C at 
its narrowest and most turbulent point; here mist formed above the water. 

Twenty-eight species of fishes (12 marine, 5 anadromous, and 11 fresh- 
water), belonging to 14 famihes were collected. These are discussed below 
in phylogenetic order. The collection number and the number of specimens 
(in parentheses) are given for each collection of that species. 


Rajidae Salvelinus alpinus (Linnaeus), Arctic charr, 

Raja radiata Donovan, thorny skate, rale omble chevalier. 

de mer epineuse. Collections: NMC63-162 (1); NMC63-163 

Collections: NMC62-233 (1) (2); NMC63-170 (1); NMC63-173 (2); 

Represented only by an egg capsule. Al- NMC63-178 (1); NMC 63-180 (1); NMC 

though the capsule is of smaller size (36x48 63-197 (not kept); NMC 63-199 (3); NMC 

mm) than those given by Vladykov (1936), 63-204 (2); NMC63-226 (2). 

48-73x66-90 mm, they are within the limits This species is being commercially fished 

of those given by Jensen (1948), 24-41x45-66. by Eskimos in Richmond Gulf with Depart- 

Raja radiata is the only skate known from ment of Northern Affairs co-operation. 

Richmond Gulf (Edwards 1961), or indeed Salvelimis fontinalis (Mitchell), brook charr 

Hudson Bay. (trout), omble de la fontaine. 

Salmonidae Collections: NMC63-169 (1); NMC63-176 

Salmoninea (2); NMC63-177 (1); NMC63-178 (1); 

Salvelinus namayciish (Walbaum), lake NMC63-205 (1); NMC63-208 (2); NMC 

charr (trout), touladi. Figure 2. 63-220 (2); NMC63-221 (26); NMC63-228 

Collections: NMC63-208 (2). (22). 

One specimen had eaten half a dozen Pim- Specimens from the lower lake Broughton 

gitiiis pungitius. Island (NMC63-208) were apparently sea- 


McAllister: Fish From Hudson Bay 


80 W 


- ' ^— nmc63— 162to180 

75° W 

60° N 

nmc63— 195 to 197 
nmic 63 198 

nmc 63— 200 to 202 

nmc63 — 203 to 205 


nmc 63-208 to 210 

nmc 63- — 199 

nmc 63-206 to 207 11 

nmc 6 3—213 fif^Nastapoka.R. 

nmc 63-227 to23a 
nmc 63-221 to222 

nmc 63-223to224 

„_.^ co-_o<^x-o< g nmc 63-225 

nmc 63 -21 4 to 216 ^o — ^-^^ 

nmc 63-21 8 to 220 nmc bJ-2 26 

nmc63-232 nmc63-217 

nmc63-211 to212 

nn.c 63—231,233,234 

Figure 1. Map of eastern Hudson Bay showing collection sites of 1963 National Museum 
of Canada expedition. The Moosonee sites in southern James Bay are not shown. 
Numbers preceded by NMC are catalogue numbers. 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

run, as evidenced by copepods in their 
mouths. The Povungnituk specimens ap- 
parently extend the known range north- 
ward over 50 miles from the previous nor- 
thernmost point of Payne Lake, mouth of 
outlet, reported by Legendre and Rousseau 
(1949). Brook charr specimens from 15 
miles inland were also seen at Port Harrison 
(but not preserved). 

Prosopiimi cylindraceum (Pallas), round 

WHiTEFisH, menomini. 
Collections: NMC63-178 (1); NMC63-180 
(1); NMC63-228 (3); NMC63-229 (1). 

All collections were from fresh water, ex- 
cept Ni'VIC63-229 which was brackish. The 
northernmost Quebec record in the litera- 
ture appears to be Bateman's {in Harper, 
1961) at Iron Lake south of Leaf Bay. The 
Povungnituk specimens are from over 75 
miles north of this point. The species is 
known north of Povungnituk in the western 
Arctic, however. 

Coregonus artedi Lesueur, Cisco, cisco. Figure 

Collections: NMC63-171 (1); NMC63-220 
(11); NMC63-225 (1); NMC63-229 (2). 

This species has apparently been known 
north only to Fort Chimo, in Quebec. The 
Povungnituk specimens are from over 130 
miles north of that point. The species is 
known to range further north than Povung- 
nituk in central Arctic Canada. 

Coregonus clupeaformis (Mitchell), lake 

AVHiTEFisH, cotcgone de lac. Figure 8. 
Collections: NMC63-171 (1); NMC63-176 
(3); NMC63-177 (9); NMC63-178 (4); 
NMC63-180 (5); NMC63-204 (6); NMC 
63-220 (1); NMC63-229 (1); NMC 63-236 
(104); NMC63-239 (1). 

The northernmost Quebec record appears 
to be the lower Leaf River. The Povung- 
nituk specimens recorded here extend the 
known Quebec range over 75 miles further 
north. The species does occur further north 
than Povungnituk in the western Arctic. 
This species is being commercially caught 
in Richmond Gulf by Eskimos with Depart- 
ment of Northern Affairs' cooperation. 


Mallotiis villosus (Miiller), capelin, capelan. 
Collections: NMC63-220 (60) . 

About a thousand capelin were caught in 
one overnight set of a 30x6 feet panel of i- 
inch mesh; 60 were kept. 


Esox lucius Linnaeus, northern pike, grand 

Collections: NMC63-238 (2). 

Pike were reported in Clearwater Lake, 
inland from Richmond Gulf. 

Catostomus catostomus (Forster), longnose 

sucker, meunier. 
Collections: NMC63-166 (1); NMC63-176 
(4); NMC63-178 (4); NMC63-180 (1); 
NMC63-221 (29); NMC63-222 (2); NMC 
63-237 (1). 

The most northerly record previously 
reported appears to be that of Dunbar and 
Hildebrand (1952) for the Leaf River. The 
Povungnituk specimens reported here are 
at least 75 miles north of this point. 

Rhinichthys cataractae (Valenciennes), long- 
nose DACE, goujon a long nez. 
Collections: NMC63-213 (27); NMC63-221 

The upper lip and lower fins of the Deer 
River specimens were red. The Nastopoka 
River specimens, though not constituting a 
northern record (they extend north in the 
interior to Whale River (Power and Oliver, 
1961), are further north on the Hudson Bay 
coast than previous records. 

Couesius pliiTnbeus (Agassiz), lake chub, 

mene de lac. 
Collections: l<iMC6l-21,9 (1). 

Notropis sp. 

Collections: NMC63-239 (1). 

Gadus ogac Richardson, Greenland cod, 

ogac. Figure 6. 
Collections: NMC63-162 (1); NMC 63- 
164 (8); NMC63-165 (16); NMC 63-167 
(22); NMC63-168 (6); NlMC63-172 (4); 
NMC63-179 (4); NMC63-197 (8); NMC 
63-201 (26); NMC 63-206 (4) ; NMC 63-120- 
S (skeleton on beach); NMC63-212 (1); 
NMC63-214 (2); NMC 63-233 (3); NMC 
63-245 (13). 

This was one of the most commonly 
caught marine species. Its numbers might 
well provide the basis for local fisheries. 


McAllister: Fish From Hudson Bay 


Figure 2. A lake charr, Salvelinus namaycush, 360 mm in standard length, from NMC 
63-208, a lake on Broughton Island. 

Figure 3. A cisco, Coregomis artedii, 262 mm in standard length, from NiMC63-171, a 
stream at Povungnituk. 


The Canadian Fifxd-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 



" - * - * - *. f ji 


^^-|i?^a^%Js'V> -^^ 

Figure 4. Tottenham Bay, Broughton Island, site of collections NMC63-206 — gill net in 
25 feet of water, sand, out from lefthand man — Gadiis ogac, Myoxocephalus sc orpins, 
Lmnpenus jabricii and NMC63-207 rotenone among boulders with Fucus, near right- 
hand man — Myoxocephalus scorpioides, M. scorpius, Stichaeiis pimctatus. 


Stizostedion vitreu?n vitreimi (Mitchell), 

WALLEYE, dore jaune. 
Collections: ^MC6^-2n (1). 


Myoxocephalus quadricornis (Linnaeus), 
FOURHORN scuLPiN, chaboisscau a quatre 
Collections: NMC63-164 (1); NMC 63-174 
(1); NMC63-175 (1); NMC 63-195 (11); 
NMC63-196 (5); NMC63-20O (2); NMC63- 
201 (1); NMC63-202 (6) ; NMC63-220 (10); 
NMC63-229 (4); NMC63-232 (1); NMC 
63-234 (3). 

This was the most common species of 
Myoxocephalus caught, scorpioides the 
rarest. The three species of Myxocephalus 
rarely may be caught in the same gill net set 
(NMC63-234). M. quadricornis is generally 
caught in more brackish water (7.9-28°/oo) 
and in shallower depths (0-40 feet), scorpius 
in more saline water (16-1- to 24-(- °/oo) and 

in deeper depths usually 5 to 50 feet deep. 
Myoxocephalus scorpius (Linnaeus), short- 
horn SCULPIN, chabolsseau espines. 
Collections: NMC63-201 (2); NMC63-203 
(1); NMC63-206 (12); NMC63-207 (19); 
NMC63-211 (2); NMC63-214 (5); NMC 
63-220 (1); NMC63-231 (4); NMC63-234 
(1); NMC63-235 (8). 

My oxocephalus scorpioides (Fabricius) , 
Arctic sculpin, chaboisseau artique. 

Collections: NMC63-207 (2); NMC63-217 

(13); NMC63-234 (1). 
The three collections of M. scorpioides 

were caught in generally saline water 0-15 

feet deep. 

Gymnocanthiis tricuspis (Reinhardt) , Arctic 

STAGHORN SCULPIN, tricomc arctique. 
Collections: NMC63-211 (2); NMC63-233 


In a male specimen, NMC63-211, there 
are bright white spots on the abdomen, on 


McAllister: Fish From Hudson Bay 


Figure 5. Crew of cruise, left to right, Joe, Lasarus, Charlie and below, Judd. 

the inside of pectoral fins and on both sides 
of the pelvic fins; these spots turn yellowish 
on the posterior of the body. The vertical 
fins are striped black and yellowish; the chin 
is yellowish; the head and most of the body 
are dark brown; the pineal region is white; 
the eyes are bronze coloured; the buccal 
cavity is white. 

Cottus bairdii Girard, mottled sculpin, 

Collections- NMC63-221 (2); NMC63-237 
(3); NMC63-240 (1). 

The Deer River collection extends the 
known coastal distribution considerably to 
the north, although it is known to extend 
almost to Ungava Bay in central Quebec. 

Cottus cogTiatus Richardson, slimy sculpin, 

chabot visqueux. 
Collections: NMC63-221 (35); NMC63-240 


Aspidophoroides olrikii Liitkin, Arctic alli- 

GATORFiSH, poisson alligator arctique. 
Collections: NMC63-198 (1). 


Cyclopterus liimpus Linnaeus, lumpfish^ 

grosse poule I'eau. 
Collections: NMC63-224 (1). 

This specimen represents the first speci- 
men for eastern Hudson Bay. Lumpfish were 
caught fairly commonly in floating gill nets 
set for Arctic charr in Richmond Gulf by 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

Figure 6. Gadus ogac, collection NMC63-201, from east side of Hopewell Channel, 
opposite Hotchkiss Island. Note the absence of a prominent white lateral band which 
is found in the related species, Gadus morhim. 

Figure 7. The motor launch used on the cruise. 


McAllister: Fish From Hudson Bay 


the Eskimo commercial fishing camp being 
started by the Department of Northern 

Stichaeus pimctams (Fabricius), Arctic 

SHANNY, stichee arctique. 
Collections: NMC63-207 (3). 

These specimens -were brown bodied and 
had a reddish eye, the edge of dorsal and 
anal white, the pectoral and caudal with 
red-brown stripes, the anal with yellow and 
charcoal stripes, the dorsal yellow brown 
with black spots having yello-w ocelli, and 
the chin with black stripes. They represent 
the first record for eastern Hudson Bay. 

Liimpenus fabricii (Valenciennes), slendeer 


Collections: NMC63-206 (1). 

Ammodytes hexapterus Pallas, sand lance, 
lan^on dAmerique. 

Collections: NMC63-195 (15)-, NMC63-219 
(16); NMC63-227 (54). 

Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus), ninespine 

stickleback, epinoche a neuf epines. 
Collections: NMC63-195 (1); NMC63-199 
(6); NMC63-208 (6 in stomach of lake 
charr) ; NMC63-209 (50); NMC63-215 (15); 
NMC63-219 (23); NMC63-226 (1); NMC 
63-227 (12); NMC63-232 (9); NMC 63-236 
(4); NMC63-247 (11). 
Gasterosteus aculeatus Linneaus. 

threespine stickleback, epinoche a trois 

Collections: NMC63-215 (8); NMC63-216 
(4); NMC63-218 (15); NMC63-219 (185); 
NMC63-221 (2); NMC63-226 (18); NMC 
63-227 (73); NMC63-230 (21); NMC 63-232 
(32); NMC63-237 (9). 

The collections consist mainly of the 
semiarniata type, with a few of the trachura 

Figure 8. Coregomis clupeaformis, collection NMC63-204, from mouth of Kikkerteluk 

The cooperation and assistance of Dr. A. H. Clarke and .Mr. H. D. Athearn, 
who accompanied the author on the expedition and of the able Eskimo crew 
Lasarus, Charlie, Judd, and Joe who selflessly worked long hours, greatly 
contributed to the success of the expedition. To the director of the Protection 
Service, Jean Duguay, Departement des Pecheries et de la Chasse, is due thanks 
for authorization to collect fish specimens. Howard Dove, Hudson's Bay 
Company, and Rodney Evans, Department of Northern Affairs, of Povung- 
nituk, assisted greatly in organization of the expedition. Dave Price contri- 
buted a specimen of lumpfish from Richmond Gulf, and David Neave two 
pike from Roggan River (both of the Department of Northern Affairs). The 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

elegant drawings and map are by John Tottenham. To all these persons the 
author is very grateful. 

Distribution and ecological data are presented from the 1963 National 
Museum of Canada expedition to eastern Hudson Bay. Twenty-eight marine 
and freshwater fishes are reported. The known northern limits in Quebec of 
Salvel'mus fojithialis, Prosopium cylindraceiim, Coregonus artedi, Coregonus 
ckipeaformis, and Catostomus catostomiis are extended. Cyclopterm lumpus 
and Stichaeus pwictatus are reported for the first time from eastern Hudson Bay. 


Dunbar, M. J., and H. H. Hildebrand. 
1952. Contribution to the study of the 
fishes of Ungava Bay. Journal of the 
Fisheries Research Board of Canada 9(2): 
83-128, 1 fig. 

Dymond, J. R. 1933. The coregonine 
fishes of Hudson and James Bays. Contri- 
butions to Canadian Biology and Fisheries, 
New Series 8(2): 1-12. 

Edwards, Robert L. 1961. The fishes of 
Richmond Gulf, Ungava, Canada. Pro- 
ceedings of the American Philosophical 
Society 105(2) : 196-205, 2 fig. 

Fowler, Henry W. 1961. Taxonomic 
notes on fishes of the interior of the Un- 
gava Peninsula. Journal Elisha Mitchill 
Scientific Society 77(2) :309-311, 2 fig. 

Harper, Francis. 1961. Field and his- 
torical notes on fresh-water fishes of the 
Ungava Peninsula and on certain marine 
fishes of the north side shore of the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence. Journal Elisha Mitchill 
Scientific Society 77 (2): 3 12-342, 20 maps, 
2 pi. 

Jensen, A. S. 1948. Contributions to the 
ichthyofauna of Greenland, 8-24. Skrifter 
udgivet af Universitetets zoologiske 
Museum K0benhavn 9:1-182. 

Legendre, Vianney. 1961. Ogac ou morue 
de roche, Gadus ogac Richardson 1836: 
Synonymie et bibliographic. Naturaliste 
Canadien 88(4): 85-93. 

Legendre, Vianney, and Jacques Rousseau. 
1949. La distribution de quelques-uns de 

nos poissons dans le Quebec Arctique. An- 
nales de I'ACFAS 15:133-135, 1 fig. 

McAllister, D. E. 1960. Keys to the 
marine fishes of Arctic Canada. Natural 
History Papers, National Museum of 
Canada (5): 1-21. 

McPhail, J. D. 1961. A systematic study 
of the Salvelimis alpinus complex in North 
America. Journal of the Fisheries Research 
Board of Canada 18(5) :793-816, 6 fig. 

. 1963. Geographic variation in 

North American ninespine sticklebacks 
Pungitiiis pimgitius. Journal of the 
Fisheries Research Board of Canada 20(1): 
27-44, 6 fig. 

Power, G. F., and D. R. Oliver. 1961. 
Notes on the distribution and relative 
abundance of fresh-water fish in Ungava. 
Canadian Field-Naturalist 75(4) : 22 1-224, 
1 fig. 

ScoTT, W. B. 1960. Summaries of current 
information on round whitefish and 
mountain whitefish. Ontario Department 
of Lands and Forests. Research Informa- 
tion Paper (Fisheries) (8): 1-19. 

Vladykov, Vadim D. 1933. Fishes from 
the Hudson Bay region (except the Core- 
gonidae). Contribution to Canadian Biol- 
ogy and Fisheries, New Series 9(2): 
13-61, 5 fig. 

. 1936. Capsules d'oeufs de raies 

d'Atlantique Canadian appartenant au 
genre Raja. Naturaliste Canadien 63: 
211-231, illus. 

Received for publication 19 February 1964 


Ralph D. Bird and Lawrie B. Smith 
Canada Department of Agriculture, Research Station, Winnipeg, Manitoba 

The Red-avinged Blacbird, Agehrms phoeniceus (L,), has been shown to feed 
on a variety of vegetable and animal material. Beal (1900), examined the 
stomachs (gizzards) of 1083 Redwings collected throughout the United States 
at various times of the year and found vegetable matter to be 73.4 per cent of 
the yearly average with a large proportion being weed seeds. In farmed 
areas the food of autumn concentrations of Red-wings has been found to be 
mostly grain; rice in Arkansas (Neif and Meanley, 1957); corn in Ohio (Giltz 
and Stockdale, 1960) and South Dakota (DeGrazio, 1961); and sunflowers, 
wheat, oats, and barley in Saskatchewan (Hurd, 1962). 

Allen (1914) studied the ecology of Red-winged Blackbirds in a cat-tail 
marsh in New York and examined the stomachs of about 100 birds. He found 
the food to be nearly 100 per cent vegetable in the spring and autumn, and 100 
per cent insects in the mating and nesting periods. 

This paper reports on food consumed by the Red-winged Blackbird and 
the habitat occupied by the species during its period of residence in agricultural 
and marsh areas, in south-central Manitoba, in 1960. 

Materials and Methods 
Southern Manitoba, no^v intensively cultivated, is situated in the aspen 
parkland region of Western Canada (Bird, 1961). Red-winged Blackbirds 
nest in emergent vegetation around bodies of water in the farming area and in 
large marshes at a distance from cultivated land. Their use of nesting habitat 
in two different types of areas gave an opportunity to compare their food habits 
under disturbed conditions and under relatively natural conditions. Two 
representative agricultural areas and a marsh were selected for study. 

Area I. Simfloiver and cereal crop area near Altojia, Manitoba 

Cereal crops, sunflowers, sugar beets, field peas, corn and alfalfa were 
grown in this area, which is situated 80 miles southwest of Winnipeg near the 
North Dakota boundary. A small breeding population of Red-winged Black- 
birds occurred along Buffalo Creek. They nested in cattails, Typha latifolia 
L., and bullrushes, Scirpus spp. In August and September thousands of 
migrants formed night roosts in the rushes and ranged into the adjacent fields 
to feed. 

Area II. Cereal crop area northeast of Portage la Prairie, Manitoba 

In this district, known locally as Flee Island, barley, wheat, and oats were 
the main crops. No sunflowers or corn were grown and there was only a small 

•Contribution No. 130 Canada Department of Agriculture Research Station, Winnipeg, Manitoba. 


180 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

acreage of sugar beets and field peas. There was a small breeding population 
of Red-winged Blackbirds in ponds and roadside ditches. Large flocks of 
migrant Red-winged and Yellow-headed Blackbirds, Xanthocephahts xantho- 
cephalus (Bonaparte), visited the fields to feed from roosts in the adjacent 
marshes at the south end of Lake Manitoba from July 20 to October 15. 

Area 111. Marsh area along the shore of Lake Manitoba near St. Ambroise, 

Large numbers of Red-winged and Yellow-headed Blackbirds nested in 
dense stands of reed grass, Phragmites communis Trin. var. berlancUeri (Fourn.) 
Fern., rushes and cattails. They fed in adjacent hay meadows and left the area 
by August 20, as soon as the young were able to fiy. No grain fields w^ere 
found within 10 miles. 

The three study areas were visited every second week from May through 
October in 1960. While the birds were nesting, typical study sites within these 
areas were used for observations and collections. Later, flocks feeding in fields 
and pastures, and returning to roosts within the areas were studied. The birds 
were observed with a pair of 8 x 30 binoculars and a 15x telescope, and collec- 
tions were made for gizzard analysis of at least four adults of each sex, and of 
nestlings when present, from each study site, or from flocks. In 1960, 434 
Red-winged Blackbirds were collected. 

Gizzard and gullets were removed, shortly after the balckbirds were shot, 
and preserved in 70% alcohol. The contents were examined in a petri dish 
under a binocular microscope. A combined method of volumetric and 
numerical analysis as recommended by McAtee (1912) and Hartley (1948) 
was used. The volume of food, in alcohol, was measured in cubic centimeters 
and the percentage of each item estimated by measurement over a quarter inch 
grid. Individual seeds and insects were identified and counted when possible. 

Observations on the Ecology of the Red-winged Blackbird 

Adult male Red-winged Blackbirds commenced to return in early April 
but it was not until May 1 that they were abundant and had started to defend 
territories. Females and immature males arrived about two weeks later than 
the males. Nesting commenced shortly thereafter and the first eggs were 
found on June 7. Nests were built in cattails, reed grass, sedges and willows 
growing in shallow water. Some nests were found in patches of snowberry, 
Symphoricarpos occidentalis Hack., in pastures adjacent to creeks or ponds 
without suitable nesting sites but there was no nesting in fields of grain or 
alfalfa as reported by Giltz and Stockdale (1960) for Ohio and Neff and 
Meanley (1957) for Arkansas. Roadside ditches with water and sufficient 
vegetation to support nests were utilized. A breeding population of 509 males 
and females was counted in roadside ditches on a single trip on May 24 along 
thirty miles of highway between Winnipeg and Poplar Point. Our observations 
indicated that Red-winged Blackbirds nested readily close to cultivated fields 
where grain gleanings and weed seeds were abundant since few breeding birds 
were found in a community pasture between Areas II and III that appeared to 

1964 Bird and Smith: Red-Winged Blackbird 181 

contain suitable nesting habitat. However, larger marshes such as Area III 
were used, but the birds left that area when the young were able to fly, 
presumably to join flocks feeding in fields. The first fledgling was seen at the 
end of June and the last in the first week of August. There was no indication 
that there was more than one brood of young per breeding pair per season. 

Flocks began to form as soon as the young were strong fliers. These flocks 
ranged in size from four or five hundred to a thousand or more and were seen 
feeding in fields during August and September. Most of the birds were 
migrants, some leaving for the south as others moved in from the north. The 
population was reduced by October and by the middle of the month only 
stragglers were left. 

The flocks were predominantly Red-winged Blackbirds but other species, 
Yellow-headed Blackbirds; Brewer's Blackbirds, Euphagus cyanocephalus 
(Wagler); Common Crackles; Brown-headed Cowbirds, Molothrus ater (Bod- 
daert); and Starlings, Sturnus vulgaris L., were associated with them. Mature 
males usually formed in flocks separate from those composed of females and 
immature males. 

During the flocking period the blackbirds spent the night in roosts. The 
roost was usually in cattails, rushes or Fhragimtes growing in shallow water and 
contained many thousands of birds. Suitable sites for night roosts were an 
essential habitat requirement. Three were located in Area I and several were 
known to occur in the marshes adjacent to Area II. The birds returned to the 
roost during the hour before sunset and left the roost during the half hour after 
sunrise. During the day they alternately fed in fields, drank at nearby water 
(often a farm pond) and rested in adjacent trees between periods of feeding. 
Water and trees close to food and suitable sites for night roosts were essential 
requirements for blackbirds after the young were on the wing. 

Analysis of the Food of the Red-winged Blackbird 

The total volume of food and mineral grit found in the gullet and gizzard 
increased with the season. The average, per bird, for May, June, July, August 
and September was 1.25, 1.30, 1.60, 1.75 and 2.95 cc, respectively. Only after 
the young were flying and flocks had begun to form was food retained in the 
gullet, the quantity sometimes exceeding that in the gizzard. The mineral grit 
was greatest when the vegetable food was greatest and was absent when the 
diet was solely insects. 

The food of the blackbirds in the agricultural districts. Areas I and II was 
similar. When the birds returned in the spring the food averaged 90 per cent 
vegetable material. Animal food, chiefly insects, increased to 70 per cent in 
June and early July, when the young were being fed. Vegetable food again 
became dominant when flocks commenced to form and was 69 to 94 per cent 
of the total contents when the birds left on migration (Tables 1 and 2). 
Although the adults continued to eat some vegetable food in June the nestlings 
were fed entirely on insects. 

The food of the blackbirds nesting in the large marsh, Area III, was almost 
exclusively animal (Table 3). Some vegetable material was found in the 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

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184 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

gizzards of birds taken on May 24. This had probably been picked up when 
the birds were migrating. Some of the birds taken on July 19 contained the 
dehulled seeds of a grass. 

The main items of vegetable food in Areas I and II were wheat, sunflowers, 
oats, green foxtail, Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv., and barley (Tables 1 and 2). 
Wheat averaged 37 per cent of the food in Area II but only 6 per cent in Area I. 
Observations indicated that it was taken mostly as gleanings from the fields 
since only mature kernels were found in the stomachs until mid-July when the 
current crop began to ripen. After mid-September harvesting operations had 
been completed in virtually all fields. But wheat was also removed from the 
ripening heads in the late milk and dough stages. Sunflowers were very attrac- 
tive to the blackbirds and made up 23 per cent of the gizzard contents of birds 
collected in Area I. Flocks concentrated on therfi from the time the kernels 
formed until the seed coat became too hard for them to break. They also 
consumed gleanings from threshed fields. Oats were eaten in the milk and 
dough stage and as gleanings. The hull was always removed. Green foxtail, 
which was abundant in most of the fields, was consumed in large quantities. 
Nine hundred and eighty-four seeds were found in one bird. Barley was eaten 
in the milk and dough stage. No evidence was found of barley being eaten 
after it was ripe. Sweet corn was eaten in gardens but field corn was not eaten 
to any extent except as gleanings. Fields of soup peas were visited for insects 
but the peas were not eaten. 

Animal food was mainly insects and consisted mostly of pest species 
grasshoppers e.g. Melanoplus bivittatus (Say) and Camimla pellucida (Scudd.) 
lepidoptera e.g., the larvae of the beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis (L.) 
coleoptera e.g., the sweetclover weevil, Sitona cylmdricollis Fabr., and the 
strawberry root weevil, Brachyrhimis ovatus (L.). The corn leaf aphid, 
Rhopalosiphimi maidis (Fitch), the pea aphid, Macrosiphuni pisi (Harr.), and 
the sugar-beet root aphid, Femphigus betae Doane, along with their predators, 
lacewing larvae and syrphid larvae, were eaten. Carabid beetles were often 
consumed, particularly in the spring and fall. Recently emerged damselflies 
and chironomids were taken in the early summer. Spiders and harvestmen 
(Phalangida) were eaten to a limited extent throughout the season. 

The soft parts of insects were quickly digested, but the hard parts, particu- 
larly the jaws and the chitinous plate found on each side of the knee of the hind 
legs of grasshoppers were retained for grit. One gizzard contained 44 jaws 
and 77 chitinous plates. 

In southern Manitoba the food of the Red-winged Blackbird consisted 
of up to 90 per cent vegetable material in the spring and again in the autumn. 
It was composed of the seeds of cereal crops, sunflowers, and weeds. In June 
and July, animal food, mostly insects, was dominant and represented up to 70 
per cent in agricultural areas and 100 per cent in a large marsh. Young were 
fed entirely on animal food. When insect food increased, mineral grit de- 
creased, its function apparently being carried out by the hard parts of insects. 


Bird and Smith: Red- Winged Blackbird 


Table 3. — Gullet and gizzard content of the Red-winged Blackbird from the marsh area 

at St. Ambroise, Man., in 1960 














Number of Blackbirds 









Total Volume of Food cc 










Vegetable Food 










Incidental and Undetermined 














Animal Food 

























Odonata (Damselflies) 


















































Incidental & Undetermined 

















Mineral Grit 


T . 



"Less than 0-5% 

Differences in the food items consumed by the birds in different areas were due 
to differences in local abundance of foodstuffs. 

Food consumption per bird increased as the season progressed and in the 
autumn flocking period food was stored in the gullet. 

Red-winged Blackbirds nested close to agricultural land when suitable sites 
were available. They also nested readily in large marshes remote from agricul- 
ture. In August and September they gathered in large flocks to feed in the 
fields. They required trees for resting and water for drinking close to a food 
supply. A suitable site for a night roost within a few miles of the feeding area 
was also essential. 

The Red-winged Blackbird has adapted itself to changes brought about 
by agriculture and has benefited from an abundant food supply. It still utilizes 
nesting sites in remote marshes but appears to abandon them for cultivated areas 
as soon as the young are able to fly. 


We wish to thank Dr. W. R. Richards, Entomology Research Institute, 
Canada Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, for identification of aphids, H. A. 

186 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

Hochbaum and Dr. F. M. McKinney of Delta Wildfowl Research Station, 
Delta, Manitoba for helpful suggestions and information on blackbird behaviour; 
and Professor A, de Vos and Dr. David A. Munro for criticism of the manu- 


Allen, A. A. 1914. The Redwinged Black- The Redwinged Blackbird Story. Special 

bird: A study in the ecology of a cattail Circular 95, Ohio Agricultural Experiment 

marsh. Proceedings Linnean Society New Station. 

York, Nos. 24-25: 43-123. Hartley, P. H. T. 1948. The assessment of 

Beal, F. B. L. 1900. Food of the bobolink, the food of birds. Ibis 90: 363-381. 

blackbirds and grackles. United States De- Hurd, A. E. 1962. Prevention of crop 

partment of Agriculture, Division of Bio- damage caused by blackbirds. The Blue 

logical Survey, Bulletin 13, 77 pp. Jay 22: 110-111. 

Bird, R. D. 1961. Ecology of the aspen McAtee, W. L. 1912. Methods of estimat- 

parkland of Western Canada. PubUcation ing the contents of bird stomachs. Auk 

1066, Canada Department of Agriculture. 29: 449-464. 

DeGrazio, John W. 1961. Cooperative in- Meanley, Brooke. 1961. Tlie distribution, 

vestigations on blackbird depredation con- ecology and population dynamics of black- 

trol in the vicinity of Sand Lake Nat. birds. Report Patuxent WildHfe Research 

Wildlife Refuge, South Dakota. Progress Center. 

Report No. 1. Bureau of Sport Fisheries Neff, J. A. and B. Meanley. 1957. Black- 

and WildHfe, Denver Wildlife Research birds and the Arkansas rice crop. Arkansas 

Center, Denver, Colorado. Agricultural Experimental Station (Fay- 

GiLTz, M. L. and T. M. Stockdale. 1960. etteville) , Bulletin 584. 
Received for pubhcation 20 February 1964 




Francis R. Cook 
National Museum of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario 

Collections of amphibians from northwestern Ontario are few and the present 
range maps are often inadequate for even the commonest species. This is 
particularly true for the Boreal Chorus Frog, Fseiidacris triseriata inaculata 
(the choice of scientific name for this form is discussed at the end of this paper) . 
Logier and Toner (1961, p. 38) list and map its Ontario occurrences as: 
''Cochrane Dist., Fort Albany (ROM). Patricia Dist., Akimiski Island (PC: 
F. R. Gelbach). Fort Severn (ROM). Raijiy River Dist. Emo (ROM)." One 
additional locality listed with the above but received too late to include on 
their map was ''Thimder Bay Dist., Connor Twp. (PC: A. E. AUin)." This 
should be corrected to O'Connor Township, which is 20-25 miles almost due 
west of Fort William (PC: A. E. Allin, August 15, 1963). 

On the afternoon of May 20, 1963, the writer heard several Boreal Chorus 
Frogs calling from small roadside ponds 10 miles northeast on Hwy. 11 of 
Beardmore, Ontario. One specimen (NMC 7077) was collected at that time. 


Cook: Boreal Chorus Frog 187 

The area was boreal forest with tamarack, black spruce and aspen predomin- 
ating. The chorus frogs were calling from three small, shallow grass-edged 
ponds in roadside clearings. The locality was revisited after dark and eight 
more specimens (NMC 7081) were obtained. Only about a half dozen addi- 
tional individuals were heard calling. Other species collected at this area, in 
roadside ponds or along the nearby flooded edge of a small lake, were Rmia 
clavnta?is, Rcma sylmtica and Hyla criicifer. The latter was in full breeding 
chorus and 68 specimens were collected. Tiny Raiia sylvatica tadpoles were 
taken still clustered around the disintegrating egg mass from which they had 
hatched. The afternoon had been warm and partly sunny but temperatures 
dropped rapidly during the evening and most of the collecting after dark was 
done during a light but steady snowfall. 

A survey was made along Hwy. 1 1 to Geraldton by car, stopping period- 
ically to listen for chorus frogs. They were heard at the following localities 
(recorded by nearest town and distance from it by Hwy. 11): Jellicoe, 1 mi. 
E. (few), 11.6 mi. E. (several); Geraldton, 13.7 mi. W. (few), 12.2 mi. W. 
(one), 0.8 mi. W. (one). Falling evening temperatures made an auditory 
survey east of Geraldton impractical. 

The range extension to Geraldton diminishes, to some extent, the eastern 
gap between records from the western end of Lake Superior and those from 
James Bay. Geraldton is about 150 miles northeast of O'Connor Township 
and 290 miles southwest of Fort Albany. 

It is interesting to note that during field studies in the Lake Nipigon area 
in 1921, 1922 and 1924 by E. B. S. Logier of the Royal Ontario Museum this 
species was not found (Logier, 1928). As his studies were made in June, July 
and August it is likely the species escaped notice because its breeding season 
had ended. 

A few additional Ontario locality records are available. The Royal 
Ontario Museum has five unreported specimens from Halfway Point, Cochrane 
District, collected June 1, 1942. Halfway Point is listed in the Ontario volume 
of the Gazetteer of Canada (p. 226) as on the west shore of James Bay at 51° 
54' N., 80° 45' W. This is a slight eastward extension of the range along 
James Bay from the published limit. Fort Albany, 52° 14' N., 81° 36' W. One 
ROM specimen from Goldpines, Patricia District, collected in 1935 had been 
previously cited by Smith (1956). The National Museum of Canada has three 
unreported specimens (NMC 7036) from Big Trout Lake, collected by D. H. 
Johnston, June 20, 1961. This is the village at 53° 49' N., 89° 53' W., 170 
miles southwest of Fort Severn, rather than any of the numerous bodies of 
water in Ontario by that name. 

Dr. A. E. Allin of Fort William, who is familiar with the call of this species, 
has kindly contributed the following auditory records: Rossport, April 18, 
1938; April 28, 1939; April 11, 1941; April 23,' 1946; May 25, 1946, and Fort 
William, May 2, 1946 (PC: August 15, 1963). Rossport, on Lake Superior, is 
85 miles due east of Fort William and 67 miles southwest of Geraldton. It 
is the easternmost locality known for the subspecies along the north shore of 
Lake Superior. Dr. Allin (PC: October 3, 1963) has also provided additional 

188 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

records of when the species was heard, usually the "first heard" of the year, 
from his series, The Canadia?! Lakehead, published in The Flicker. All of these 
records are from the Thunder Bay District and are as follows: April 10, 1955 
(The Flicker 27(2): 88); April 22, 1956 (The Flicker 28(2): 75); April 20, 
1958 (The Flicker 30(2): 62); April 26, 1959 [at Whitefish Lake] (The Flicker 
31(2): 49); April 28, 1960 (The Flicker 32(3): 95); April 21, 1961 (The 
Flicker 33(3): 79). The Whitefish Lake locality is southwest of O'Connor 
Township. In addition, Mr. Kenneth Campbell of Peterborough had reported 
that he collected, recorded and photographed this species within the city limits 
of Port Arthur in 1949 and 1950, and that it was heard commonly all over 
the district (PC: August 24, 1963). 

Dr. Allin (PC: October 3, 1963) also heard the species at Emo, April 26, 
1951 (This record was noted in his article in The Flicker 24(2): 92-93, June 
1952). On May 27, 1959, the writer heard it calling fairly continuously from 
roadside ponds and ditches while driving from Fort Frances to Kenora via Hwy. 
71 and 70, and from Kenora to the Manitoba border via Hwy. 17. One 
specimen (NMC 4470) was collected at Dryden, June 28, 1960. The species 
was heard at numerous localities along Hwy. 17 from 23.3 miles south- 
east of Borups Corners to the Manitoba border. May 1, 1962. All of the above 
localities are shown in Figure 1. 

The nine specimens collected 10 miles northeast of Beardmore (NMC 
7077, 7081) vary in snout-vent length from 25 to 29 mm. The tibia divided 
by the snout-vent length gives percentages of 33 to 36 with a mean of 34.1%. 
The Dryden specimen (NMC 4470) had a snout- vent length of 27 mm with 
a tibia/snout- vent percentage of 37. These are well below the 39.3% mean 
for the tibia/snout-vent percentage reported for the short-legged Boreal 
Chorus Frog by Smith (1956). Specimens reported here were measured after 
they had been killed with ether and before they were preserved. They would 
be expected to average less than Smith's figures as the latter were taken from 
preserved specimens. Bleakney (1959, pp. 202-203) has pointed out that dif- 
ferential shrinkage is common in preserved specimens. However, the per- 
centage is enough below Smith's figure to indicate agreement even allowing 
for differential shrinkage. 

The eastern limit of the Boreal Chorus Frog is still to be determined. The 
night previous (May 19) to the collections reported here from the Beardmore- 
Geraldton area was spent at Hearst, about 150 miles northeast. Due to snow 
and cool temperatures no amphibians of any species were heard. 

By retracing the field work back to May 16, it is possible to show a real 
hiatus between the Boreal and Western chorus frogs. The evening of May 18 
was spent collecting in the area around Kenogami Lake (the northernmost of 
the three solid triangles in Figure 1). Rana sylvatica, Hyla cnrcifer and Bufo 
americcmus were calling in large choruses. A few Rana pipiens, although not 
calling, were collected. The evening of May 17 was spent collecting along 
Hwy. 17, 13'/2 to lOYz miles south of North Bay (southeasternmost of the three 
solid triangles in Figure 1). Hyla crucifer and Bufo americaiius were calling 
in large choruses. A few Rana pipiens and Hyla versicolor were calling, and 


Cook: Boreal Chorus Frog 


Figure 1. Distribution of Chorus Frogs in Ontario. 
Boreal Chorus Frog (northwestern Ontario) : solid circles = published records, half- 
filled circles = new records (museum specimens) reported in this paper, hollow circles 
= new auditory records reported in this paper. 

Western Chorus Frog (southern and eastern Ontario) : solid squares = published records 
from Logier and Toner 1961, hollow squares = auditory records reported in this paper. 
Solid triangles are localities in central Ontario given in the text where Chorus Frogs 
are known to be absent. 

Rania clamitmis and Rana septentrionalis, although not heard, were also col- 
lected. At both of these localities ideal weather conditions prevailed. If 
Pseudacris occurred in these areas it certainly would have been heard calling. 

The evening of May 1 6 was spent at Renfrew, which is within the range of 
the other Ontario chorus frog subspecies, the Western Chorus Frog, Pseudacris 
triseriata triserima. Pseudacris t. triseriata, Hyla crucifer, Bufo americanus 
and Rami pipiens were noted calling. The limit in eastern Ontario for the 

190 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

Western Chorus Frog is at or near 7 miles southeast of Pembroke. On April 
28-29, 1962, the writer noted Fseudacris calling from roadside ponds and ditches 
along Hwy. 17 from Ottawa to this point but not beyond (see Figure 1). Other 
known limital records for the Western Chorus Frog in Ontario are given by 
Logier and Toner (1961, pp. 36-37) and are shown in Figure 1. 

Some additional evidence is available for the gap between the two Ontario 
subspecies of Fseudacris in central Ontario. On May 24, 1959, the writer 
heard a loud chorus of breeding amphibians from roadside ponds at 2.1 miles 
east on Hwy. 17 of Narin Centre (south westernmost of the three solid triangles 
in Figure 1). Hyla crucijer, Hyla versicolor, Rana pipiens and Btifo mneri- 
cctnus were represented but no Fseudacris were heard. Logier (1942) did not 
find Fseudacris in the Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, region. C. Bruce Powell col- 
lected for the National Museum of Canada at Massey, Ontario, from August 24 
to September 3, 1963, without finding chorus frogs, although 568 specimens of 
other herptiles were taken during this time. Unfortunately, both of the latter 
studies were carried out after the Fseudacris breeding season and auditory 
checks were not possible. 

Available data strongly suggest that, although the eastern limit of the 
Boreal Chorus Frog is not yet known, its apparent separation from the closely 
related Western Chorus Frog in Ontario as shown on previous range maps 
(Conant, 1958; Logier and Toner, 1961) is real. Auditory surveys during the 
peak of the spring amphibian breeding season in the critical area between the 
presently known limits of the two subspecies will eventually establish the area 
of separation. As shown by Bleakney (1959) auditory surveys at this time 
give positive evidence for the presence or absence of Fseudacris. 

Although Harper (1963) has recently expressed reservations on the validity 
of the Boreal Chorus Frog as a distinct subspecies, it is accepted here pending 
further study. Collection and analysis of several thousand specimens of this 
form from the Canadian Prairies, which should shed light on the problem, is in 
progress as part of a general study of that region. 

Some Beardmore specimens in life exhibited the green color phase which 
is typical of many individuals from the Canadian Prairies. This color does 
not occur in several hundred Ontario Fseudacris triseriata triseriata which have 
been examined. Some specimens exhibit the spotted pattern which is fairly 
frequent in the northern form but rare in triseriata. Although neither of these 
characters seems taxonomically significant in separating these subspecies, they 
do emphasize a difference in their gene pools. The best character for separating 
this subspecies seems to be the tibia/snout-vent ratio as outlined by Smith 

The correct scientific name for the Boreal Chorus Frog has been a matter 
of contention. Despite recent papers recommending nomenclature changes, 
Logier and Toner (1961) and Harper (1963) have retained the name Fseuda- 
cris nigrita septentrionalis Boulenger. Smith (1956) re-evaluated the range of 
the subspecies and pointed out that the subspecies name macidata Agassiz 1850 
should supplant septentrionalis Boulenger 1882. A subsequent change in the 
species name became necessary when Schwartz (1957) presented evidence that 

1964 Cook: Boreal Chorus Frog 191 

the Fseudacris nigrita complex should be treated as two species, P. nigrita and 
P. triseriata. The latter separation has been questioned but is, at least tent- 
atively, widely used (e.g. Conant, 1958). Boreal Chorus Frog is a subspecies of 
the Pseudacris triseriata group. 

The problem of macidata vs. septentrionalis centers around Agassiz's failure 
to record where he collected the specimens on which he based his description 
of Hylodes macidatus {in Agassiz and Cabot, 1850, pp. 378-379). Nor is there 
any indication of this locality in Cabot's narrative in the same volume (pp. 
11-133). However, Cope (1899, pp. 345-346) in placing Hylodes macidatus 
in the synonymy of Chorophilus triseriatus gave a description based on 
"Professor Agassiz's typical specimen," and noted three specimens from "Lake 
Superior, north shore; Prof. L. Agassiz." ' Barbour and Loveridge (1929, p. 
281) also gave the locality as "Lake Superior" and listed two specimens, number 
38, as the types of Hylodes macidatus. They indicated that this name was a 
synonym of Pseudacris nigrita. Schmidt (1953, p. 75) placed the name in the 
synonymy of Pseudacris nigrita triseriata and restricted the type locality to 
"vicinity of Sault Ste. Marie." As Harper (1963) has pointed out there is 
no indication whether he intended it to apply to the locality in Ontario or 
the one in Michigan, and if he intended the Ontario locality the restriction is 
invalid as no Pseudacris are known from that part of Ontario. 

As the specimens were collected from Lake Superior according to Cope 
(1889) and Barbour and Loveridge (1929) they must have come from the north 
shore at or east of about 20 miles west of Fort William, the most westerly point 
of the expedition according to Cabot's narrative (iti Agassiz and Cabot, 1850, 
pp. 11-133). Specimens from this area were correctly assigned to the Boreal 
Chorus Frog by Smith (1956) and macidata must therefore replace septentrio- 
nalis as he suggested. Previous assignments of macidata to the synonymy 
of nigrita or triseriata are invalid. Pseudacris is known along the north shore 
of Lake Superior only as far east as Rossport, although it may yet be found 
farther east. Lacking any other evidence, the type locality has to be arbitrarily 
chosen from somewhere within this area. As the Boreal Chorus Frog occurs 
at Fort William and the expedition is known to have stopped and explored 
there {in Agassiz and Cabot, 1850, p. 80-88), the corrected type locality 
designated here is the vicinity of Fort William, Ontario. This correction is in 
accordance with Recommendation 72E of the 1961 International Code of 
Zoological Nomenclature which states (p. 77) that "If a type locality was 
erroneously designated or restricted, it should be corrected." 

The correct name for the Boreal Chorus Frog is Pseudacris triseriata 
maculata. Its synonymy is that presented by Smith (1956) with the addition 
of the change in species name from Pseudacris nigrita to Pseudacris triseriata 
according to Schwartz (1957) and the type locality corrected to "the vicinity 
of Fort William, Ontario" of this paper. 

The writer would like to express his appreciation to Dr. A. E. AUin for 
permission to use his unpublished data and for compiling a list of the records 
which he published in The Flicker; to Kenneth Campbell for contributing 

192 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

unpublished records and to Dr. W. B. Scott and Dr. E. J. Grossman for the 
loan of specimens in the Royal Ontario Museum. 

Particular thanks are due to R. A. Henry and C, Bruce Powell who assisted 
in the field in 1960 and 1963 respectively, and to Joyce C. Cook who prepared 
the map. 


Nine specimens collected 10 miles northeast of Beardmore on May 20, 
1963, and auditory records between this point and Geraldton extend the range 
of the Boreal Chorus Frog eastward in northwestern Ontario. Additional 
records for northeastern Ontario, including Halfway Point, an eastern extension 
along James Bay, and Rossport, an eastern extension along Lake Superior, 
are reported. 

The reported gap between the range limit of the Boreal Chorus Frog and 
the Western Chorus Frog is real as substantiated by three localities between 
the known range of the two subspecies where no Fseiidacris were calling during 
observations at the height of the spring amphibian breeding period. 

The nomenclatorial problem of the correct scientific name for the Boreal 
Chorus Frog is discussed and the name Pseudacris triseriata nmculata is 
accepted. The erroneous type locality restriction of Schmidt (1953) is 
rejected and a replacement, vicinity of Fort William, Ontario, is designated. 


Agassiz, Louis and J. Elliot Cabot. 1850. gation of the Lake Nipigon region, Ontario 

Lake Superior: its physical character, Transactions of the Royal Canadian In- 

vegetation, and animals, compared with stitute 16 pt. 2):233-291. 

those of other and similar regions. Boston. . 1942. Reptiles and amphibians 

pp. i-xii, 9-428, 16 pi. 1 map. of the Sauk Ste. Marie region, Ontario. 

Barbour, Thomas and Arthur Loveridge. pp. 154-163 In Snyder, L. L., E. B. S. 
1929. Typical reptiles and amphibians. Logier and T. B. Kurata. 1942. A faunal 
Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative investigation of the Sauk Ste. Marie re- 
Zoology 69(10) : 205-360. gion, Ontario. Transactions of the Royal 

Bleakney, Sherman. 1959. Post glacial Canadian Institute 24(pt. 1) : 99-165. 

dispersal of the Western Chorus Frog in Logier, E. B. S. and G. C. Toner. 1961. 

eastern Canada. The Canadian Field-Nat- Check list of the amphibians and reptiles 

uralist 73 (4): 197-205. of Canada and Alaska. Royal Ontario 

Conant, Roger. 1958. A field guide to Museum, Life Sciences Division, Contri- 

reptiles and amphibians of the United bution No. 53:1-92. 

States and Canada east of the 100th meri- Schmidt, Karl P. 1953. A check list of 

dian. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, pp. North American amphibians and reptiles, 

i-xv, 1-366. Sixth Edition. American Society of Ich- 

CoPE, E. D. 1889. The Batrachia of North thyologists and Herpetologists. pp. i-viii, 

America. Bulletin of the United States 1-280. 

National Museum 34:1-524. Schwartz, Albert. 1957. Chorus Frogs 

Harper, Francis. 1963. Amphibians and {Pseudacris nigrita LeConte) in South 

reptiles of Keewatin and northern Mani- Carolina. American Museum Novitates 

toba. Proceedings of the Biological So- No. 1838:1-12. 

ciety of Washington 76:159-168. Smith, Philip W. 1956. The status, cor- 

Logier, E. B. S. 1928. The amphibians and rect name, and geographic range of the 

reptiles of the Lake Nipigon region, pp. Boreal Chorus Frog. Proceedings of the 

279-291 In Dymond, J. R., L. L. Snyder Biological Society of Washington 69: 

and E. B. S. Logier, 1928. A faunal investi- 169-176. 

Received for publication 26 February 1964 


The Last Horizon 

By Raymond F. Dasman. The MacMillan 
Company, New York (CoUier-MacMillan 
Canada Ltd., Toronto). 1963. vi + 279 pp. 


"There are many ways of life that 
remain with us today that seem already 
doomed unless some cogent reasons for 
maintaining them can be discovered . . . 
It is difficult, however, to attract people's 
attention to such problems as these under 
the present circumstances. . . . Our 
people are too baffled or too cynical to 
be much interested in a crusade, yet 
once more a crusade is needed, one to 
keep this world a fit place for people, 
all kinds of people." 

At a time when the complexity of 
controversial issues often drives the pro- 
fessional biologist into a non-commital 
refuge of pure scientific objectivity, 
Dasman has penned a strongly crusading 
and self-admittedly opinionated sum- 
mary of man's ever-increasing effects on 
his environment. He presents some 
straightforward reasons for restraints on 
the seemingly inevitable destruction of 
every last untouched refugia of the pre- 
civilized "natural" world. 

From two thought-provoking intro- 
ductory chapters which stress the rapid- 
ness with which man has accelerated his 
obliteration of the former landscape, 
Dasman traces the means and types of 
change and points out ho-sv often a single 
purpose has prevailed over a perspective 
of potential over-all effects. These chap- 
ters cover grassland, fire, introductions, 
forestry, arctic and boreal regions, the 
last wild game herds and islands. The 
two concluding chapters dwell on the 
human population explosion and the 
increasing world uniformity in habitat 
and culture. The coverage is necessarily 
brief but a thirteen page bibliography 
documents the text by chapters. 

It is possible that books stressing the 
rate at which the destruction of the 
world flora and fauna is being accom- 
plished and the need for strong measures 
for conservation are merely an exercise 
in futility in a world seemingly commit- 
ted to discovering the maximum number 
of human beings that can be crowded 
onto a finite planet. However, if the tide 
can be stemmed, Dasman has produced 
an eloquent and readable contribution. 
It should be read by every biologist, 
naturalist, and "nature-lover", and per- 
haps especially by those in other spheres 
of interest with little previous inclina- 
tion or sympathy toward conservation. 
Francis R. Cook 

Where is that Vanished Bird? 

By Paul Hahn. 1963. Royal Ontario Mu- 
seum, Toronto. 347 pp. $3.50. 

The late Paul Hahn's deep interest in 
extinct birds goes back to 1887 when, as 
a 12-year-old boy living in Germany, 
he was appalled by the accounts of the 
shocking slaughter of Passenger Pigeons 
that was taking place in North America. 
Some years later he moved to Canada 
and, in 1902, when he first saw a mount- 
ed specimen of the Passenger Pigeon he 
was impressed by its beauty and sadden- 
ed by the certainty that never again 
would anyone see the incredible flocks 
that once darkened the sun. 

This was the beginning of a lifelong 
avocation of searching out and acquiring 
specimens of the Passenger Pigeon. He 
donated these to the Royal Ontario Mu- 
seum where they are now safely preserv- 
ed for scientific purposes. No less than 
seventy were acquired by Hahn, many 
of which were thus saved from eventual 
destruction by insects, fire, or neglect. 

In 1957, he became curious to know 
how many specimens of the Passenger 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

Pigeon are preserved in other institutions 
and private collections throughout the 
vi^orld. He prepared and widely distri- 
buted a questionnaire requesting infor- 
mation on specimens of this and six other 
extinct, or nearly extinct, North Ameri- 
can bird species. In the course of five 
years he received over one thousand 
replies -which showed the following 
numbers of specimens preserved as skins 
or mounts, or as skeletons, in various 
parts of the world: 

Passenger Pigeon (1532; also 16 skele- 
tons); Eskimo Curlew (365; 2 skeletons); 
Great Auk (78; 2 skeletons); Ivory-bill- 
ed Woodpecker (413; 5 skeletons) 
Whooping Crane (309; 8 skeletons) 
Carolina Parakeet (720; 16 skeletons) 
Labrador Duck (54; no skeletons). 

The book gives all the basic data 
furnished by the owners concerning each 
specimen, including (when known) the 
name and address of the present owner, 
catalogue number, sex, collecting date 
and locality, and name of collector. In 
the case of many specimens of the Great 
Auk and Labrador Duck extensive his- 
torical notes concerning the individual 
specimens are given. This valuable and 
interesting record of vanishing data is an 
appropriate memorial to the enthusiasm 
and dedication of Mr. Hahn, who died 
on July 20, 1962. 

W. Earl Godfrey 

Fishes of the Western North Atlantic 

By H. B. Bigelow, M. G. Bradbury, J. R. 
Dymond, J. R. Greeley, S. F. Hildebrand, 
G. W. Mead, R. R. Miller, L. R. Rivas, 


Vladykov. Memoir of the Sears Founda- 
tion for Marine Research, New Haven. 
Number 1, Part 3, 1963 (?1964), 630 pp., 
129 fig., 2 maps, $27.50. 

The most recent part of this monu- 
mental work has just been issued. The 
text quality of the preceding volumes 
has on the whole been maintained. The 
extensive descriptions and synonymies, 

the carefully constructed keys, and the 
figures of adults and in some cases larvae 
will make this work the starting point 
for much future research. 

The reviewer's general comments are 
few. Some authors have neglected to 
examine as large or as geographically 
extensive a series of specimens as might 
be desirable. In several sections a region- 
al bias is exhibited. Most of the charac- 
ters in the descriptions of some families 
(Engraulidae, Clupeidae, Elopidae and 
Albulidae) are external. In some species 
descriptions, characters which the au- 
thor should have examined himself are 
given from the literature, e.g. "Branchi- 
ostegal rays 10-11 reported." (p. 509), 
"Pyloric caeca, average 38.4 reported." 
(p. 527). Common names are capitalized. 

Some minor errors have crept in. 
Branchiostegals are present in some fos- 
sil Dipnoi and one is present in acipen- 
seroids; the polyodontoids lack the sub- 
operculum (p. 5, etc.). A small gular is 
present in Albula (p. 132). Clupea haren- 
gus is the type-species of the genus 
Clupea not "by implication (unquestion- 
ed)" but by selection by Gill, 1861. The 
types of some of the other genera are 
not correctly cited. 

In this volume are included the orders 
Acipenseroidei, Lepisostei, and in part, 
the Isospondyli. The long sections on the 
Atlantic salmon, Arctic charr, brook 
charr and tarpon will be of particular 
interest to the angler. 

Although the part is dated 1963, the 
reviewer did not receive his copy until 
1964. The most recent reference found 
in a quick perusal was 1961. It is to be 
hoped that future manuscripts will be 
published more rapidly although the task 
in a multi-authored volume is not easy. 

Another problem is the rising price 
of the volumes. The first was $10, the 
second $15; the present one is $27.50. At 
the present rate of price increase and 
since less than one-quarter of the fishes 
are yet covered, only millionaires will be 
able to buy the last volumes! While the 
volumes are large and use the finest 




paper and binding, they do not have 
coloured plates and are published in 
large editions; therefore one would 
think that $27.50 per volume is some- 
what excessive. 

Despite the high price, it is an essen- 
tial reference for the working ichthyo- 
logist. Its style renders it readable to the 
intelligent amateur. It would grace the 
shelves of both. 

D. E. McAllister 

National Museum of Canada 
Ottawa, Ontario 

Fish and Wildlife: A Memorial to W. J. 
K. Harkness 

Edited by J. R. Dymond. Longmans Canada 
Ltd., Toronto. 214 pp. Frontispiece. 


Among the contributions of the fifteen 
authors are: The naturalist in modem 
society, The need for a habitat, Aninial 
numbers and behavior, The fisheries of 
the Great Lakes, How -are fisheries ?nan- 
aged, A philosophy of conservation, and 
The footsteps of a sportsman, as well as 
sketches of Harkness. Among the not- 
able scientists and authors who contri- 
bute are Gregory Clark, J. R. Dymond, 
W. E. Ricker, Dennis Chitty, E. J. Fry, 
W. M. Sprules and C. H. D. Clarke. The 
variety of topics bespeaks the breadth of 
W. J. Harkness' interests. 

Despite the shortness of the articles 
each adequately covers its topic. Despite 
the diversity in authors the editor has 
managed to infuse a unity of style. Tech- 
nical problems of limnology and popu- 
lation dynamics are discussed in clear 
English. The writing is almost error free, 
and is free of sentiment. 

The vignettes of the man and articles 
on fish and wildlife will provide several 
evenings of pleasant and thoughtful 

The book is a fine and useful tribute 
to the memory of W. J. K. Harkness. 

D. E. McAllister 

National Museum of Canada 
Ottawa, Ontario 

Rowan Field Notes — A Review 

When Dr. Wm. Rowan died on June 
30, 1957, he left a considerable amount of 
unpublished written material, much of it 
pertaining to the ornithology of the pro- 
vince of Alberta. Some of this was pur- 
chased by the University of Alberta and 
deposited in the Library of that institu- 
tion. Among it were his journals, con- 
tained in a series of volumes entitled 
"Ornithological and other notes by Wm. 
Rowan". These journals cover the period 
from 1908 to June 5, 1957; the entries 
for the first few years however, are quite 
brief and apparently were made from 
recollections at a later date. The earlier 
volumes especially contain much illus- 
trative material in the form of sketches, 
wash drawings, and photographs. Each 
of the volumes is indexed. Some of the 
volumes cover periods of more than one 
calendar year and many of them do not 
begin and end with a calendar year. 

A typewritten transcription of these 
journals has been made and, under the 
title "Rowan Field Notes", has been 
bound into six volumes. Volume I in- 
cludes notes of the period 1908 - May 
15, 1921; Volume II, May 16, 1921 - Oct. 
22, 1929; Volume III, Mar. 17, 1930 - 
Dec. 11, 1935; Volume IV, Feb. 15, 1936 

- Jan. 4, 1943; Volume V, Jan. 14, 1943 

- Dec. 29, 1951; and Volume VI, Jan. 4, 
1952 - June 5, 1957. 

The transcription is a reasonably good 
but not an exact copy of Rowan's Jour- 
nals. It contains some omissions of words 
and phrases and many errors of spelling, 
grammar and English, many of which 
reflect the inability of the transcriber to 
read Rowan's handwriting or to under- 
stand his scientific and colloquial expres- 
sions. The original journals of course, 
are not entirely devoid of such errors. 
Illustrative material is not copied into 
the transcription but a short verbal des- 
cription of each illustration appears in 
its place. The volumes are well bound 
but the transcription, which was not 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

initially intended for publication, is on 
unsuitably flimsy paper. 

During the first years of his residence 
in Alberta, Rowan was an enthusiastic 
field-man whose major interest was the 
shorebirds. At that time these birds oc- 
curred on migration in great abundance 
and variety at Beaverhills Lake about 50 
miles east of Edmonton. Here he camped 
during the migration periods making 
observations and collections of skins. His 
field notes for this period are quite com- 
prehensive reflecting perhaps the enthus- 
iasm engendered by sights new to him. 
These early journals are of particular 
interest since they provide present-day 
ornithologists with some basis for com- 
parison. For example. Rowan, who never 
missed the spectacular, gives only pass- 
ing mention to Snow Geese in the 1920's 
while today they stop over in the area 
in tens of thousands. His interest in the 
shorebirds also led him to the muskeg 
areas northwest of Edmonton where he 
found snipe, dowitchers, and Greater 
and Lesser yellowlegs nesting. 

In later volumes one can trace chang- 
ing enthusiasms, taxonomy being on the 
wane and physiology in the ascent. 
There are references to the canaries and 
j uncos caged in his backyard for early 
experiments on the effects of changing 
light and activity periods. His stories of 
attempts, not always successful, to cap- 
ture crows to prove his hypothesis are 
sometimes amusing, sometimes almost 
pathetic. Descriptions of his experiments 
are not included. Still later his interest 
in cycles of abundance of some bird and 
mammal populations is evidenced by 
lists of weights of game birds taken by 
himself and his friends. At this time 
descriptions of hunting expeditions form 
a large part of the journals. 

One does not read far before realizing 
that Rowan was inclined to overlook or 
ignore certain groups of birds. If the 
journals are any indication there are 
some species not uncommon in Alberta 
which rarely if ever came under his ob- 
servation. The passerines in general re- 

ceive little attention; one may look in 
vain in some volumes for mention of 
warblers, thrushes, or flycatchers. Birds 
of prey, which were still abundant when 
he arrived in Alberta, receive little more 
than passing mention. Records of num- 
bers are rarely precise and seem at times 
devoid of the objectivity expected of a 

Among the ornithological notes are 
interspersed numerous references to his 
family, his friends, his acquaintances and 
his pets. Characteristically his pithy 
comments usually serve to give a more 
vivid picture of their author than of 
their subjects, often revealing unexpect- 
ed facets of his personality. His opinions 
are expressed freely and forcefully. 
Rowan was not one to sit on a fence. 

It is doubtful that the Rowan journals 
will be published in any but this present 
form. Copies of the typewritten tran- 
scription bound in six volumes have been 
placed on the shelves of the Library of 
the University of Alberta. They form 
a part of the regular Library collection 
and are made available to readers under 
the usual Library regulations. 

W. Ray Salt 

Department of Anatomy 
University of Alberta 
Edmonton, Alberta 

Other New Titles 

Queen Elizabeth Island Game Survey 

By John S. Tener, Canadian Wildlife Serv- 
ice Occasional Papers No. 4. 1964. 50 pp. 
-|- map. (Queen's Printer, Ottawa). 
Age Determination in the Polar Bear 
By T. H. Manning. Canadian Wildlife Serv- 
ice Occasional Papers No. 5. 1964. 12 pp. 
A Wildlife Biologist Looks at Sampling 
Data Processing and Computers 
By Denis A. Benson. Canadian Wildlife 
Service Occasional Papers No. 6. 1964. 
16 pp. 
Rabiolaria in Plankton from Arctic Drift- 
ing Station T-3, Including the description 
of three new species 

By KuNiGUNDE HuLSEMAN. Atctic Institute 
of North America. Technical Paper No. 
13. 1963. 




The Peacock Camping Book 

By Rex Hazlewood and John Thurman. 
A Peacock Book. 1964. (Available in 
Canada through Longmans Canada Ltd.). 

Birds of the Detroit-Windsor Area: A 

Ten-Year Study 

By Alice H. Kelley, Douglas A. Middle- 
ton, Walter P. Nickell and The Detroit 
Audubon Society Bird Survey Commit- 
tee. Cranbrook Institute of Science. 
Bulletin 45. 1963. 119 pp. $1.00. 

Stefansson: Ambassador of the North 

By D. M. LeBourdais. Harvest House, 
Montreal. 1963. 204 pp. 

Contributions to Zoology, 1963 

National Museum of Canada Bulletin No. 
199. 109 pp. $1.50. (Queen's Printer, 
Ottawa) . 


P. C. Adshead, G. O. Mackie and P. Paetkau, 
On the Hydras of Alberta and the Northwest Ter- 

Arthur H. Clarke, Jr. and Anne Meachem Rick, 
Supplementary records of Unionacea from Nova 
Scotia with a discussion of the identity of Ano- 
donta fragilis Lamark; 

Edward B. Reed, Records of freshwater Crus- 
tacea from Arctic and Subarctic Canada; 

George O. Mackie and Gillian V. Mackie, Sys- 
tematic and Biological notes on living Hydrome- 
dusae from, Puget Sound; 

D. E. McAllister and E. I. S. Rees, A revision 
of the Eelpout Genus Melanostigma with a new 
genus and with comments on Maynea. 


Occurrence of Some Small 
Adammals in Southwestern 

From August 24 to August 29, 1963, 
my wife Claudine F. Long and I visited 
southwestern Ontario to collect mam- 
mals. Collections were made in the vicin- 
ity of English River (August 26); three 
miles west of Dry den (August 27); and 
one mile south and ten miles east of 
Kenora (August 29). All of the localities 
are in Kenora District. Habitats were 
chiefly characterized by numerous moist 
situations where grasses and sedges were 
abundant and by the presence of spruce, 
fir, and birch growing abundantly on 
high ground. Lake-shore habitats were 
investigated at English River and in the 
vicinity of Kenora. Cleared marshy fields 
were investigated west of Dryden, as 
were woods on high ground (the latter 
with no success). I am grateful to my 
wife for helping with the field work 
and to Professor Donald F. HoflFmeister 
for examining manuscript and for his 
suggestions. All specimens are in the 
Museum of Natural Flistory, University 

of Illinois. Kinds of mammals obtained 
in this study are listed as follows: 
Sorex palustris palustris Richardson: 

This shrew is seemingly rare in western 
Ontario (Cahn, 1937, Journal of Mam- 
malogy 18: 21), but is known from 
Quetico Provincial Park. Another record 
is from Michipicoten Island, in Lake 
Superior (Jackson, 1928, North Ameri- 
can Fauna 51:180). Anderson (1947, Na- 
tional Museum of Canada Bulletin 102, p. 
20) states that S. p. palustris occurs in 
western Ontario. Two specimens (28829- 
28830, ? females) of this subspecies were 
obtained from the shore of Brown's Lake, 
English River, Ontario. They were taken 
within two meters of the water in dense 
timber, mainly birches. Both were molt- 
ing, and the pigmentation on the under- 
sides of their skins showed molt extend- 
ing from nose to eyes to pinnae to shold- 
ers to tail in 28830. In 28829 the pattern 
was similar except that immediately an- 
terior to the eyes there was no evidence 
yet of molt, although a distinct spot of 
pigmentation showed evidence for molt 
immediately behind the nose. 


The Canadian Fifxd-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

Tamias striatus griseus Meams: A. H. 
Howell (1929, North American Fauna 
52:21) recorded the eastern chipmunk 
from Ingolf, Ontario. To the eastward 
(as near as Kapuskasing) Cameron (1950, 
Journal of Mammalogy, 31:347-348) as- 
signed records of occurrence to T. s. que- 
becensis. A marginal record of occur- 
rence for the species is provided by a 
specimen (28835) from one mile south 
and ten miles east of Kenora. This speci- 
men is indistinguishable from specimens 
of griseus from Minnesota, Wisconsin, 
and Illinois, except that the mid-dorsal 
black stripe is wider and less obscure on 
the Canadian specimen than on some 
specimens from Illinois. The Kenoran 
chipmunk was trapped among weathered 
outcrops in coniferous forest approxi- 
mately 100 yards from a lake. 

Eutaniias minimus neglectus (J. A. 
Allen): Three specimens (28837-28839) 
of the least chipmunk were taken 2-2-2- 
miles west of English River in glades in 
coniferous forest. One chipmunk (28840) 
from one mile south and ten miles east of 
Kenora was trapped in sedges and grasses 
one meter from the shore of a lake. This 
grassy habitat was adjacent to sparse 
coniferous forest where another least 
chipmunk was observed. Tamias and 
Eutajnias occur together in the forest at 
this locality. 

Tamiascirus hudsonicus hudsonicus 
(Erxleben): The red squirrel, or chicka- 
ree, was seen or heard at all of the trap- 
ping localities. One (28841) was found 
dead on a highway five miles west of 
English River. 

Peromyscus maniculatus maniculatus 
(Wagner): Concerning the deer mouse, 
Osgood (1909, North American Fauna 
28:41-45) ascribed southern Ontario to 
the geographic range of P. m. manicul- 
atus, indicating that this subspecies inter- 
graded with gracilis in northern Minne- 
sota. The latter subspecies is character- 
ized by long tail, narrow skull, and bright 

upper parts; therefore, it is surprising 
that Gunderson and Beer (1953, The 
maviinals of Mi?inesota, Occasional Pap- 
ers of the University of Minnesota, Mu- 
seum of Natural History 6:104-105) re- 
fer without comment ten specimens to 
long-tailed gracilis inasmuch as their 
measurements do not fit with those re- 
corded by Osgood for gracilis. Of addi- 
tional interest are the nine specimens 
(referred to gracilis by Osgood) obtain- 
ed from Tower, Minnesota, having short 
tails. These assignments are supported 
by Cahn (1937, Journal of Mammalogy 
18: 26), who listed gracilis from Quetico 
Park. On the basis of dull upper parts, 
broad skulls, and tails shorter than usual- 
ly seen in specimens of gracilis, three 
specimens (28843-28845) of the deer 
mouse from one mile south and ten miles 
east of Kenora are assigned to Peromy- 
scus m. jfianiculatus. Their close resem- 
blance to specimens from northern Min- 
nesota is noted, and their external mea- 
surements are as follows: Total length, 
184, 177, — (subadult); length of tail, 
91, 90, 89; hind foot, 20, 20.5, 20; ear from 
notch, 18, 18, 17. A subadult (28842) 
from two miles west of English River is 
provisionally assigned to P. m. manicul- 
atus on geographic grounds. External 
measurements are: 155, 80, 20, 19. 

Clethriono?)iy s gapperi gapperi (Vig- 
ors): One specimen (28846) of the red- 
backed vole taken two miles west of 
English River, contained the record num- 
ber of eight foetuses (Hall and Kelson, 
1959, The Mammals of North America, 
2:713). Each measured approximately 22 
mm in crown-rump length. Another 
specimen (28847) from one mile south 
and ten miles east of Kenora was lactat- 
ing. Both voles were taken in dense 
coniferous forest. 

Microtus pennsylvanicus drummondi 
(Aud. and Bach.): The meadow vole 
was abundantly taken in grassy habitats. 
Two specimens were taken from two 
miles west of English River; seven were 




taken three miles west of Dryden; and 
three were taken one mile south and ten 
miles east of Kenora. 

Synaptofnys cooperi cooperi Baird: A 
specimen (28863) of the southern bog 
lemming from one mile south and ten 
miles east of Kenora provides a marginal 
record of distribution for the species, the 
second for southwestern Ontario (see 
Wetzel, 1955, Journal of Mammalogy, 
36:13). The bog lemming was trapped 
in dense coniferous forest among ferns, 
mosses, and weathered rock-outcrops. 

Zapus hudsonius kudsonius (Zimmer- 
mann): The meadow jumping mouse was 
abundant among sedges and grasses with- 
in two meters of bogs, lakes, and streams. 
Specimens were taken as follows: two 
miles west of English River, 2; three 
miles west of Dryden, 1; one mile south 
and ten miles east of Kenora, 4. 

Charles A. Long 

Department of Zoology 

and Museum of Natural History 

University of Illinois 

Urbana, Illinois 

2 December 1963 

Black Duck Breeding Record 
for Alberta 

What is believed to be the first breed- 
ing record for the Black Duck {Anas 
rubripes) in Alberta was obtained in the 
vicinity of Hanna (9 miles north and 3 
east), on June 9, 1963, when Angus 
Gavin, General Manager of Ducks Un- 
limited (Canada) and Fred Sharp, Pro- 
vincial Naturalist for the same organi- 
zation, saw a female Black Duck with a 
brood of 5 young, approximately 10 days 
old. The weather was clear with little 
wind. Identification was positive since 
the observers were able to approach 
within 100 feet of the duck and brood. 
Eight-power binoculars were also uti- 

The brood was on the creek channel 
immediately below the Ducks Unlimited 
Mattis Project. Water is maintained in 
the channel from a small pipe through 

the dam. The surrounding area is typical 
of the treeless southern Alberta plains. 
Taverner (1926, Birds of Western 
Canada) mentions the spread of Black 
Ducks westward, as do Salt and Wilk 
(1958, The Birds of Alberta). This has 
been apparent to waterfowl biologists 
working on the prairies. Black Ducks 
are now common in Manitoba during 
the hunting season and there are many 
reports from Saskatchewan and Alberta 
each fall. 

William G. Leitch 

Chief Biologist 
Ducks Unlimited (Canada) 
606-389 Main Street 
Winnipeg 2, Manitoba 
20 January 1964 

Piping Plover in Ottawa, Ontario 

On August 24, 1950, the writer collect- 
ed a male Piping Plover, Charadrius 
melodus, at Britannia Beach, Ottawa, 
Ontario. This is an addition to the birds 
of the Ottawa area and was not included 
in Lloyd's (1944, Canadian Field-Na- 
turalist, 58:143-175) list. 


979 Hare Avenue 
Ottawa 13, Ontario 
12 February 1964 

Two Interior British Columbia 
Records for the Ancient 

On January 20, 1964, Mr. O. W. Aast- 
land, a Cranbrook, British Columbia 
taxidermist, asked me to verify his iden- 
tification of a bird. On arriving at his 
place of business I was somewhat aston- 
ished to find a live Ancient Murrelet, 
Synthlibora^nphus antiquus, in typical 
winter plumage. Mr. Aastland informed 
me that this bird had been found that 
morning floundering in the snow near 
the western boundary of the Cranbrook 
city limits. 

A discourse about this rather unusual 
occurrence prompted Mr. Aastland to 
produce from his deep freeze another 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

Ancient Murrelet in the flesh and in 
similar plumage, which he had picked 
up dead during the early winter of 
I960, at a point approximately twenty 
miles north of the site of this more 
recent discovery. 

As far as I am aware, there is only 
one published record of this bird for 
the British Columbia interior, viz., Swan 
Lake, Okanagan, October 26, 1939 
(Munro and Cowan, 1947, A Review of 
the Bird Fauna of British Columbia). 
The appearance of this sea bird so far 
inland from the Coast Littoral Biotic 
Area, its natural habitat, leads to con- 
jectures as to whether each occurrence 
inland had been immediately subsequent 
to a weather disturbance on the Pacific 
coast. The finding of this live Murrelet 
at Cranbrook on January 20, 1964, cer- 
tainly suggests this, for press reports 
state that there were westerly winds of 
up to sixty-five miles per hour on the 
Pacific coast during January 19, 1964. 

Walter B. Johnstone 

P.O. Box 704 

Cranbrook, British Columbia 

28 January 1964 

A Probable Breeding Record of 
the Bobolink at Vermilion, 

On July 29, 1961, a flock of Bobolinks, 
Dolichonyx oryzivorus (Linnaeus), was 
seen at Grizzly Bear Coulee near High- 
way 41, five miles south of Vermilion, 
Alberta. After observing the birds for 
about 45 minutes, the author was able 
to count five adult males, seven w^hich 
were presumed to be adult females, and 
17 recently fledged young. Most of the 
young had short tails, and uttered call 
notes characteristic of Bobolink young. 
A few of these birds could not fly more 
than 100 yards before dropping to the 
ground. Twice the author watched an 
adult female carry food to and actually 
feed one of the immature birds. 

Several attempts were made to catch 
one of the young birds, but the wetness 
of the valley made running difficult, and 
it was impossible to exhaust any of them. 
However, these birds were such poor 
fliers that it is unlikely that they were 
born very far from the site of observa- 

The A.O.U. Check-list of North 
American Birds (1957, Fifth Edition) 
reports that Bobolinks breed in southern 
Alberta, although no specific region is 
cited. Salt and Wilk (1958. Birds of 
Alberta. Queen's Printer, Edmonton) 
state that this species is scarce in the 
province, and that it is known to nest 
around Calgary, Heinsberg (approxi- 
mately 35 miles northeast of Vermilion) 
and Camrose (approximately 65 miles 
west southwest of Vermilion). These 
authors suggest that it is almost certainly 
nesting in other regions of Alberta. 

In the summers of 1957 and 1958, the 
author was in the temporary employ of 
the Canadian Wildlife Service to assist 
in waterfowl studies around Vermilion. 
During this time, there was no evidence 
of Bobolinks breeding in the area. Thus 
the observation of the flock of 12 adult 
and 17 flying young Bobolinks reported 
herein suggests that a breeding colony 
may have been established in a new 
locality in Alberta, namely Vermilion. 
James K. Lowther 

Biology Department 
Bishop's University 
Lermoxville, Quebec 
19 February 1964 

Harris' Sparrow in Quebec 

On September 29, 1957, an adult Harris' 
Sparrow, Zonotrichia querula (Nuttall), 
was caught at St. Laurent, Quebec. The 
bird was part of a flock of Song, Lincoln's 
and White-throated sparrows, and 
Swainson's and Gray-cheeked thrushes. 
These birds were casually moving 
through some hedgerows that mark the 
boundaries between farm fields. These 
hedgerows are composed of wild cherry, 




hawthorn, elm, and ash trees which are 
overgrown with vines of Virgina creeper 
and wild grape. Some of the birds, in- 
cluding the Harris' Sparrow, were chased 
by the author and his wife into a Jap- 
anese mist net placed across an opening 
through a hedgerow. 

The Harris' Sparrow was identified by 
its black cap, pink bill, and heavy black 
streaks on the upper flanks. The black 
throat and large amount of black on the 
crown distinguished it as an adult. The 
bird was taken back to Montreal alive, 
but unfortunately it escaped before it 
could be made into a museum skin. It was 
wearing band numbered 22-108480, with 
which it had been banded immediately 
after capture. 

To the best of the author's knowledge, 
there are no previous records of Harris' 
Sparrow in Quebec. The A.O.U. Check- 
list of North American Birds (1957, Fifth 
Edition) shows that in eastern Canada, 
this species occurs occasionally around 
Toronto, Ontario. To the south, Harris' 
Sparrows have been reported during the 
winter and early spring from Connecti- 
cutt (Ball, 1946. Auk, 63: 448-450), and 
from Ingham, Ipswich, and Boxford in 
Massachusetts (Mason, 1949. Auk. 66: 
95-96). The "in-hand" observation of 
the adult Harris' Sparrow reported here- 
in appears to be an easterly record for 
this species in Canada, as well as a new 
record for the province of Quebec. 
James K. Lowther 

Biology Department 
Bishop's University 
Lennoxville, Quebec 
19 February 1964 

Additional Specimens of the 
Small-mouthed Salamander from 
Pelee Island, Ontario 

The Small-mouthed Salamander, Am- 
bystoma texanufn, was first reported for 
Canada by Uzzell (1962, Canadian Field- 
Naturalist 76(3): 182) on the basis of 
two previously misidentified museum 
specimens from Pelee Island, Ontario. 

The writer spent April 16-17, 1963, on 
Pelee Island and collected four addition- 
al specimens of this species. As these add 
to our limited knowledge of the 
Canadian population of A. texanwn, they 
are reported here. 

During the afternoon of April 16, areas 
of low, partially flooded woodland were 
searched for salamanders. Despite abun- 
dant cover in the form of rotting logs, 
no salamanders were found. The even- 
ing was cool and an auditory survey for 
frogs along the main roads of the island 
failed to detect any calls. About 9:30 
p.m. a ditch at the south end of the 
island was carefully examined. It was 
deep and steep sided, bordered by bushes 
along the road edge and by open fields 
on the opposite side. At first no amphi- 
bians were seen or heard, but three sala- 
mander eggs {Amby stoma, sp.) were 
found in relatively shallow water along 
the ditch's roadside edge. One end of 
the ditch was fairly steeply banked like 
its sides, and was bordered by an area 
covered by a few scattered bushes and 
thick matted dead grass. Crayfish bur- 
rows were numerous. An adult A?nby- 
stofna texanum was discovered in the 
matted grass about three feet from the 
edge of the ditch. Careful search over 
the next half hour in an area up to about 
30 feet from the edge resulted in the 
discovery and capture of three more 
adults. These specimens were apparently 
foraging, as all were more or less in the 

Dissection has shown them to be two 
males and two females. The latter con- 
tain eggs indicating that breeding had 
not occurred. The measurements and 
proportions of these specimens (NMC 
6904) are (in millimetres): viales — total 
length 156, 143; snout- vent length 86, 
79; tail length/total length ratio .449, 
.448; jemales — total 173, 169; snout-vent 
101, 94; tail/total .416, .444. All speci- 
mens are larger in snout-vent length than 
the only adult, a 70 mm female, available 
to Uzzell (1962). All exceed the 4i-54 
inches given by Conant (1958, A Field 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians, p. 
211) as the usual range of total length, 
but none approach his maximum of 9? 
inches. All had 15 costal grooves count- 
ing one over each limb, or 13 if only 
those between the limbs are counted. 
The colour was bluish black to slightly 
brownish in life. In three specimens the 
sides were a light bluish grey giving 
them a more or less evenly frosted ap- 
pearance. In one specimen the bluish 
grey was broken into lichen-like mark- 
ings on the sides and back. The sides of 
the tails were variously frosted or lichen- 
marked with bluish grey. The venters 
were black. In two specimens they were 
marked with bluish grey lichen markings 
and the throat and chin were solid bluish 
grey. In the other two the venter was 
marked with a few irregularly shaped 
bright blue spots and the throat and 
chin were also spotted with blue. In 
preservative all markings have faded so 
that they are nearly indistinguishable 
from the ground colour. The relative 
smallness of the mouth and head char- 
acteristic of this species is evident in all 
specimens. Tooth and tongue characters 
agree with those given by Uzzell (1962). 
The three Antbystoma eggs collected 
(NMC 6944) were in an advanced stage 
of development. The embryos measured 
approximately 6 mm and had three pro- 
minent gill stubs on each side of the 
head. Both front and rear limb buds 
were evident. The jelly capsules were 
large, and the diameter of the eggs were 
12, 11 and 9.5 mm after preservation. 
According to Bishop (1943, Handbook 
of Sala^iianders, p. 158) the eggs of A. 
texanuni may be deposited singly or in 
small clusters. A. later ale which has been 
recorded from Pelee Island as well, also 
occasionally lays single eggs so that as- 
signment of this collection is not pos- 
sible. It is likely that the eggs were laid 
in late March or early April as southern 
Ontario had a period of warm spring 
temperatures at that time and the e^g^^ 
are well advanced. If they were laid by 
A. texanum a breeding season of more 

than two weeks is indicated for the 
species on Pelee Island. 

The only other amphibian seen was a 
single Blanchard's Cricket Frog, Acris 
crepitans blanchardi (NMC 6905), 22 
mm snout-vent, collected in water at 
the end of the ditch after the last of the 
salamanders had been taken. 

Francis R. Cook 

National Museum of Canada 
Ottawa, Ontario 
27 February 1964 

Nest-Site Competition between 
Bufflehead, Mountain Bluebird 
and Tree Swallow 

Several examples of interactions be- 
tween hole-nesting birds were observed 
in the Cariboo district of British Colum- 
bia, in the summers of 1958 and 1959 
(Erskine, 1959, Canadian Field-Natural- 
ist, 73:131, and 1960, 4:161-162). Ob- 
servations at a nest, in a poplar tree at 
Watson Lake near 100 Mile House, are 
outlined in Table 1. 

The Mountain Bluebird, Sialia curru- 
coides, was remarkably persistent in re- 
building its nest after the nest material 
was removed and scattered. Suitable 
nest-holes were numerous in that area, 
although the rapidly increasing popula- 
tion of Starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, oc- 
cupied a large proportion of available 
sites in 1958. The bluebird built a com- 
plete nest and laid one c^g between our 
visits on May 17 and 20. Perhaps the 
need to lay may have prompted such 
feverish nest-building activity. 

The 14 Bufflehead, Bucephala albeola 
eggs were laid over a period of nearly 
one month. The laying sequence up to 
May 14 was normal for Bufflehead, but 
the addition of only two eggs in the next 
nine days suggested that a second bird 
had been involved. Measurements of the 
eggs (Erskine, 1960, M.A. thesis. Univer- 
sity British Columbia, p. 45 and Figure 
9) suggested that at least eight of the 
first 11 eggs were laid by one bird, and 
two by another. The last three eggs 

1964 Notes 

Table 1. — Contents of nest cavity on visits during May and June, 1958 



Contents of cavity, and remarks 

6 May 

7 „ 
9 „ 

14 ,, 

17 „ 

20 „ 

23 ,, 

3 June 

8 „ 
12 „ 

16 ,, 

19 ., 

21 „ 
23 ,, 
30 .. 

Female Buff.* on nest, contents unknown. 

4 Buff, eggs, cool. 

5 Buff, eggs, cool, under grass nest; grass was removed. 

9 Buff, eggs, cool, at several levels in dry grass of nest; grass was removed. 
9 Buff, eggs, cool, under grass nest; grass was removed. 
1 Mountain Bluebird egg in grass nest; 10 Buff, eggs under and in lowest 
layers of grass. 

1 Buff, egg in grass nest; Bluebird egg broken through grass; 10 Buff, eggs 
under grass; grass was removed. 

Buff, eggs (not counted),, warm, in grass nest. 
Female Buff, (caught and banded) on 3 Buff, eggs in grass nest. 
3 Buff, eggs and 1 Tree Swallow egg, warm, in grass nest; 11 Buff, eggs, 
cold and dirty, under grass. 

2 adult Tree Swallows on nest; contents as on 12 June. 
1 Swallow on nest; contents unchanged. 

1 Swallow on nest (caught and banded); contents unchanged. 

1 Swallow on nest; contents unchanged. 

No Swallows seen; eggs cold; no further activity observed. 

*Buff. = Bufflehead 

were probably laid by a third individual, 
although the measurements were com- 
parable to those of the first eight eggs. 

The most remarkable feature of the 
nesting was the Tree Swallow, Irido- 
procne bicolor, incubating the Buffle- 
head eggs. Incubation lasted from not 
earlier than June 9, until sometime after 
June 23, a period similar to that normally 
found for the swallow. When the three 
Bufflehead eggs that had been covered 
by the swallow were opened, one em- 
bryo that was judged to be about one- 
third term (feather tracts readily ap- 
parent but feathers not yet erupted) was 
found. The other two eggs were un- 
developed. Evidently the swallow was 
able to supply sufflcient heat to permit 
development of the tg^, at a rate not 
markedly different from that in normal 
Bufflehead nestings. The normal incu- 
bation period for Bufflehead is 30 days, 
so one-third term would be about ten 
days. Those eggs were under the swal- 
low for at least 11 days (June 12-23), 
but possibly longer. 

A. J. Erskine 

Dept. of Zoology 

University of British Columbia 

Vancouver 8, B.C. 

27 February 1964 

(Present address: 

Canadian Wildlife Service 

Sackville, New Brunswick) 

Notes on Townsend's Solitaire 
in Western Chilcotin District, 
British Columbia 

The following is derived from obser- 
vations of the Townsend's Solitaire, 
Myadestes townsendi, extending over 
fourteen years and involving seventy-five 
nests (all of which were at elevations 
between 2800 and 3000 feet above sea 

The nests seen by this observer have, 
with one exception, been built in cut- 
banks beside a road or trail. A favorite 
position is a foot below the top of the 
cutbank with a few branches of kin- 
nikinick (Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi) 
hanging down over it. Some nests are 
within ten feet of cars and trucks passing 
at the rate of about four per hour. It 
would seem that, like Robins and 
Mountain Bluebirds, Solitaires sometimes 
prefer to risk proximity to man for the 
sake of reduced danger from predators. 
However, one nest was found in a natu- 
ral crevice in a riverside cliff. 

Incubation does not exceed fourteen 
days. About 40 per cent of nests are 
destroyed by predators, by which some- 
times eggs are removed without the 
nests being damaged; at other times the 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

nest is crushed and eggs or young 
destroyed. It is probable that human 
predators are very scarce here. The 
first eggs are usually laid between May 
18 and 25. If a nest is destroyed a second 
clutch will often be started, but eggs are 
seldom laid after June 15. 

Occupation of territories (perhaps a 
hundred yards of cutbank) yearly for 
three or four years points to the same 
birds returning year after year; some- 
times in fact the nest is rebuilt in the 
same spot as last year. If a nest is 
destroyed early in the season it is a safe 
assumption that a second nest will be 
started in the same territory. 

About one out of four nests has five 
eggs, most of the remainder four eggs; 
occasionally a second nest has only three 
eggs. On one memorable occasion a pair 
raised one brood and immediately laid 
a second clutch in the same nest. 

The eggs have spots in one of two 
patterns, namely scattered fairly uni- 
formly over the entire surface, or alter- 
natively forming a loose ring near the 
larger end. 

From the laying of the first eggs to 
the vacating of nest by the nestlings 
is usually about twenty-nine days. Some 
young stay in the nest until well feath- 
ered; in other cases they leave before 
they can fly more than a few feet. On 
one occasion when young had just left 
a nest and were hidden in some bushes, 
both parents hovered closely above my 
dog and turned him aside. 

No Solitaire nest, to my knowledge, 
has ever contained a Cowbird egg, al- 
though there are usually some of these 
birds in the vicinity. 

About five per cent of Solitaire eggs 
fail to hatch, probably in most cases due 
to being exposed to direct sunlight. On 
one occasion the female (and male?) 
continued to attempt to incubate a 
clutch of eggs for such a long time that 
after they had abandoned the nest it was 
found that the eggs were dehydrated to 
such an extent that the air space occupied 
two-thirds of the egg; in fact if you 
placed the egg on a smooth surface it 

insisted on standing on end. The germ 
was found to have died about the second 
day of incubation. It was thought that 
in this case cattle feeding or resting 
close to the nest may have kept the hen 
away from the nest for too long a time. 
The beautiful song is usually heard 
continuously for about seventeen sec- 
onds, early in the morning, for a few 
days only, starting at the end of April. 
When a first nest is destroyed there may 
be a renewal of singing prior to the 
second clutch of eggs. Singing birds 
usually perch on or near the top of a 
pine tree, but on one occasion I observed 
a bird singing several times while a 
strong wind carried it upwards a hundred 
or more feet above the top of a steep 
hillside. It is thought that our western 
Chilcotin Townsend's Solitaires spend 
the winter at or near sea level along the 
coast and islands of British Columbia. 

W. Adrian B. Paul 

Kleena Kleene, British Columbia 
2 March 1964 

Notes on the Birds of Riding 
Mountain National Park, 

During the course of range management 
studies in Riding Mountain National 
Park, Manitoba, in 1962 and 1963, in- 
cidental observations were made of the 
local bird fauna. Only the more signi- 
ficant observations, which supplement 
bird lists prepared by Taverner and 
Sutton (1940, National Museum of Can- 
ada, unpublished manuscript 20 pp.) and 
Soper (1953, Canadian Wildhfe Service, 
Wildlife Management Bulletin, Series 2, 
No. 6, 54 pp.) are recorded here. Consid- 
erable time was spent in the park in the 
summers of 1962 and 1963, and periodic 
visits were made during the intervening 
winter. All observations were confined 
to the area of the park west of Highway 
Number 10. 
Aix spans a, Wood Duck 

On September 29, 1962, a male Wood 
Duck was seen on a beaver pond among 
heavy aspen forest about two miles south 




of Gunn Lake in the west-central part 
of the park. According to Taverner 
(1949, Birds of Canada, Musson, Tor- 
onto, 446 pp.) the Wood Duck is " . . . 
rare or absent throughout the prairies, 
occasional in southeastern Manitoba . . 
Thus the present record, 130 miles north 
of the International Boundary and only 
40 miles east of the Manitoba-Saskatche- 
wan boundary, is somewhat northeast of 
the usual range of the species. The 
nearest published Wood Duck records 
appear to be those of Taverner (1919, 
Ottawa Naturalist, 32(8): 142) and Seton 
(1908, Auk, 25:450-454) who reported 
that local residents occasionally saw 
Wood Ducks at Shoal Lake, about 35 
miles northwest of Winnipeg. 

Bucephala albeola, Bufflehead 

Soper did not see Buffleheads in sum- 
mer and remarked that they are un- 
common in the park at all times. On 
July 6, 1962, I observed two females on 
a beaver pond in Birdtail Creek. That 
was my only summer observation of 
this species. 

Cathartes aura, Turkey Vulture 

Although not observed by Soper and 
listed as an "occasional casual visitor" 
by Taverner and Sutton, seven obser- 
vations of Turkey Vultures were made 
between June 15 and October 20, 1962, 
and three between May 4 and September 
17, 1963. Several of those observations 
were of pairs. All were seen between 
Lake Audy and the west park boundary. 

Pandion haliaetus, Osprey 

According to Soper (1953) the Osprey 
is "a rare visitor where it has not been 
recorded during spring and summer". 
His only park record was made on 
October 7, 1946. On May 23, 1962, in the 
company of park warden George Klapp, 
I observed a pair of Ospreys fishing at 
Bob Hill Lake near the west end of the 
park. They were not seen on subsequent 
visits to the area so presumably did not 
stay and breed. 

Coccyzus erythropthalmus, 
Black-Billed Cuckoo 

This species is rare enough in the 
Riding Mountain area to warrant the 
recording of observations near Bob Hill 
Lake, Bddy Lake, and Moose Lake on 
July 9, July 12, and August 9, 1962, 
respectively. Two of those observations 
were of pairs (July 9 and 12), the other 
was a single bird. 
Surjiia ulula, Hawtc Owl 

On two occasions in November, 1962, 
Hawk Owls were seen in parkland habi- 
tat in the Birdtail Valley near the west 
end of the park. Taverner and Sutton 
(1940) listed this species as a "probable 
winter visitor" but did not observe it. 
Soper does not list it. Riding Mountain 
falls within the general winter range of 
this owl listed by Taverner (1949) as 
"most of Southern Canada". 
Fetrochelidon albifrons, Cliff Sw^ allow 

The distinctive nests of this swallow 
were seen during the summer of 1962 on 
a shed and house at the Deep Lake 
Warden Station, near the west park 
boundary. Young Cliff Swallows were 
fledged there that summer, but no mem- 
bers of this species appeared there in 
1963. Soper does not list this species and 
Taverner and Sutton (1940) did not 
observe it at Riding Mountain, but re- 
marked that it should occur as a migrant 
or nester. 
Sturnus vulgaris. Common Starling 

Several starlings were seen in April and 
May, 1962 and 1963, in the Birdtail 
Valley, but they did not appear to re- 
main there to breed as none were ob- 
served during the summer. It is not 
known how recently starlings moved 
into the Riding Mountain area but they 
may have been in the region for several 
years, since they reached southern Man- 
itoba from the east about 1934 (Myers 
1958, Occasional Papers B.C. Provincial 
Museum, No. 11, 60 pp.). However, 
Soper did not include this species in his 
1953 list. Donald A. Blood 

Canadian Wildlife Service 
Edmonton, Alberta 
2 April 1964 

Letter to the Editor 

Dear Mr. Editor: 

It takes a while for the slicks to get 
up our way, but a copy of your maga- 
zine arrived with the last load of strych- 
nine capsules from Ottawa, and I got to 
reading it, and I can't say it makes me 
too happy. 

I don't think Major Banfield has been 
as kind to Captain Mowat as he might 
have been. Not that I want to defend 
any of your two-legged monstrosities, 
but fair is fair. He hasn't been too kind 
to me either — or to the rest of the 
family. You can get used to strychine 
(I guess Capt. Mowat ain't much of a 
chemist — him and his cyanide) but' it 
takes time. One thing though, it seems 
to stretch out a wolf's life. And how 
does Captain Banfield know how long a 
wolf lives anyway? Has he been one? 
Or has he just got himself fouled up in 
a bunch of statistics from the Ottawa 
Zoo. The animal zoo, I mean. Not the 
big one. 

Anyway, fair is fair, and since Major 
Mowat won't speak for himself — a shy 
fellow, he is, I guess its up to me. That 
caribou plan, for instance. Lent. Banfield 
ought to remember that the whole idea 
of the Caribou survey was originated 
by Lt. Col. Mowat the year before Sgt. 
Banfield ever heard of it. It was present- 
ed to the Arctic Institute in the faint 
hope that some money might be forth- 
coming. None was. But the Federal 
Government (wolf-haters, the lot of 
them!) decided that it was too big a 
project for individuals, and took it over. 
So far as I known Brigadier Mowat 
never let a peep out of him when Cpl. 
Bandield took over the whole scheme, 
including the complete plan of operation 
as devised by General Mowat and a 
fine, forgotten fellow named Andrew 
Laurie who actually did most of the 
work, and never did get any credit at 
all. If I was Oberlieutnant Mowat I'd 
have sued Private Banfield for plagiarism, 
but Mowat, he's all for live-and-let-love. 
I don't think that ought to apply to 
biologists, do you? 

Terrible memory that Cadet Banfield 

has too. Can you imagine Marshal Mowat 
ordering a folding canoe? What he 
actually ordered was a twenty-five foot 
cabin cruiser with a built in bar — but 
try and get that one past the Tresurey 
Board! Folding canoe indeed! 

Now that''s a low one, that remark 
about poor Admiral Mowat's punctua- 
tion, style, and grammar in his wolf 
report. Call him a liar if you must — 
he can stand it — but to impugn (is 
that how you spell it?) his punctuation 
. . . Did Generalissimo Mowat ever 
suggest that Apprentice Banfield can't 
tell the difference between a gopher 
skull and a pickled cormorant? Not on 
your life, he didn't. 

We wolves (whats left of us) have 
decuded to fight Banfield with fire. 
We've got our own little plan under 
way for human-control. Going to get 
some help from dogs too. We plan on 
planting mesquite buttons in the places 
where those fellows in Ottawa usually 
graze. Whats the idea of that? Well, you 
see, we sort of figured that it might help 
to free their imaginations a little bit; put 
a little colour in their lives you might 
say. Do you think they'd be happy if 
we did that? Because thats what we 
wolves want — is happy people. You see 
how superior our philosophy is to yours? 
Well thats enough. But you can tell MR. 
Banfield that MR. Mowat is some sorry 
about all those letters the Deputy Min- 
ister's been getting from all those people 
who don't mind wolves, and passing on 
down the line to Mr. Banfield. It is kind 
of a dirty trick, and I suppose I'd be 
sore about it too, if I was him. 
Uncle Albert. 

Received and relayed through Daisy 
Mae, the Voice of Mowat's Instantan- 
eous Wolf Translation Service, this fifth 
day of April. 

F. M. 

Editors note: This letter, although addressed to 
the editor, reached him by an indirect route. Be- 
wildered readers should refer to a review of Never 
Cry Wolf in the Canadian Field-Naturalist 78 ( 1 ) : 
52-54. In deference to the writer the original gram- 
mar and speDing have been retained as nearly as 
possible. Unfortunately Uncle Albert's exact sig- 
nature, a more-or-less careful paw mark, had to be 
omitted from the printed version as was a note in 
Farley Mowat's handwriting indicating some dif- 
ficulty incurred in obtaining it. 



Edmonton Bird Club 

President, H. J. Montgomery; Vice-President, 
Dr. V. E, Lewin; Secretary-Treasurer, Dr. W. G. 
Evans, Department of Entomology, University of 
Alberta, Edmonton, Alta.; Field Secretary, Dr. 
R. W. TxmNER; Librarian, D. A. Boag; Audubon 
Representative, B. Sparks. 

Mcllwraith Ornithological Club 

President, W. R. Jarmain; Past President, Dr. 
F. S. CooK; Vice-President, Dr. G. Cummings; 
Recording Secretary, Mrs. G. A. MacDougall; 
Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. A. M. Coote, 644 
Base Line Rd., London, Ontario; Treasurer, Mrs. 
H. J. Wheaton; Migration Secretary, J. W. Leach; 
Migration Editor, W. G. Girling. 

Natural History Society of Manitoba 

President, Miss J. M. Walker; Honorary Pre- 
side?it, A. H. Shortt; Honorary Vice-President, E. 
Gilbert; Past President, G. S. Cotter; Vice-Presi- 
dents, Dr. L. B. Smith, H. V. Hosford; Treasurer, 
W. D. Kyle; Assistant Treasurer, T. L Smith; 
General Secretary, Mrs. H. V. Hosford, 4116 Rob- 
lin Blvd., Charleswood 20, Manitoba; Executive 
Secretary, Mrs. G. Keith; Mailijtg Secretary, Miss 


Nova Scotia Bird Society 

President, Dr. L. B. Macpherson; Vice-President, 
Mrs. Victor Cardoza; Secretary -Treasurer, Miss 
Sylvia J. Fihxerton, 1051 Lucknow St., Halifax, 
N.S.; Editor, Mrs. J. W. Dobson. 


Provancher Society of Natural History 
of Canada 

President, Ronald E. Blair; First Vice-President, 
Benoit Pelletier. Second Vice-President, James P. 
Coristine; Secretary -Treasurer, Georges A. Lb- 
CLERc, 628 Eraser St., Quebec, Que. 

Province of Quebec Society for the 
Protection of Birds 

President, Mrs. G. H. Montgomery; Vice-Presi- 
dents, Miss R. B. Blanchard, A. R. Lepingwell; 
Treasurer, Miss G. E. Hibbard; Secretary, Miss R. 
S. Abbott, 164 Senneville Road, Senneville, P.Q. 

Toronto Field Naturalists' Club 

President, Dr. D. Hoeniger; Vice-President, 
R. F. Norman; Secretary-Treasurer, Mrs. H. Rob- 
son, 49 Craighurst Ave., Toronto 12, Ont.; As- 
sistant Secretary, Miss Ruth Marshall; Junior 
T.FJSf.C., R. J. MacLellan, 416 St. Qements Ave., 
Toronto 12, Ont. 

Vancouver Natural History Society 

Honorary President, Dr. M. Y. Williams; Past 
President, Dr. R. Stage-Smith; President Dr. J. E. 
Armstrong; Vice-President, N. F. Pxjllen; Corres- 
ponding Secretary, Mrs. D. J. Martin, 2038 Mac- 
donald St., Vancouver, B.C.; Treasurer, Mrs. E. N. 
Copping; Programme Secretaries, Miss R. Ross, 
Mrs. H. Pinder-Moss; Editor of Bulletin, C. B. W. 
Rogers; Recording Secretary, Miss K. Milroy. 


Authors are a^ked to share the cost of pubUcation by paying for each 
page of an article that is in excess of the limit of twelve journal pages, 
the cost of illustrations and of setting small-sized type and tables. 


The Style Manual for Biological Journals is 
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The eighty-sixth annual meeting of the Ottawa Field-Naturalists' 
Club was held on Tuesday, December 8, 1964, at 8:15 p.m. in the 
auditorium of the National Museum of Canada. 


Members are reminded that the one hundred and thirty-first 
annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science will be held in Montreal, December 26-31, 1964. The Ottawa 
Field-Naturalists' Club is affiliated with the AAAS. 


Published by THE OTTAWA FIELD-NATURALISTS' CLUB, Ottawa, Ontario 


Albert Andrew Wood 1885-1963 H. B. Wressell 207 

The Breeding Birds of Mandarte Island, British Columbia 

R. Drent, G. F. van TetSj F. Tompa and K. Vermeer 208 

The Rusty Colour Phase of the Canadian Toad, Bicfo hemiophrys 

Francis R. Cook 263 


Two Helpful Uses of "Terylene" for Biologists Andrew Radvanyi 268 

A Range Extension for the Wood Frog in Northeastern Saskatchewan 

Robert W. Nero and Franqs R. Cook 268 

Index to Volume 78 Compiled by Mrs. G. R. Hanes 270 

Can. Field Nat. 

Vol. 78 

No. 4 

p. 207-282 

Ottawa, October-December 1964 


Founded in 1879 

— Patrons — 
Their Excellencies The Governor General and Madame Vanier 

The objects of the club are to foster an acquaintance with and a love of nature, to 
encourage investigation and to publish the results of original research and observations 
in aU branches of natural history. 

The club is a corporate member of the Federation of Ontario Naturalists and is 
affiliated witii the American Association for the Advancement of Science. 


President: George H. McGee, 2052 Woodcrest Road, Ottawa 8, Ontario 

First Vice-President: W. Winston Mair 

Second Vice-President: G. R. Hanes 

Secretary: A. W. Rathwell, Canadian WildUfe Service, Norlite Building, 

150 Wellington St., Ottawa 4, Ontario 
Treasurer: Miss Anne Banning, Box 4099, Postal Station E, Ottawa, Ontario 
Additional Members of Council: Mrs. F. R. Cook, Miss L. Kingston, Mrs. D. A. Smith, 
Miss M. Stuart; Messrs. W. K. W. Baldwin, A. W. F. Banfield, D. R. Beckett, E. L. 
Bousfield, C. G. Champ, A. H. Clarke, Jr., W. J. Cody, F. R. Cook, R. Frith, J. M. 
Gillett, H. Groh, J. W. Groves, D. D. Hogarth, P. H. Jones, E. L. Leese, H. Lloyd, 
H. N. Mackenzie, A. E. Porsild, F. H. Schultz, K. R. Scobie, D. A. Smith, V. E. F. 
Solman and G. Tessier. 
Auditors: J. M. Gillett and R. J. Moore 


Editor: Francis R. Cook Busiriess Manager-. W. J. Cody 

National Museum of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Ont. 

Associate Editors-. F. J. Alcock (Geology), John W. Arnold (Entomology), W. A. Bell 
(Paleontology), J. Sherman Bleakney (Herpetology), Arthur H. Clarke, Jr. 
(Malacology), William G. Dore (Botany), J. R. Dymond (Ichthyology), W. Earl 
Godfrey (Ornithology), A. G. Huntsman (Marine Biology), Phillip M. Youngman 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist is published quarterly by the Ottawa Field-Naturalists' 
Qub with assistance of the affiliated societies listed on the inside back cover. Manuscripts 
representing personal observations or the results of original research in any branch of na- 
tural history are invited. In the preparation of papers authors should consult the most 
recent issue and the information for contributors on the inside back cover. Advertising 
rates and prices of back numbers of this journal and its predecessors, TRANSACTIONS 
NATURALIST, 1887-1919, are obtainable from the business manager. 


The annual membership fee of $5 covers subscription to the journal. Institutions, 
however may subscribe at the same rate as that for membership. Single current numbers 
of regular issues are $1.50. A money order should be made payable to the Ottawa Field- 
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sent to the treasurer. 

Authorized as second-class mail by the Post Office Department of Ottawa, and ioi payment of postage in Cash. 

JAN 1 1 V935 


The Canadian Field^NaturalistuNivERsiTv. 

Volume 78 OCTOBER-DECEMBER 1964 NuxMber 4 



H. B. Wressell 

Entomology Laboratory, Research Branch, Department of Agriculture 
Chatham, Ontario 

Al Wood was a naturalist of the old school — the school of W. E. Saunders and 
John Dearness. In these days of specialists, it was a privilege to know a man 
who was interested in so many aspects of nature study; one who could discuss 
them with such appreciation and intelligence. 

A. A. Wood was born in London, Ontario, of pioneer stock, on May 2, 
1885. Originally he had planned to be a doctor and in 1903 he took a pre- 
medical year at Washington College, Washington, D.C. But he found that he 
could not adapt himself to certain aspects of the course and entered the business 
of tailoring, after taking a course in New York City. For some sixteen years 
he pursued this work until 1922 when he was persuaded to join the staff of the 
Dominion Entomological Laboratory at Strathroy, Ontario. While there, Al 
began preparing entomological exhibits for local fairs. His natural aptitude 
for this work increased, and eventually he prepared exhibits for entomology 
laboratories across Canada and for the National Museum in Ottawa. He 
achieved his first great success in this line at the World's Grain Show, held in 
Regina in 1933. Al, in his dry way, enjoyed telling the story of the farmer 
who visited the exhibit several times on successive days. Finally the man asked 
why the wheat plants did not wilt in the hot atmosphere of the cage. Al 
always chuckled with pride when relating this; it was a tribute to the pain- 
staking care he took when preparing the exhibit. In 1938 he was transferred 
to the Chatham laboratory and here he remained until he retired in 1955. He 
studied methods of preparation at many American and the larger Canadian 
museums and developed techniques for preparing displays of insect and disease 
injury in several media. Just before retirement he wrote a manual, "Preparing 
Insect Displays". This book shows the same careful work so characteristic of 
A. A. Wood. Besides the manual, Al published papers on a variety of topics, 
including ornithology, mammalogy, and entomology. He had a pleasant, lucid 
style of writing which was also informative. 

Al was an ardent collector from boyhood, and received encouragement 
from men like J. A. Morden and W. E. Saunders, with whom he went on field 
trips. His bird and mammal skins are found in scientific study collections in 
many museums, both in Canada and the United States. The great Canadian 
bird artist, Allan Brooks, claimed that Al's study skins were among the best he 
had seen. Al often told about rising before dawn to go on a trip before his 

MaiHng date of this number: 31 December, 1964 

208 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

day's work. He would describe the dawn chorus and the thrill of hearing a 
new song for the first time. That was how he located Kentucky and Blue- 
winged warblers — the first being the third Canadian record for the species at 
that time. He also had a very fine insect collection which was one reason he 
joined the Dominion service. Later he made a collection of flowering plants 
native to his area. It was characteristic of him to turn to a new hobby after 
retirement — the collection of lichens and mosses, where he found new Can- 
adian species. To top it off, in later years he became an ardent star watcher, 
just as the space age began! Also, after retirement, he spent several summers 
as naturalist at a camp for young people conducted by the Seventh Day 
Adventists, to which group Al was a sincere and devoted member. 

In 1925 Al married Gertrude Isobel Wilson of London, Ontario. Three 
daughters were born to them and a more devoted family group it would be 
hard to find. 


R. Drent, G. F. van Tets, F. Tompa and K. Vermeer 

Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver 


Every year some 5500 individuals of six sea-bird species gather on Mandarte 
Island to breed, thus making it the largest and most varied colony on the inner 
south coast of British Columbia. Certain plants and the sea-fowl formed an 
important resource for the native people in bygone times, and Mandarte is still 
an Indian Reserve. At present, however, infrequent egg-collecting is the only 
right exercised by the owners. 

In 1957 a permanent field camp was established on the island by the Depart- 
ment of Zoology, University of British Columbia (Vancouver), and students 
have lived there every season since (May 3-September 4, 1957; May 1-August 
24, 1958; April 24-September 15, 1959; May 5-September 1, 1960; May 1- 
August 30, 1961; May 2-August 31, 1962). Goal of the work was to present 
theses on the following topics: 

G. F. van Tets 1957-1959 Cormorant ethology 
R. Drent 1959-1960 Pigeon Guillemot breeding biology 

F. Tompa 1960-1962 Song Sparrow population study 

K. Vermeer 1961-1962 Glaucous-winged Gull breeding biology. 

Each season as much time as possible was devoted to gathering nesting data, 
the material being recorded on cards of the British Columbia Nest Records 

"Contribution No. 4 from the B.C. Nest Records Scheme, Department of Zoology, University of 
British Columbia, Vancouver 8, British Columbia. 


Drent, van Tets, Tompa and Vermeer: Mandarte 


Scheme (see Myres et al., 1957) and now on file at the Department of Zoology 
in Vancouver. In the scarcity of numerical material on the breeding of sea- 
birds in the Pacific Northwest, the data we have accumulated in the past six 
seasons warrant a general account of the island and its bird life. Following a 
brief description of vegetation, topography, climate, and a word on the 
mammals, the breeding birds will be treated. For each species distribution 
and numbers on the island, laying season, incubation and fliedging periods, 
clutch size, and survival of eggs and young will be given. The questions we 
seek to answer are, what is the breeding season of the various sea-birds, how 
long does it take the pair to raise their young, what is their average production, 
and what are the principal causes of loss. With the Song Sparrow, resident on 
Mandarte, the approach has been rather different, and the account here con- 
cerns chiefly population census and territory size. Our intent is not to draw 
theoretical conclusions, but rather to record facts in order to stimulate further 
effort in gathering precise data on breeding biology. 

Further activities on the island included banding. Banding totals for the 
breeding species are listed below. 

Table 1. — Birds banded on Mandarte Island, 1957-62 


Banded as adult 

Banded as nestling or local young 

Double-crested Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Glaucous-winged Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Tufted Puffin 
Northwestern Crow 
Red-winged Blackbird 
Song Sparrow 


115 , 










In addition, nestlings of various sea-birds were supplied to Dr. J. Koskimies 
(visiting from the University of Helsinki) for his 1959 thermoregulation work 
(not yet published), and to Dr. W. N. Holmes (Vancouver) for his work on 
the nasal gland (Holmes et al., 1961). External parasites were collected where 
possible, and turned over to Prof. G. J. Spencer (Vancouver), who has reported 
one of the records (Spencer, 1960). 

Published material concerning Mandarte is scant. W. B. Anderson lived 
on the island as warden during the 1915 season, and his brief report (Anderson, 
1916) furnishes the earliest census of the birds. There are no published reports 
from wardens in later years. J. A. Munro of the Canadian Wildlife Service 
documented the status of the sea-birds on a number of visits from 1921 to 1937 
(Munro, 1925, 1928, 1929, 1937), and in particular was responsible for record- 
ing the establishment of the Double-crested Cormorant as a breeding species. 
In later years the Victoria Natural History Society have several times recorded 
useful estimates of the birds in their bulletin. Sprot (1937) summarized results 
of Glaucous-winged Gull banding for the period 1929-34. 

210 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

Work on this account has been shared by the authors as follows, G. F. 
van Tets supplied all data for the 1957 and 1958 seasons and the cormorant and 
gull data for 1959, whilst K. Vermeer supplied the gull data for 1961 and 
1962. These data, and the nest record cards for all years for all species, were 
placed at the disposal of Drent who compiled the species accounts, with the 
exception of the Song Sparrow section, which was contributed by F, Tompa. 
The final form of the paper has been arrived at by mutual criticism. 


In the first place, we are grateful to the East Saanich Band of Indians for 
allowing us to live and work on their island. We all owe a great deal to Dr. 
M. D. F. Udvardy, who supervised the work on iMandarte, and to Dr. I. iVIcT. 
Cowan and Dr. J. Bendell, who offered advice and encouragement throughout. 
Dr. K. Beamish, also of the University of British Columbia, and Dr. A. 
Szczawinski, of the Provincial Museum in Victoria, were kind enough to 
identify certain plants. The National Photo Library, Ottawa, provided an 
excellent enlargement of an aerial photograph, from which the large scale map 
of Mandarte was made. iMr. R. H. Turley, Agronomist at the Agricultural 
Experimental Station, Saanichton, generously sent us weather records for 
his station. 

Our work has been financed by a number of bodies, to whom we give 
grateful credit: Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation, National 
Research Council of Canada, Fisheries Research Board of Canada, and the 
Frank M. Chapman Memorial Fund. 

Particular mention must be made of the help in the 1957 season of J. Takacs, 
and in the 1958 season of D. Kennedy, and we close with thanks to the Mathews 
of Randle's Landing, who have meant much to all of us working on Mandarte. 

Description of Mandarte Island 

Location and topography 

Mandarte, commonly called Bare or Ridge Island, lies among the Gulf 
Islands in Haro Strait, off the south end of Vancouver Island. Precisely, the 
location is 48° 38' N, 123° 17' W {see Figure 1). A small skerry, termed 
North Rock, lies 400 meters northwest of the island, and an islet, here called 
South Islet, some 165 meters to the southeast. 

Mandarte Island itself is some 100 meters broad and 700 long, and runs 
SE-NW along the greater dimension. The island is formed by an escarpment 
of calcareous sandstone protruding from the sea. A low broken cliff some 3-4 
meters high forms the northeast facing shore (Figure 16), and from this low 
side the land rises unevenly to the precipitous southwest facing shore, composed 
of steep cliffs ranging from 10 to 29 meters in height. Midway a groove 
scores the long axis of the island, and here the soil accumulation supports 
shrubbery and a few gnarled trees; elsewhere bare rock and scattered grass 
prevail. The low northeast shore is skirted by a broad wave-cut platform 
(Figures 2A, 11, 16), but the steep southwest shore shows only a slight nick 
at water level (Figure 3). The foreshore, then, is restricted to the northeast 


Drent, van Tets, Tompa and Vermeer: Mandarte 


p/mr/* latand 


%. Island 



12 3 



Figure 1. Map of east portion of Haro Strait showing localities mentioned in the text. 
Shallows are indicated by stippling. 

side and is largely formed by an eroded rock shelf, with a few small pockets 
of coarse shell fragments. Beach debris is virtually absent. 


Exclusive of cliff side, shrubbery and trees make up some 30 per cent, bare 
rock and grassy areas some 70 per cent, of the 5 hectare surface area of 
Mandarte {see Figure 2). Near the north end a conspicuous clump of trees 
breaks the skyline (Figure 21), the living members being five Douglas Fir 
(Pseudotsuga menziesii), three Grand Fir {Abies gra?idis), several Arbutus 
{Arbutus menziesii), and a luxurient growth of Willow {Salix spp.). Ocean 
Spray {Holodiscus discolor) forms a dense undergrowth. Age and height 

212 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

were measured for some of these trees: the Douglas Fir ranged from 60 to an 
estimated 200-300 years old, whilst the range in height was 18-21 meters. The 
Grand Fir were 100-110 years old, and the largest reached 24 meters, whilst an 
averaged-sized Arbutus was 90 years old and 19 meters high. These measure- 
ments have implications for the vegetation history of the island. 

Elsewhere on the island the tongues of deeper soil support a mixed 
shrubbery mostly less than 2 meters high. The chief components are Wax- 
berry {Symphoricarpus alba). Wild Rose {Rosa sp.), Ocean Spray (Holodiscus 
discolor) Wild Blackberry (Rubus macropetalus) and Fireweed {Epilobium 
angustifolmm), in that order of abundance. A scattering of Saskatoon Berry 
{Amelanchier florida) and to a lesser extent Bitter Cherry {Frufius ejnargmata) 
protrude above the shrub, and at the south end a clump of Garry Oak 
{Quercus garryaiia) exists. The oaks hardly exceed 5 meters in height from 
the ground, though one large specimen was 125 years old. In addition, two 
stunted Crab Apple (Mains fuse a) and several Choke Cherry (Prwms vir- 
giniana) survive along the island crest. The rocky open areas remain to be 
treated. The dominant plant is Broma Grass (Bromus carinatus), and Camas 
(Camassia quamash) is abundant. The conspicuous members of the vegetation 
have been listed, and a more detailed treatment will not be attempted here. 

There is no reason to believe that the vegetation on the island has changed 
much in recent years. The present pattern of shrub and open areas depends on 
soil depth (one thinks especially of water-holding capacity), not on the 
activities of the nesting birds or some catastrophe such as fire (cp. tree ages). 
This relative stability is made clear by a comparison of two photographs of the 
island taken in 1915 (Anderson, 1916), when the sea-bird colony was less than 
one-sixth its present size, with photographs taken in 1960. Conditions prove to 
be practically identical. One change can, however, be traced to the birds: the 
larger Douglas Fir and the plants directly beneath them are gradually dying due 
to the accumulation of guano from the Double-crested Cormorants and 
Glaucous-winged Gulls that perch on these trees. 


Kendrew and Kerr (1955) have characterized the climate of the British 
Columbia littoral as having a small annual range of temperature and mild humid 
winters, most of the precipitation falling in this season and decreasing after 
March, and with warm though not hot summers, July and August forming the 
dry season. Mandarte, leeward of the high mountains of Vancouver Island, 
Hes in a zone of low precipitation (less than 40 inches annually) compared to 
other parts of the coast, a zone that has been distinguished as the Gulf Islands 
Biotic Area by Munro and Cowan (1947), chiefly on the basis of botanical 
features dependent on the aridity. 

The closest station to Mandarte where weather records have been taken 
over a long period is the Saanichton Experimental Farm, situated on the 
Saanichton Peninsula at 48° 37' N, 123° 25' W, some 9.5 kilometers west of the 
island. Table 2 gives the 48-year averages of this station for temperature and 
precipitation over the months April-September, embracing the breeding seasons 
of the various sea-birds on Mandarte. 

1964 Drent, van Tets, Tompa and Vermeer: Mandarte 

Table 2. — Weather Records from Saanichton Experimental Farm 



Temperature (°F.) 

Precipitation (inches) 


Mean extremes 

. May 




It will be seen that the period is one of moderate temperature and little rain — 
only about 22 per cent of the annual precipitation falls in these six months. 

The Mammals 

Only three terrestrial mammals are known from iMandarte, and others 
(bats, seals, whales) will not be listed here. 1. Oryctolagus cu7iiculus — 
released on the island long ago (Carl and Guiguet 1958: 11, prior to 1915, see 
Anderson 1916) the European Rabbit has recently died out on Mandarte (last 
report 1955-56, none seen from 1957 on). 2. Feromyscus maniculatus — the 
Deer Mouse is the only mammal at present resident on Mandarte, and is com- 
monly seen about the island. 3. Mustek viso?i — although numerous on sur- 
rounding islands, the Mink has been seen on Aiandarte only once (December 
1960) and has to our knowledge never been present during the breeding season. 

The Breeding Birds 

Regular Breeders 

1. Fhalacrocorax auritus 

2. Fhalacrocorax pelagicus 

3. Haematopus bachmayii 

4. Larus glaucescens 

5. Cepphus coluTfiba 

6. Liinda cirrhata 

7. Hirimdo rustic a 

8. Corvus caurinus 

9. Agelaius phoeniceus 
10. Melospiza melodia 

Double-crested Cormorant 
Pelagic Cormorant 
Black Oystercatcher 
Glaucous-winged Gull 
Pigeon Guillemot 
Tufted Puffin 
Barn Swallow 
Northwestern Crow 
Red-winged Blackbird 
Song Sparrow 

Species of changi?ig or uncertaifi status 

Fhalacrocorax penicillatus, Brandt's Cormorant: expected future breeder 
Ardea herodias, Great Blue Heron: past breeder 
Selasphorus rufus, Rufous Hummingbird: possible breeder 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 



^77 NESTS ^44 NESTS 









;jgft BRUSH i TREES 


Figure 2. Map of Mandarte Island showing distribution of nesting birds. 

Notes on use of names 

Double-crested Cormorant and Glaucous-winged Gull are unwieldy com- 
mon names, so we have generally used "Double-crest" and "Glaucous-wing" in 
the species accounts. Latin nomenclature follows the 1957 A.O.U. check-list, 
though there are arguments for ranking the Pigeon Guillemot as Cepphus 
grylle columba, and Johnston (1961) has recently urged again relegating the 
Northwestern Crow to the subspecies level (Corviis brachyrhynchos caurinus). 


Drent, van Tets, Tompa and Vermeer: Mandarte 


Figure 3. Cliflf along southwest shore of Mandarte Island with nesting Double-crested 
Cormorants at B, nesting Pelagic Cormorants elsewhere. At A Munro's Ledge, site of 
the original Doublecrest colony. 

1. Fhalacrocorax auritus, Double-Crested Cormorant 

Census a?id distribution 

The Double-crested Cormorant began nesting on the inner coasts of 
southern British Columbia and northern Washington about 40 years ago (Drent 
and Guiguet, 1961). Of the British Columbia colonies, Mandarte was the first 
to be discovered, thanks to the vigilance of W. Burton and the prompt verifica- 
tion by J. A. Munro (Munro, 1928). Later the colony on Ballingall was 
found, but judged older in origin (Munro, 1937). Aiandarte was thus the 
second colony to be established in the Province, but it is today by far the 
largest. Available counts for the Mandarte colony are given below; a more 
detailed listing with references will be found in Drent and Guiguet (1961: 

1927 1-3 pair, the first report 

1935 5 pair 

1936 9-11 pair 
1942 15-20 pair 

1945 23 pair in original group, total not certain 

1953 145 pair total, three subcolonies (25, SS, 65) 

1957-60 135-150 pair, in three subcolonies (see text) 

216 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

It is of interest to trace the spread of the Double-crest colony over the 
island. Munro's (1937) photograph of a group of nests in 1936 shows a ledge 
we have been able to locate precisely (Figures 2B and 3). The original 1927 
nest was found in the near vicinity, and all the nests were located here until 
1942. The area continued to be used until at least 1945, but sometime before 
1957 (probably before 1953) the original ledge area was abandoned. At 
present the Double-crests are distributed over the southwest cliffs in three sub- 
colonies, the minimum number of occupied nests in 1960 being 14, 77, and 44 
from north to south (Figure 2B). Further details are lacking. 

It is evident that the first site occupied by Double-crests at Mandarte was 
not the most favourable cliff formation available, but rather represented the 
closest possible Double-crest terrain to the nesting Pelagic Cormorants, res- 
tricted to the north cliffs at that time. 

Nesting habitat 

Birds of all ages perch in the clump of Douglas Fir on the island, and court 
in them, but unlike the case at the nearby Channel Island and Ballingall colonies 
(approximately 20 kilometers distant) the Double-crest has never nested in 
trees at Mandarte. Rather it here builds its nest flat on the rock, choosing 
rounded shoulders and broad ledges along the cliffside, in contrast to the 
Pelagic Cormorant which prefers more precipitous terrain. 

Methods for gathering nesting data 

A limitation when working with the cormorants was the constant threat of 
crow and gull predation. If put oflr the nest, the cormorants were liable to 
lose eggs and small young in short order. Observation on the Double-crest 
was therefore confined to checking the nests daily by telescope from a nearby 
blind, the contents being ascertained at nest rehef or when the sitting bird rose 
to shift the eggs, etc. A further difficulty arose in following the fate of the 
young. Banding at the nest was carried out when the chicks were three to 
four weeks old, and displacement of some of the older chicks to strange nests 
was unavoidable. 

Laying season 

Progress of clutch commencement in 1959, the only season with complete 
data, is shown in Figure 4. The Double-crest is the first of the sea-birds on 
Mandarte to commence laying, the first eggs appearing in the latter part of 
April. Early layings are lost almost without exception, however, to predating 
gulls and crows. Most clutches are started in May, though replacements may 
be found up to the middle of July. In favourable years a second period of 
laying occurs in early August, and by observation of banded birds in 1959 it 
was established that some of these birds had laid previously in the same season. 
At least one pair laid a clutch of three after the first brood successfully fledged. 
Young were raised from the August layings, so in British Columbia the Double- 
crest is, potentially at least, double-brooded. The closely related European 
Cormorant is likely also occasionally double-brooded. Kortlandt (1942) gives 
six records of the raising of two broods in the same nest in the same season for 
Phalacrocorax carbo in the Netherlands. He states that in one case the same 


Drent, van Tets, Tom pa and Vermeer: Mandarte 



o 4 







I I M I I I I 1 I I I I » I I I I II I I 






Figure 4. Clutch commencement of the Double-crested Cormorant on Mandarte Island. 

parents were most probably involved, in another they were different, and in 
the remaining four identity was unknown. 

Chitch size and egg replacemejit 

Loss of eggs through predation is so common that representative fre- 
quencies for clutch size were not obtained, but it can be said that clutches of 
four predominate, those of three are common, and the maximum recorded in 
the study period was five. 

Loss of the entire nest contents (eggs or young) commonly results in a 
replacement clutch (i.e. repeat laying). In 12 first replacements (1959 and 
1960) 3 of five, 4 of four, 4 of three, and 1 of two eggs, the average interval 
from last loss to commencement of the replacement clutch was 13 days (7-8, 
8-9, 9, 11-12, 11-13, 11-13, 13-15, 14-15, 14-16, 15-16, 16-17, 19-21 days, with 
the accuracy indicated). There were two records where loss of the replace- 
ment in turn led to further repeat clutches (loss of repeat clutch of four 
followed in not less than 17 days by first of two eggs of third set; in the other 
case loss of repeat clutch of two followed in 6-11 days by one t^^, loss in turn 
and followed by first of two eggs of the fourth set in 10-11 days). The max- 
imum number of eggs laid in any one nest in any one of the three seasons 1958, 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

1959 and 1960 was 11 eggs. Replacement clutches in Phalacrocorax aristotelis 
are discussed by Snow (1960) who records an interval of 21 and one of 22 days 
between loss of the original and commencement of the repeat clutch. 

Incubation period 

Incubation commences with the first egg, though the birds do not sit 
closely at first. Laying-hatching intervals for 55 eggs are assembled in Table 3. 
Laying and hatching were each known to the nearest day, assuming that the 
eggs hatched in the order laid. 

Table 3. 

Laying-hatching intervals in Double-crested Cormorant, 

Position in clutch 






25 days 


26 days 


27 days 




28 days 





29 days 




30 days 





31 days 




32 days 


33 days 


Total eggs 






Mean (days) 




The material for the first three eggs in the clutch is large enough to allow 
a comparison, and leads to the conclusion that incubation becomes fully 
effective with the second egg, or shortly thereafter. (Throughout this paper 
position in the clutch is indicated by calling the eggs A, B, C, etc., in the order 
laid.) B eggs in 3-clutches hatched in the same interval as those in 4-clutches 
(5 and 10 records respectively), so our material does not indicate that the 
onset of effective incubation is delayed in the larger clutch. The incubation 
period for the Double-crest can therefore be considered as 28 days (mean of 
40 eggs, from second to fifth in the clutch, with a range of 25-33 days). 
Kendeigh (1952:182) quotes Mendall and Lewis that incubation in this species 
lasts 24-25 days, but without definitions this figure cannot be compared with 

Fledging period 

Precise data are lacking, but the following outline can be offered: after the 
third week short excursions beyond the nest rim are undertaken, and visits are 
paid to other nests at the close of the fourth and beginning of the fifth weeks. 
In the fifth-sixth weeks short flights about the colony are attempted. During 
the sixth-seventh weeks, when the ju venal plumage is almost complete, the 
chicks start to bathe and swim by their own choice, and gradually leave the 
colony to take up an independent life. 


Drent, van Tets, Tompa and Vermeer: Mandarte 


For the related Fhalacrocorax carbo, studied at tree-nesting colonies, 
Kortlandt (1942) states that the young fly out at seven weeks and become 
independent at 12-13 weeks of age. 
Survival of eggs and young 

Table 4. — Survival of 

eggs and 

young in 

Double-crested Cormorant 





young fledged 

per nest 


% eggs 

per nest 


% chicks 

per nest 
















Table 5. — Causes of egg failure, Double-crested Cormorant 




11 eggs, 9% eggs laid 
41 eggs, 28% eggs laid 

30 eggs, 24% eggs laid 
26 eggs, 18% eggs laid 

Hatching success was 60 per cent in 1958-59, the balance of the eggs laid 
being either lost through predation, or failing to hatch. The latter are 
grouped as "addled eggs", and owe their failure to infertility or embryonic 
death. Addled eggs made up 56 of the total 273 eggs laid in both seasons, 
i.e., 21 per cent. This compares with 201 out of 921, i.e., 22 per cent, in 
Fhalacrocorax aristotelis (Snow, 1960, calculated from her Table 8). 

Loss from hatching to nest departure is low — in 1958 and 59 only 5 per 
cent of the chicks were lost — so that on Mandarte Island the most important 
single factor influencing fledging rate in the study period was egg predation. 
Egg predation is principally accounted for by the Northwestern Crow, which 
nests on the island and constantly patrols the cormorant colonies to scavenge 
for fish scraps. These crows are always ready to seize eggs and small young 
when this opportunity arises. As an example of their destructive capacity, 
consider a 45-minute banding operation among about 120 nests of the Double- 
crest (July 8, 1960), when crows were quick to take advantage of the tem- 
porary absence of adults from the nest as the two banders moved along the 
cliff. An observer kept close watch meanwhile and observed 25 eggs and 
eight newly hatched young carried off by crows; loss by gulls was nil. The 
principal opportunities offered the crows in natural circumstances are the 
moments of nest reHef (see Drent and Guiguet 1961: Figure 55) and colony 
panics. Most 'natural' egg loss in the Double-crest probably occurs in the 
panics caused by the Bald Eagle. The Bald Eagle is a common nesting bird in 

220 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

the area, and its frequent flights over the island may reflect only the use of 
updraughts from the cliffs to ease flight. We have never observed eagles to 
take birds at Mandarte. In any case, a direct flight over the cliff^s puts the 
cormorants and gulls into the air at once, and crows (also gulls, but to a lesser 
extent) raid the unguarded nests. Bald Eagles inflict the most damage in this 
indirect way early in the season, when the cormorants are easily frightened. 
As time goes by the cormorants become less susceptible to disturbance, and 
moreover the frequency of eagle visitation declines. In the 1959 season the 
number of days on which eagles caused panics was 1 3 for May, 6 for June, and 
2 for July; in 1960 the figures were 12, 7 and 4. The decline in visitation 
presumably reflects the shift of the eagles to the rivers when the salmon run 

The Double-crest is adapted to withstand considerable egg predation, as 
could be deduced from its increase on the B. C. coast in the face of constant 
presence of the Northwestern Crow. Comparison of the 1958 and 1959 
figures demonstrates that the trebled egg predation in the latter season (reach- 
ing some 30 per cent of all eggs laid) was compensated for by replacement 
laying, such that the number of young fledged per nest remained constant. 
In 1960 (sample of 25 nests, followed by F. Tompa) egg predation again in- 
creased, but this time exceeded the ability of the cormorants to make good 
their loss by heightened laying. Predation eliminated some 60 per cent of 
all eggs laid'(72 of 119), yet the number laid per nest was scarcely higher than 
in the previous season — 4.8 versus 4.6 respectively. These figures suggest that 
replacement laying was already maximum in 1959, such that egg predation in 
excess of 30 per cent surpasses the safety margin and will cause a decline in the 
number of young hatched per nest, and thus a decline in fledging rate. 

Visitors to the island are a threat to cormorants in the egg stage, as the 
adults are invariably put off the nest, exposing the contents to the crows. 
When present on the island we were able to prevent such episodes, and it is 
significant that of the 48 eggs lost through predation in the 1960 sample, 29, 
i.e., 60 per cent, disappeared whilst we were absent on our weekly supply 
trips. We suspect that incautious visitors were responsible for the excessive 
egg mortality in that season. 

Comparable figures on egg and chick survival from the literature on cor- 
morants are those of Kortlandt (1942) for Fhalacrocorax carbo in the Nether- 
lands and those of Snow ( 1960) on P. aristotelis at Lundy. Kortlandt supplies 
figures for the number of young reaching flying age in high tree nests at 
Lekkerkerk in five seasons. In total, 211 young were raised in 119 nests for 
a mean of 1.8, but Kortlandt thinks that the Dutch average normally lies at 
about 1.25. Egg laying and hatching success were not treated. 

Snow's data on the Shag extend over four seasons (294 nests in all). 
Hatching success varied from 60 to 73 per cent, fledging success from 67 to 
95 per cent, normally lying at about 90 per cent and the mean number of 
fledged young per nest ranged from 1.3 to 2.3. Hatching and fledging success 
are thus closely similar to the Double-crest on Mandarte in the 1958 and 1959 

1964 Drent, van Tets, Tompa and Vermeer: Mandarte 221 

seasons, but as the Double-crest has a larger clutch on the average, the pair 
raises more young per season. 

2. Fhalacrocorax pelagicits, Pelagic Cormorant 
Census and distribution 

There are only five accurate estimates, based on nest counts, available for 
the Mandarte colony (see Drent and Guiguet 1961:40). 

1915 25 pair 

1936 164 occupied nests 

1958 339 nests talHed 

1959 357 nests tallied, total 370-380 

Originally this species vv^as restricted to the highest (and steepest) portion 
of the cliffside at the north end of the island, but it now nests throughout the 
length of the southwest side, as indicated in Figure 2C. The increase of the 
Pelagic Cormorant at Mandarte is part of a general increase in southern British 
Columbia (Drent and Guiguet 1961:120). When the study began in 1957 a 
group of about 40 pairs nested on South Islet, but this site was heavily disturbed 
and no cormorants have nested there since. 

Nesting habitat 

Tho Pelagic Cormorant nests on narrow ledges and brackets on the more 
precipitous portions of the cliff. At several points the recesses and crannies 
utilized suggest miniature caves, where the young are raised in partial obscurity. 
The distinction in nesting requirements between Double-crest and Pelagic is 
illustrated in Figure 3. 

Methods for gathering nesting data 

The remarks under Double-crest apply here also. In 1957 the South Islet 
subcolony was visited by night almost daily, when the 37 nests could be 
checked without risk of predation. The resulting disturbance was severe, 
however, so in later seasons observations were limited to telescope work from 
permanent blinds. The nesting habitat of this species at Mandarte limits such 
work, though, so the data are less extensive than those for the Double-crest. 

Laying season 

Laying commences in the end of May (May 16, 1957; May 27, 1959) and 
most first clutches are started before the middle of June, as shown in Figure 5 
for the 1957, 58, and 59 seasons. Replacement clutches may occur through an 
additional one and one-half months (fresh August 4, 1958). At Race Rocks, 
B.C., (48° 18' N, 123° 32' W) in 1958 G. C. Odium (BCNRS) noted the first 
eggs on May 26, and recorded 14 of the total 27 clutches as being started in 
the second week of June. 

Clutch size and egg replacement 

Modal clutch size for 56 clutches in the fourth week of June (1957 and 
1958) was four, and the maximum six. If the entire clutch is lost a replacement 
clutch may appear, as in the Double-crest and the Shag (Snow, 1960). Of 28 


The Canadian Fiei.d-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

nests of the Pelagic Cormorant where the original clutch was lost, the follow- 
ing number of eggs appeared: 

eggs 10 nests 

1 egg 13 nests 

2 eggs 4 nests 

3 eggs 1 nest 

The maximum number of eggs laid in any one nest in the course of the 
season was seven, i.e., there are no records of more than one replacement clutch 

Incubation period 

Incubation periods of marked eggs were determined in 1957, and there are 
21 records where the events of laying and hatching (i.e. young free of shell) 
are each known to the nearest day. 

Table 6. — Laying-hatching intervals in Pelagic Cormorant Position 
in clutch indicated 





28 days 


29 days 


30 days 




31 days 



32 days 





Mean for the 20 B, C, and D eggs is 30.7 days, and assuming that incubation 
becomes effective with the laying of the second or third egg as in the Double- 
crest, 3 1 days can serve as a provisional figure for the incubation period in the 
Pelagic Cormorant. No critical figures are known to us from the literature. 
For comparison, the following figures for Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Snow, 
1960) may be cited. Seven eggs second or third in the clutch hatched in 30 
or 31 days, and eight eggs first in the clutch in 32-35 days. 

Fledging period 

The chicks in some nests could be followed through to the close of the 
season, as owing to the nesting habitat banding did not cause such a severe 
shufiling of young as in the Double-crest. Age at nest departure was accur- 
ately ascertained for seven young in six different nests (1957, 1958, 1959) as 
follows: 42, 44, 48, 48, 49-51, 50-52, 50-51 days of age. The data are few as 
most of the chicks of known age had not left the nest at the close of observation. 
The maximum recorded for a young still in the nest was 58 days. Thus the 
only conclusion to be drawn from our figures is that nest departure begins at 
40-50 days of age. Swartz and Cox (in press) report one fledgling Pelagic 
Cormorant leaving the nest at 53-56 days, another at 56-60 days of age. At 
what age the young finally become independent was not determined. For 
comparison Snow (1960) found Phalacrocorax aristotelis young to leave the 
nest at 48-58 days of age, with a mean of 53 days for 35 observations. 


Drent, van Tets, Tompa and Vermeer: Mandarte 















00 to ^ Cm 

saifotnfo ;o jaquunu 


o ^ 









Figure 5. Clutch commencement of the Pelagic Cormorant on Mandarte Island. 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

Survival of eggs ■and young 

Table 7. — Survival of eggs and young in the Pelagic Cormorant 




per nest 


young fledged 


% eggs 

per nest 


% chicks 

per nest 












The 1957 data stem from the South Islet sub-colony visited by night, where 
loss of young after hatching was unusually heavy and hence is not entered 
here. For this season the causes of egg failure can be broken down as follows: 

45 eggs predated, 32% eggs laid 

26 eggs addled, 18% eggs laid 

The 1958 and 1959 data derive from nests observed by telescope from the 
north blind, and though the fate of the eggs could not be followed satisfactorily, 
figures from hatching onwards were obtained. 

The rather small material shows no striking difference from the Double- 
crest, but it does seem that the Pelagic is unable to lay as many eggs under 
similar predation pressure. The Pelagic Cormorant produces about the same 
number of young fledged per nest as the Shag (Snow, 1960: figures cited under 
Double-crest) though it starts with a larger clutch, the higher predation at 
Mandarte eliminating the difference. 

3 . Hae?natopus bach?nani, Black Oystercatcher 
Census and distribution 

A photograph of a nest with eggs taken in May 1896 by Dawson (Dawson 
and Bowles, 1909) furnishes the earliest breeding evidence for Mandarte, 
Eggs in the Provincial Museum collections were taken June 24, 1908 and June 
10 and 16, 1910. Thereafter records are scant, and the oystercatcher was 
apparently absent from the island for a number of years. Anderson (1916), 
warden on the island in 1915, wrote "the rare Black or Bachman's Oyster- 
catcher, in former years plentiful, has disappeared". Munro makes no mention 
of oystercatchers in the accounts of his visits in 1921, 1923, 1927, and 1936 
(Munro, 1925, 1929, 1937). The first positive record after 1910 was furnished 
by Mr. A. L. Meugens of New Westminster, who photographed a nest with 
2 eggs May 25 and 27, 1945. 

In our period on the island, two pair have nested every season, one on the 
northeast shore north of camp (1957-1961) the other on South Islet 1957-1959, 
and the south end of Mandarte 1960-1961. The adults were not banded, so it 
is not known if the same individuals were involved each season. Other nesting- 
sites of the Black Oystercatcher in the area are Imrie Island (eggs 1958, 1959, 


Drent, van Tets, Tompa and Vermeer: Mandarte 


Figure 6. Double-crested Cormorant, the northern sub-colony, also show n on Fig. 3 at B. 

Figure 7. Incubating Double-crested Cormorant, note bulky stick nest. 
Figure 8. Typical Glaucous-winged Gull nesting habitat at Mandarte Island: an open 
grassy slope. 

Figure 9. Nest of the Glaucous-winged Gull with full clutch of three. 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 


o 2- 













Race Rocks 

Hand arte 



Figure 10. Clutch commencement of the Black Oystercatcher on the south coast of 
British Columbia. 

1960, pair present 1961, chick 1962) and Halibut Island (eggs 1960 and 1961, 
not observed on that island previously). Observations at all these sites are 
included here. 

Nesting habitat 

Eggs were laid in nest-bowls lined with flattened stone chips, shells, bar- 
nacle fragments, etc., in three situations: (1) gravelly beach, (2) bracket in 
rock of beach cliff, (3) earth depression at brow of cliff. None of the sites 
were far from high water mark. The first type (Figure 14) was that used by 
the birds on Halibut, Imrie, and the south end of Mandarte, where the eggs 
were surprisingly difficult to locate against the pale substrate, predominantly 
crushed barnacles. As for the second type, the camp pair on Aiandarte used 
the same two rock brackets (Figure 11), 2 meters above high water mark and 
within 6 meters of each other, in the four seasons 1958-1961 when eggs were 
found. If the first clutch was destroyed renesting occured in the alternate 
site. Faithfulness to the nest-site is a documented feature of Haeinatopus 
ostralegus (Jungfer, 1954), so that the conservatism of the Mandarte birds is 
easily explicable by assuming that the same individuals were involved. The 
third type, the earth depression site, was recorded once for a replacement clutch 
on South Islet (1958). The three sites in our area correspond to Dawson's 
descriptions for the species (see Webster 1941) with, the exception that we 
have not seen the grass or dried moss type he mentions. 

Methods of gathering nestifjg data 

Our material is scant, as only the camp pair could be regularly watched 
(daily checks 1958, 1959, 1^60). Some data are available from South Islet, 
Imrie, and Halibut, but this section could not have been attempted without the 
painstaking observations of G. C. Odium, Lightkeeper at Great Race Rock 
(48° 18' N, 123° 32' W) who contributed data on four to six nests annually 
1956-1960 for a total of 25 nests (BCNRS files). Incubation periods deter- 
mined by W. A4ilne, Lightkeeper at Ivory Island, have also been included. 


Drent, van Tets, Tompa and Vermeer: Mandarte 


Laying season 

Figure 10 shows dates of commencement of 25 first clutches, eight on 
Mandarte 1956-61, 17 on Race Rocks 1956-1960. It will be seen that laying 
extends through May, with a peak in the third week. Dates for five known 
replacement clutches were June 18, 1960 (Race Rocks); two on about June 10, 
1958; one June 15, 1959; and one between July 4 and 5, 1959; the latter four on 
Mandarte. For the Sitka region of Southeastern Alaska Webster (1941) re- 
corded a full clutch (4 eggs) on May 9, and a hatching egg August 6 or 7, as 
extremes in his 1940 study, indicating a spread of dates similar to our area. 

Clutch size and egg replacement 

The available figures for first clutches at Race Rocks, Mandarte, Halibut, 
and Imrie, 1956-1961, are listed below. 

Table 8. — Clutch size of the Black Oystercatcher, British Columbia 

south coast. 

Race Rocks 



Three eggs 
Two eggs 
One egg 







The 28 clutches give a mean of 2.6. Webster (1941) reported a mean of 
2.7 for the Sitka area, based on 13 first clutches in 1940: 5 of two, 7 of three, 
and 1 of four eggs. 

The Black Oystercatcher reacts to total clutch destruction by laying a 
replacement clutch; five cases, 2 of two eggs, 3 of one, are available in our 
records. In one case the interval from loss to commencement of the replace- 
ment clutch was 15-18 days, in another 9-17. Of special interest is the Man- 
darte camp nest in 1959. The original clutch of three was gradually lost to 
crow predation, the last egg disappearing between June 1 and 3. On June 15 
the first tg^, and on June 17 the second, of the replacement clutch appeared, 
the interval thus being 12-14 days. This set was lost in turn June 24-27, and 
on July 4 or 5 the single &g^ of the third set was laid, (thus after a 7-11 day 
interval), hatching successfully on July 30. 

Webster (1941) reported clutch size of three second sets as 2 of two eggs 
and 1 of one. 

Incubation period 

Table 9. — Laying-hatching intervals (days) in Black Oystercatcher 


Clutches of two 

Clutches of three 


26, 28, 29, 29, 30, 32 
25-26, 26, 26, 27, 27 

27-28, 28, 30 
25-26, 27, 28, 28 
25-26, 26, 27, 27 

228 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

Table 9 assembles the data on 22 eggs from the various British Columbia 
sites mentioned. Incubation period of the Black Oystercatcher (i.e. the inter- 
val from laying of last egg of the clutch until the chick from that egg is free 
from the shell) can be stated as 26-27 days, with the possibility that it is some- 
times as short as 25 days. More data are needed to bear out the suspicion that 
effective incubation commences somewhat later in 3-clutches than in 2-clutches 
(note the 28 day periods for B eggs in the former). 

Webster (1941) gave four observations of incubation period as follows: 
27, not over 26, 26-27, and 27-30 days. These were calculated from laying of 
the last tgg (Webster, i?i lift. July 12, 1961) and thus comparable to our figure 
of 26-27 days. 

Fledging and departure from nesting islet 

Scattered observations were made on banded young of known age on 
Mandarte. One individual could fly strongly by 47 days of age, but the true 
fledging period is doubtless shorter than this. Webster (1942) indicates that 
fledging takes place shortly after five weeks of age. 

The young we observed remained with their parents on Mandarte to the 
close of observation. Last dates of sighting follow: two families in 1957: 
September 1, one young 78 days old; September 2, two young about 70 days 
old; two families in 1960: August 22, one young about 70 days old; August 23, 
one young 75 days old. The two colour-banded young on Imrie Island were 
still on the islet with their parents on our last visit August 8, 1960, at about 50 
days of age. For comparison, Webster (1941) observed two young two miles 
from the nest at 57 days of age, but they were still accompanied by tlheir 
parents. These juveniles joined the local flock by the age of 67 days, but 
were still being fed by their parents. These notes underline the need of pre- 
cise observation to determine age at fledging, departure from nesting islet, and 

Survival of eggs and young 

The Race Rocks data (1956-60) yield hatching figures for 16 nests. Of 
the 38 eggs laid, 27 hatched (71%), the remaining 11 being accounted for as 
follows: six were lost in a storm, three disappeared, and two were addled. 
Hatching success on Mandarte was unreasonably low because of constant crow 
predation, increased by our frequent disturbance of the sitting birds when we 
moved about the island (19 eggs laid yielding five chicks, or 26 per cent hatch- 
ing success). 

Fledging data are available from observation of banded chicks on Man- 
darte (two pair for four seasons), Imrie and Halibut (one pair for one season 
each). In ten pair-seasons seven young were raised to an age of 50 days or 
older; thus each pair would produce 0.7 young per season on average. This 
is doubtless under the natural production in the area, as we consider crow 
predation on Mandarte abnormally high — in four pair-seasons here all eggs 
were lost to crows, so that no young were raised. Nevertheless our figure is 
considerably higher than that reported by Webster (1941) for the Siska 
region in 1940, where 24 pairs raised 10 young to fledging. 


Drent, van Tets, Tompa and Vermeer: Mandarte 



t *' «•* ' 

•'X. .^. 




Figure 11. Nesting habitat of Black Oystercatcher on northeast beach of Mandarte Island 
(water's edge at bottom of figure). Arrow points to nest site. 

Figure 12. The stone chip nest of the Black Oystercatcher of Figure 11. 

Figure 13. Crow-pecked eggs, with a whole egg for comparison, of (A) Pigeon Guillemot, 
(B) Glaucous-winged Gull, (C) Cormorant spp. 

Figure 14. Nesting habitat of Black Oystercatcher on Halibut Island: the nest was located 
at edge of beach debris in the centre. 

















230 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

Boyd (1962) has summarized production statistics for the European 
Oystercatcher {Haematopus ostralegus) from three studies, carried out in 
Wales, Germany, and Finland. In these three areas the number of eggs laid 
per female per season (as estimated by clutch size) was about 2.67, 3.01, and 
2.88 respectively, hatching success 66%-, 79% and 92% and success from hatch- 
ing to fledging 75%, 05%, and 78%. In these three areas, therefore, a pair 
raised 1.3, 0.1, and 2.1 young to fledging on the average. Certainly part of this 
discrepancy can be accounted for by paucity of the data on fledging, but it 
does seem that success varies enormously between different areas. 

4. Larus gtmtcescens, Glaucous-winged Gull 

Census and distribution 

Available counts of the Mandarte colony (main island alone) run as 
follows (see Drent and Guiguet 1961: 57-59): 

pair, incorrectly given as 225 in the above 



pair, a questionable estimate 

nests, a total count 



see Figure 2B, census area is 28% of occupied 

nesting grounds, assuming equal density total 

for Mandarte 2000, with an additional 100 on 

South Islet. 
At present the Glaucous-wing nests in all open areas on Mandarte, and in 
addition a couple of pair nest on North Rock and about 100 pair on South 
Islet. The spectacular increase of this species on Mandarte is part of a general 
increase on the inner south coast of the Province (Drent and Guiguet 1961: 
120). Protection and the increasing supply of food made available by man 
(especially refuse in nearby cities and harbours) are believed responsible. 

Nesting habitat 

All the less precipitous open areas of the island are utilized. The majority 
nest in the uneven grassy areas (Figure 8), and nests are regularly built in the 
brush fringe wherever the birds can penetrate by a sort of run-way. In 
addition, the Glaucous-wing nests at many points along the cliffy southwest 
shore, where its minimal requirements are intermediate between those of the 
Pelagic and Double-crested Cormorant. Young are successfully raised on 
rather narrow ledges and other precarious places, so that this species, like the 
Herring Gull (Goethe, 1960) can exploit a wide range of nesting sites. 

Methods of gathering nesting data 

In 1957 and 1958 nest recording on a large scale throughout the northeast 
side of the island was carried out by van Tets and his assistants (J. Takacs, 
D. M. Kennedy, and S. Shearman). About 1000 nests were recorded each 
season, and each was visited about every 2-3 days. The 1957 material forms 

1964 Drent, van Tets, Tompa and Vermeer: Mandarte 231 

the basis for the census but has not been further used; the 1958 cards were 
analysed by D. Kennedy. In 1959 and 1960 effort was limited to the 'gull plot', 
an isolated unit of the colony bordered by beach and a dense growth of 
shrubbery, situated immediately south of camp and containing approximately 
100 pair. In 1961 nest checks were made in several meadows on the northeast 
side, including the plot. In 1962 all meadows on the northeast side north of 
camp (489 pair in all) were checked. 

In the first years all nests in the study area were marked by affixing 
numbered tin tags to nearby vegetation, a means not altogether satisfactory 
and replaced by wooden stakes in 1961. The nests were then checked as fre- 
quently as our other work permitted (GvT in 1959, 65 of 66 days in the laying- 
hatching period; RD in 1960, 41 of the 56 days in the laying-hatching period 
and 19 of 43 days thereafter; KV in 1961 and 1962, thrice daily in the laying- 
hatching period, daily thereafter). Record cards were completed for all nests 
in which eggs were found. The eggs were marked as they appeared with nest 
number and A, B, C successively, in India ink. The patrols on the plot in 
1959-1960 required 1-1 V^ hours during laying, IVz-lVz during hatching, and 
1 hour or less thereafter. In 1961 and 1962 with more meadows being checked 
the patrols lasted from 3 hours up to about 5 hours on busy days. 

In 1959 the young were marked upon hatching by affixing poultry wing 
clips to the patagium, but the method proved unacceptable as it was not always 
possible to remove the marks without damage later on. In 1960 the young 
were marked upon hatching with legbands of coloured binders' tape, one 
combination for each brood. The age of the chicks could thus later be deter- 
mined within the range of hatching dates of the brood (in most cases to within 
two days). When the chicks were sufficiently grown (15-30 days) these 
provisional marks were replaced with the standard aluminum rings supplied by 
the Canadian Wildlife Service. The checks were continued to the close of the 
season, and as many young as could be found in a careful search once over the 
terrain, recorded. The main weakness of the method was the impossibility of 
checking the young when they started to fly. In 1961 and 1962 the young 
received individual combinations of binders' tape, later replaced with individual 
colour combinations of plastic legbands in addition to the standard aluminum 
rings, allowing recognition from afar. By repeated checks with binoculars 
from blinds or shrubbery the fate of the young could be accurately followed 
to the close of the season. 

Laying season 

The first eggs appear on the island in the beginning of May, and in normal 
years the majority of clutches laid in the last week of June or later are replace- 
ments. Clutch commencement dates for the last four seasons have been plotted 
in Figure 15. Earliest dates of the four seasons were May 15, 20, 15 and 4, 
and laying was heaviest in the last week of May and the first two weeks of 
June. Taking the four seasons together, the central 80 per cent of the 934 first 
clutches were commenced in this three week period. The latest date for a 
clutch which resulted in fledged young was June 14, I960; June 13, 1961; and 
June 30, 1962. 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

Clutch size and egg replacement 

The normal first clutch for the Glaucous-wing is three, but smaller 
clutches do appear. It is impossible to be certain that an apparent clutch of 
two or one is not caused by predation etc., but we believe the following figures 
are representative for first clutches. 

Table 10. — Clutch size of the Glaucous-winged Gull on Mandarte Island 





all years 

Clutch size, three 


















Total clutches 






Mean clutch 






There is critical evidence for Lams argentatus and L. fuscus (Paludan, 
1951) and L. ridibimdus (Weidmann, 1956) that loss of eggs as they are laid 
causes protracted laying, i.e. the birds are indeterminate layers. Contrary 
results with L. argentatus (Davis, 1942) and L. calif orniciis (Behle and Goates, 
1958) are not supported by critical evidence. Besides this mechanism, loss of 
the entire clutch after brooding sufficient to suppress the fourth follicle has 
gone on, results in a replacement clutch (in L. argentatus and L. juscus in 11-12 
days, in L. ridibimdus in about the same period). 

Our observations on the Glaucous-wing indicate a similar response to egg 
loss. There are three records of protracted laying under natural circumstances, 
where loss of one of the original three eggs during the laying period led to the 
laying of a fourth tgg, bringing the set up to three again. The most precise 
records are: no. 535, C egg laid June 2, lost June 2 or 3, D egg laid June 4; 
no. 571, A egg laid June 6, lost June 6 or 7, B, C, D followed on June 8, 10 
and 14. 

There are a number of records of replacement clutches, including four 
that appeared after the chicks were lost. In the first years none of the adults 
involved were marked, but in 1961 three indisputable records with colour- 
ringed pairs were obtained. Records for the interval from loss of the original 
clutch of three (when the nest was empty) to appearance of the first egg of 
the replacement clutch are six cases of 11 days, five of 12 days, one of 13* days, 
13-14 days, 15* days, 16* days, and 17 days. (* denotes marked birds). These 
16 cases give a mean of 12.5 days, which conforms to the interval found in other 
gulls (see above). Clutch size for 22 replacement clutches runs as follows: 
10 cases of three, 9 of two, and 3 of one egg. 

Incubation period 

In the Glaucous- wing, the A egg hatches 1.7 days before the C egg on the 
average (49 observations), the B tg^ 0.9 days (45 observations), although they 
have been in the nest respectively four and two days before the C &gg has been 



Drent, van Tets, Tompa and Vermeer: Mandarte 





„„ ^^ 


5 10 MAY 20 25 30 5 10 JUNE 20 25 30 5 10 JUUf 


U 89 
■ 6 

5 10 MAY 20 25 30 5 10 JUNE 20 25 30 5 10 JULY 







^ \ 



■ 26 









MfcJ uJ_ 

5 10 MAY 20 25 30 5 10 JUNE 20 25 30 5 10 JULY 

u-ii-ii-i l-ii-it-ii-ii-i i -ii-it-ii-ii-ii -ii-ii-ii -ii-i i -ii-ii-ii-ii-it-ii-ii-iuji-ii-ii-ii-ii-ii-ii-iM'-' ' 


n n I— I n I 




a 478 
■ 12 



5 10 MAY 20 25 30 5 10 JUNE 20 25 30 5 10 JUIY 

u first clutch m replacement 

Figure 15. Clutch commencement of the Glaucous- winged Gull on Mandarte Island. 

234 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

laid. Thus, as in other gulls (see Paludan, 1951; Barth, 1955; Ytreberg, 1958; 
Beer, 1962) incubation only gradually becomes fully effective, the first two 
eggs undergoing little development before clutch completion. Incubation 
period is best considered as the period between laying and hatching (i.e. young 
free of the shell) of the C egg. Sixty-seven records are available from marked 
C eggs in normal first clutches where both events were known to the nearest 
day, as set out below for a mean of 27.1 days. 

Table 11. — Laying-hatching interval of C egg, 
Glaucous-winged Gull 

26 days 

27 days 

28 days 

29 days 

17 eggs 

31 eggs 

17 eggs 

2 eggs 

Previous figures for incubation period in this species have been inadequately 
defined, and all lie below our values (Anderson, 1916: 24-25 days; Schultz, 
1951: 23 days or less; James- Veitch and Booth, 1954: 23 days average, range 

Fledgifig period and colony departure 

The age at first strong flight, strictly the fledging period to follow iUoreau 
(1946), is distinct from the age at colony departure. The former was estimated 
as follows. When the observer enters the gull meadow the nearest adults take 
flight and settle on the water, and the chicks, depending on their age, either 
crouch in the cover or fly off to join the adults on the water. In 1960 the last 
age at which 39 chicks believed to have left the island successfully were found 
ashore averaged 40 days, with a range from 31 to 52. Doubtless some chicks 
avoided detection ashore beyond the last observation, but on the other hand 
some individuals though definitely capable of flight preferred to remain ashore 
in their habitual hiding place. We feel our mean figure of 40 days to be a 
useful approximation of the fledging period. Schultz (1952) reported that 
young Glaucous-wings attempt to fly at five weeks of age if disturbed, and can 
fly well by 45 days, conclusions with which our figures agree. James- Veitch 
and Booth (1954) give the average age at independent flight for 10 young as 
46.5 days. A mean figure of 43 days was derived for the Herring Gull by 
Paynter (1949) from the same sort of data as ours. 

The food available to the gulls along Mandarte's beaches is rather limited, 
and when the young begin to feed themselves they are forced to leave the 
island. It is possible that some of them utilize nearby food sources (e.g. Sidney 
Spit) foraging at low water and returning at first to roost at the colony. It is 
our impression, however, that in most cases once the juveniles leave the island 
they do not return, but gradually disperse to areas where food is readily avail- 
able. One of these areas is Vancouver, 42 miles (68 km.) to the north, where 
sewage and garbage attract large numbers of gulls. Fortunately for us Mr. 
R. F. Oldaker has for some years been carrying out telescope observations in 


Drent, van Tets, Tompa and Vermeer: Mandarte 


Vancouver as part of the plumage and movements study organised by Mrs. 
Z. M. Schultz. By reading the band numbers Oldaker identified five of the 
juveniles from the study plot in 1960. 

Table 12. — Mandarte Glaucous-winged Gulls sighted at the Vancouver city dump in 1960 

Band no. 


Last seen Mandarte 

First seen Vancouver 







29 July 

27 July 

29 July 
3 August 
6 August 

40 days 
38 days 
45 days 

12 August 
12 August 
29 August 

8 September 
26 September 

54 days 
54 days 
62-66 days 
67-68 days 
96 days 

The two young from nest 923 (the third chick died in pipping) supply the 
most precise figures, being last handled ashore on the plot at 40 and 38 days old. 
It is not known how much longer these birds stayed at Mandarte, as we could 
expect them to take flight at the observer's approach beyond this age. Two 
weeks later, however, the birds were seen together (now 54 days old) foraging 
on the city dump in Vancouver, where the first of the season's juveniles was 
sighted August 8 (Oldaker). The fact that they were still together points to 
a strong bond between the siblings in this family, as occurs from time to time 
in the Herring Gull (Drost, 1951; Goethe 1955). 

Indirect evidence on the age at colony departure is given by the age at 
which healthy voung capable of flight were last seen on Mandarte. In 1960 
four birds whose colour-marks were accidentally not replaced with aluminum 
rings were still seen on the plot at 53, 53, 53, and 60 days of age. For 1961 a 
considerable material is available based on colour-ringed young. There were 
no cases of departure before August 16, but there are 38 last sightings over the 
period August 20-28, ranging from 48-65 days old, with a mean of 56, the age 
at presumed departure. Some individuals probably escaped notice on days 
after their "last sighting", and that this figure is somewhat too low is shown by 
the ages of the 97 birds still present on the island the last two days of observa- 
tion, August 29 and 30. The ages here ranged from 46-67 days, with a mean 
of 56, i.e. identical to the group presumed seen on their last day on the island. 

We conclude that young Glaucous-wings begin to leave the colony at 
about 50 days of age, that most are gone by 60 days, and a few may remain 
until 70 days or older. Schultz (1952) found extensive flights with adults to 
occur at the end of the seventh week, and a gradual dispersal from the breeding 
colonies after the eighth week; again our figures are in substantial agreement. 
Herring Gull juveniles at typical colonies leave at about the same age (Goethe, 
1955, 1956), as contrasted to the much longer periods at the Wilhelmshaven 
colony studied by Drost (1951, 1952), where ample food is available nearby 
the year round. 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

Table 13. — Last sightings of Glaucous-winged Gull young on Mandarte Island in 1961 

(see text). 


20-28 August group 

29-30 August group 

45-49 days 
50-54 days 
55-59 days 
60-64 days 
65-69 days 

mean age 




55 . 7 days 
48-65 days 



. 4 

55 . 5 days 
46-67 days 

Survival of eggs and young 

Table 14. — Glaucous-winged Gull 




Eggs laid 

Chicks hatched 

Young Fledged 


Per nest 


Per nest 

% eggs 


Per nest 

% chicks 
















Figures from hatching success were obtained in four seasons, and show 
good agreement. Taking the four seasons together, 2967 eggs were laid in 
1136 nests, from which 1774 chicks hatched, for an average hatching rate of 
60 per cent. A break-down of &g^ loss is available for two seasons. 

Table 15. — Analysis of failure to hatch, 

Glaucous-winged Gull 



Died in pipping 

31 eggs 

51 eggs 

6 eggs 

13% eggs laid 

21% eggs laid 

2% eggs laid 

48 eggs 

24 eggs 

6 eggs 

18% eggs laid 
9% eggs laid 
2% eggs laid 

The main cause for disappearance is crow predation, some eggs are taken by 
gulls, rolled out of the nest, crushed, etc. The figures suggest that the varia- 
tion in hatching success in the various seasons may reflect varying predation (to 
some extent influenced by technique of the observer) . 

Fledging rate was determined in three seasons, but it must be emphasized 
that the methods differed. The 1958 data are based on the number of young 


Drent, van Tets, Tompa and Vermeer: Mandarte 


banded in the part of the island covered in the nest records. Every effort was 
made to cover the area thoroughly, and we made the practise of removing 
bands from any dead recovered on the island, and using these bands again. 
Therefore, the banding total should approximate the number of juveniles that 
reach flying age. The mortahty between banding and flight is not extreme 
in any case; in 1960, eight of 59 or 16 per cent of the chicks banded on the 
study plot subsequently were found dead on the island. Applying this rate to 
the 1958 figures, the minimal fledging rate would be 0.8 young per nest. The 
rate of 0.9 given above is probably closer to the truth, however, because of our 
checks for dead juveniles, and the fact that some chicks must have been missed 
in the banding. 

In 1960 a young was considered successfully fledged if seen in good health 
30 days of age or older. This limit was chosen as some birds started to fly at 
this age. In total, 97 nests where eggs appeared were located on the plot; 87 
of these gave reliable hatching data and were followed through to fledging. A 
check on these figures is provided by considering all the young fledged on the 
plot (55) versus the total number of nests (97), or a mean of 0.6 young fledged 
per nest. 

The 1961 data are certainly the most precise, the number of young fledged 
being those still alive at 42 days of age. Mortality of the chicks is set out 

Table 16. — Mortality of Glaucous-winged Gull chicks, 97 nests in 1961. 

to leave colony after seventh week. 

N.B. young begin 


Total dead 


Found dead 

First week 




Second week 




Third week 




Fourth week 




Fifth week 




Sixth week 



'Seventh week 



Eighth week 

Ninth week 

Tenth week 







The high number of chicks entered as 'missing' in the first week is explained by 
their disappearance through predation, and to a minor extent by our failure to 
find the small carcases in the high grass. 

Mortality is concentrated in the first days, as Paynter (1949) and Paludan 
(1951) found in Larus arge?itatiis. In the Glaucous-wing practically 80 per 
cent of the deaths up to 49 days of age (when the young begin to leave the 
colony) occur in the first two weeks. No less than 28 per cent of all chicks 
hatched died in their first week. The chief death cause is predation or 
molestation by adult gulls (not the parents). Of the 58 carcases found, death 
cause could be ascertained for 16, as follows: 14 pecked to death by gulls, of 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

which four had been partially eaten, one killed by fall over cliff, and one 
crushed by the observer. The importance of the crow as chick predator is 

Hatching and fledging rates for other Larus gulls are set out in Table 17. 

Table 17. — Hatching and fledging success in Larus gulls 


(% eggs laid) 

(% chicks) 


Larus fuscus 
L. argentatus 

L. californicus 
L. ridihundus 





56%, 90% 


75%, 78% 


Darling (in Paynter) 
Paludan 1951 
Darling (in Paynter) 
Paynter 1949 
Paludan 1951 
Behle & Goates 1957 
Ytreberg 1956 

A closer comparison with the figures for L. argentatus is rewarding, as these 
were obtained from a reasonably large material, with methods similar to ours, 
in habitat not strikingly different (Paynter, 1949; Paludan, 1951; Drost et al., 
1961). Paludan's data for L. fuscm can be disregarded here, as he studied a 
dechning population whose low success was due to predation by the Herring 
Gull nesting at the same colony. 

Table 18. — Reproductive success in 4 gull studies. 




Production per season per 100 nests 






Kent I. 







Paludan 1951 
Paynter 1949 
Brost etal. 1961 
This paper 

It appears that the Glaucous-wing has a lower hatching rate and a higher 
fledging rate than the three colonies of the Herring Gull investigated. More 
data are needed to show if these differences are real, however, for the argentati/s 
material is small (Paludan 90 pairs, Paynter 100 pairs) and the only fledging 
data extending over several seasons (Drost) shows the same range of variation 
as the Glaucous-wings at Mandarte. The Wilhelmshaven colony increased 
from 107 to 139 pair in 1956-59, and in those four seasons the fledging rate per 
pair varied from 0.4 to 0.9 young. In fact, when the difficulties are taken into 
account, the data from the various studies are remarkably similar. 


Drent, van Tets, Tompa and Vermeer: Mandarte 


Figure 16. Boulder beach and low cliflf along iMandarte's northeast shore, nesting habitat of 
the Pigeon Guillemot (11 nests in the portion shown). 

240 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

5. Cepphus columba, Pigeon Guillemot 

Census and distribution 

Though known to have nested on Mandarte since at least 1902 (Drent and 
Guiguet 1961: 78) there are no adequate counts previous to 1957-1960. In this 
period we attempted to locate all nests on the island, and as these are used year 
after year practically all nests (certainly more than 90 per cent) were known 
by the close of 1960. The total of 102 was distributed as follows: three on 
North Rock, 80 on Mandarte itself, and 19 on South Islet. We obtained 
definite evidence that at least 82 were occupied in the 1960 season, whilst seven 
had become unusable and the balance were probably occupied. Bearing in 
mind that all nests were not found, we estimate the breeding population at 
Mandarte at 100-110 pairs. Distribution of known nests is shown on Figure 
2A. It is our belief that the colony has reached maximum size, all available 
nest-sites being in use. 

Nesting habitat 

The Pigeon Guillemot has a strong tendency to lay its eggs under cover. 
Only once did we obtain a record of an open ledge site on Mandarte (1960). 
Bowman (1961) reported a similar observation from South Farallon, California. 

As the thin rocky soil on Mandarte precludes extensive burrowing the 
guillemots utilize all manner of natural holes and crannies. These can be 
grouped in four categories, the relative importance being indicated by the 
number of nests of each type found on the northeast short of Mandarte (total 
62 nests): (1) cavities or chambers in loose boulder jumbles along the beach 
(24 nests), (2) natural cracks in rock masses (18 nests), (3) chambers in the 
soil beneath a boulder cap, usually a natural hollow enlarged by the birds (14 
nests), and (4) abandoned rabbit burrows (5 nests), originally excavated by 
Oryctolagus cuniculus introduced to the island long ago but extinct there when 
our study began. Further possibilities such as beach debris, although used in 
the vicinity, do not occur on Mandarte. 

On those parts of the island thoroughly worked by us we found nesting 
guillemots wherever cavities occurred, at all elevations and in a variety of 
situations including nesting groups of cormorants and gulls. The only limita- 
tions appeared to be that dense brush was avoided and the birds were generally 
prevented from using burrows within one meter of an occupied gull nest. 

Laying season 

Figure 17 shows the dates of clutch commencement for the seasons 1957- 
1960 on Mandarte. Taking the four seasons together, the 124 clutches give a 
mean date of June 11, standard deviation of eight days, and a range of 42 days 
(May 18-June 29). Young have successfully fledged from eggs laid at each 
extreme (May 18, 1960; June 28, 1959). These dates are doubtless near the 
limits for this area. Bowles (1921) assembled the data of Washington oologists 
and found the earliest date for a fresh complete clutch was May 20, the latest 
July 2. Thoresen and Booth (1958) report laying in 1957 to have commenced 
about May 20 with a peak June 5-20, for the Fidalgo Island area in Washington, 


Drent, van Tets, Tompa and Vermeer: Mandarte 


not far from Mandarte. In our experience single fresh eggs in July have been 

Methods of gathering nesting data. 

We found the afternoon hours the best time to check the guillemot nests, 
as the unoccupied birds are then absent from the colony and thus our disturb- 
ance could be kept at a minimum. The nests along the northeast side of the 
island formed the study group, being checked every 1-3 days in 1957-1958 
(GvT, Takacs, Kennedy) and daily throughout the 1959 and 1960 seasons 
(RD). The number of nests covered in these four seasons where at least eggs 
appeared was 33, 32, 45, and 45 respectively. The nests on South Islet 
(similarly 9, 9, 15, and 18 nests respectively) were checked from six to fourteen 
times during the season, and nests elsewhere were visited only for banding of 
the young. 

Clutch size and egg replacement 

Quantitative data for clutch size are given by Winn (1950) for the closely 
related Black Guillemot on Kent Island (New Brunswick) and Thoresen and 
Booth (1958) for the Pigeon Guillemot in the Fidalgo Island area, Washington, 
as set out in Table 19. The Mandarte data are given in Table 20. The usual 

Table 19. 

— Clutch size, data of Winn and Thoresen & Booth 

Black Guillemot 

Pigeon Guillemot 

one egg 
two eggs 
three eggs 





Table 20. — Clutch size of the Pigeon Guillemot at Mandarte Island 






Per cent 

one egg 
two eggs 
mean clutch 














clutch of the Pigeon Guillemot thus consists of two eggs. Replacement 
clutches and nests established over the seasons as being prone to crow predation 
were disregarded for the tabulation, so the proportion reported for clutches of 
one (about 10 per cent of the total 162) should be near the truth. These were 
deposited during the normal egg-laying period, and of the 1 5 eggs nine hatched, 
eight of the chicks subsequently fledging successfully. Thus one-clutches 
appear normal in every respect. 

Two records where more than two eggs appeared in the nest were 
definitely the work of two females (banded individuals), birds whose nest had 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

become unusable laying in the nearest available cavity along with the nest 
owner. This is doubtless the explanation for the 3 -clutches occasionally 
reported for Black and Pigeon Guillemots, as these records are not supported 
by critical evidence. 

No replacements were noted if only one of a two-clutch was lost, and if 
the entire clutch was lost a repeat clutch appeared in approximately 13 days 
(eight observations, seven of one egg, one of two eggs) in about half of the 
cases. Four of these repeat clutches were lost in turn, but in no case was a 
third attempt made. 

For the Black Guillemot Winn (1950) recorded two repeat clutches in 15 
days or less, and Uspenski (1958) records one 18 day interval. For the Pigeon 
Guillemot Thoresen and Booth (1958) estimate two cases at 18 days. All auks 
studied replace lost eggs in a pattern comparable to repeat clutches in other 
birds (Alca torda, Uria aalge and U. lomvia, Fratercula arctica: Paludan, 1947; 
Uspenski, 1958; N0rrevang, 1958; Tschanz, 1959; Kartaschew, 1960). 

Incubation period 

■ -Laying-hatching intervals were determined for 22 marked eggs of the 
Pigeon Guillemot, where both events were known to the nearest day. 

Table 21. — Laying-hatching intervals in Pigeon Guillemot 



28 days 


29 days 


30 days 


31 days 



32 days 



i?) days 


34 days 


Total eggs 



Mean (days) 



As the eggs are laid with an interval of three days, the figures indicate that 
little effective incubation occurs before the second egg is laid. Temperature 
recording demonstrated that steady incubation does not set in until some time 
after clutch completion. The incubation period of the Pigeon Guillemot can 
thus best be regarded as the period required to hatch the B egg, that is, 30 days 
on the average, with a range of 28-32. 

Comparable figures from the literature are scant. Winn (1950) gives 12 
records for the Black Guillemot, but does not specify interval from laying to 
hatching in seven, and does not distinguish A from B eggs in the other five 
(29, 30, 32, 33, 33 days). Uspenski (1958) gives 27-30 days as the incubation 
period for this species (B egg). Thoresen and Booth (1958) report four cases 
of 31 days for the B egg in the Pigeon Guillemot, but do not state probable 
error of their observations. 


Drent, van Tets, Tompa and Vermeer: Mandarte 


- .1 



sai40in)o fo jaqvunu 

Figure 17. Clutch commencement of the Pigeon Guillemot on Mandarte Island. 

Nestling period 

The chick does not leave the nest cavity until close to adult weight (90 
per cent on average) and with complete juvenal plumage. Potentially at least 
the young are then capable of flight, so here nestling and fledging periods 
coincide. As was confirmed by releasing advanced young by day, the young 
leave the colony directly and have nothing further to do with their parents 
who continue to join the colony assembly long after the chicks have departed 
(observations on banded birds). 

Fifteen observations of the nestling period on Mandarte range from 29 to 
39 days, with a mean of 35 (29 days-2, 30-1, 33-2, 34-1, 35-1, 36-2, 37-2, 38-2, 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

39-2). In each case the chick was last seen in the nest the afternoon or evening 
of the day given (being absent the following day), and it is presumed that it 
left the nest the same evening, though this event was never witnessed. 

For the Black Guillemot in the Russian Arctic Uspenski (1958) gives two 
observations, 34 and 36 days, and quotes Kaftanowski that the nestling period 
is 35-37 days, a figure reappearing in Kartaschew (1960). For Iceland 
Gudmundsson (1953) gives five weeks. Winn (1950) reported one period of 
39 days, and two chicks that had not yet left the nest at 36 and 37 days, in the 
Bay of Fundy. For the Pigeon Guillemot Thoresen and Booth (1958) state 
the nestling period to be 33-37 days (number of observations not given) for 
Skagit County, Washington. It will be seen that the Mandarte material is the 
largest, and that determinations elsewhere fall within the range of our data. 

Survival of eggs and yowjg 

A difficulty in employing the data was to decide whether our visits had 
influenced nesting success. This involved a number of decisions based on 
intimate knowledge of the nests and we believe gross errors have been 
eliminated. A special problem was to decide if capture of the adults on the 
eggs for banding purposes caused desertion. In fact of the 40 cases analysed 
a significant increase in hatching failure occurred in nests where the adult was 
captured in the first days after laying (especially up to nine days). For this 
reason nests where an adult was captured within the first 19 days after clutch 
commencement have not been included here. 

Table 22. — Hatching success in the Pigeon Guillemot 




Per cent 





















all years 





Hatching success in the four seasons does not differ significantly (p < .05). 
Table 23. — Analysis of failure to hatch, Pigeon Guillemot 1957-60. 


No. of eggs 

%, eggs laid 


Taken by crows 

Rolled out of nest 

Died in pipping 








Analysis of hatching failure was possible only for the nests on the main island, 
where 172 eggs yielded 101 chicks over the four seasons (South Island data are 


Drent, van Tets, Tompa and Vermeer: Mandarte 


included in Table 22). The 71 eggs failing to hatch are grouped in Table 23, 
showing that addling and crow predation account for most of the failure. The 
category 'addled' covers infertility and embryonic death, which could not be 
distinguished in the field. Crow predation is heaviest in the first few days of 
incubation, as shown in the following table where day is the day of clutch 

Table 24 — Time of egg loss to crows in the 
Pigeon Guillemot 


Number of eggs lost 

0- 1 


1- 2 


2- 3 


3- 4 


4- 5 





By temperature recording it was determined that steady incubation by day sets 
in the day following clutch completion (thus day 4), and by night from 4/5 to 
7/8. The table makes clear that crows are Hkely to take eggs only in the period 
when they are not continuously covered by the parents. The two observations 
at 25-30 days were special cases where the parent had accidentally dislodged 
the egg to the burrow entrance where it was taken by crows before the 
guillemot could roll it back into the nest. 

Table 25. — Fledging success in the Pigeon Guillemot 





Per cent 


























Considered successfully fledged were healthy chicks that disappeared from 
the nest having attained juvenal plumage and juvenile weight (34 days of age 
or older). It will be seen that 1960 was an unusually poor year. This was due 
to a vastly increased mortality through molestation by juvenile gulls. In this 
season no less than 15 guillemot chicks were pecked to death by juvenile 
Larus glaucescens that had chanced to scramble into the guillemot nests for 
shelter. The explanation for the heightened mortality is found in the weather: 
1 960 had a prolonged dry spell, no measurable rain falling on Mandarte between 
June 20 and August 14. This dry, hot weather had a drastic effect on the 

246 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

vegetation, so where normally clumps of grass and shrubbery would answer 
the needs of the gull young, they now had recourse to natural crannies in the 
rock, including occupied guillemot nests. 

In summary, in a "normal" year hatching success for the Pigeon Guillemot 
at Mandarte lies at about 62 per cent (mean 1957-1960) and fledging success 
at about 90 per cent (mean 1957-1959), such that each pair on average will lay 
1.9 eggs, hatch 1.2 chicks, and raise 1.1 young to nest departure. The cor- 
responding percentages of Thoresen and Booth (1958) for the Pigeon Guille- 
mot in Skagit County, Washington, in 1957 (54% hatching success, 86% 
fledging success) and of Kartaschew (1960) for the Black Guillemot in the 
Murmansk region (eggs to fledged young 60%), both based on a much smaller 
material, show good agreement with our figures. Winn (1950) gave statistics 
for the Black Guillemot in the Bay of Fundy in 1947. He found a similar 
hatching success (52%) but a low fledging success (no more than 50%). A4ost 
of the chick loss (82% in fact) occurred by flooding of the nest during storms, 
and suggests that 1947 was an unfavourable year for the Black Guillemot in the 
Bay of Fundy, just as 1960 was a bad year for Mandarte's Pigeon Guillemots, 
but for a very different reason. 

6. Lunda cirrhata, Tufted Puffin 

Known to nest on Mandarte since at least the turn of the century, few 
counts of pairs are available, and still fewer finds of eggs or young (see Drent 
and Guiguet 1961: 113-115): 

1908, 1 nest (egg 25 June), about 1910 no more than 3-4 pair, 1915 3 pair, 
1916 4 pair, 1922 2 pair, 1927 15 pair (we question this estimate), 1936 2 
pair, 1 nest (egg 12 June), 1940 1 nest (egg about 20 May), 1953 1 pair, 
1955 2 pair, 1957-62 at least 2 pair, 1 nest in 1958 (egg 3 July), 1 nest in 
1959 (chick 25 July), 2 nests in 1960 (egg 31 July, chick 2 August), 1 nest 
in 1962 (chick 10 August). 

Apparently the Tufted Puffin has been a regular breeder on Mandarte over 
the past 50 years. The only suggestion that there have ever been more than a 
couple of pair or at most four pair nesting here is Munro's (1929) estimate in 
1927 which was almost certainly too high. Aiunro did not mention puffins in 
the accounts of his 1921 and 1923 visits, and gave two pair for 1936 (Munro 

Figure 18. Stone chip nestbowl of the Pigeon Guillemot with full clutch of two (wired for 

temperature readings). 
Figure 19. Pigeon Guillemot nest cavity in boulder jumble along northeast beach, Mandarte 

Island. Arrow points to clutch of Figure 18. 
Figure 20. Passerine nesting habitat on Mandarte Island: at shrub edge in foreground 

(chiefly Waxberry) a Song Sparrow nest, at base of Saskatoon Berry thicket on right a 

Northwestern Crow nest. 
Figure 21. Mandarte Island, looking northwest along island crest: on left the cliflF brow, 

followed by an open grassy slope, adjoined by the shrub and tree belt: the clump 

silhouetted consists of Arbutus, Douglas and Grand Fir, with Willow understory. 

Shrubbery is formed chiefly by Saskatoon Berry and Waxberry; in left foreground 



Drent, van Tets, Tompa and Vermeer: Mandarte 


f5i^' C«4 

248 The Canadian Fielu-Nai uralist Vol. 78 

Two pair have been seen regularly about the island in the last years, and by 
1960 we had located two nests (see Figure 2A). The Tufted Puffin generally 
excavates a burrow, but as no suitable terrain exists on Aiandarte both nests were 
found in natural crevices in the rockface. Use of similar sites has been 
reported from the nearby San Juan Islands (e.g. Dawson and Bowles, 1909). 
The north site on Mandarte has been in use for at least the past four seasons. 
In 1959 a single downy young was found and banded July 25, and was 
apparently still being fed August 22. In 1960 a single young was banded 
x\ugust 2, and had left the nest by August 31. In 1961 adults were present at 
the site but the nest was not checked. In 1962 another young was banded on 
August 10. The records from this nest suggest that the Mandarte colony may 
be able to maintain itself without immigration from other colonies. Puffins 
visited other crannies on the cliff -face, but we found only grass accumulations 
at these sites; possibly a third pair is implicated. 

Eggs have been found on Mandarte from about May 20 to July 31, and 
chicks from July 25 to August 22. As in other puffins, the clutch consists of 
one egg. The Tufted Puffin is seen at Mandarte only in the breeding season 
(arrival dates in 1959 and 1960: May 6 and 13 respectively), departing again in 
early September (no exact dates). 

7. Hirmido rustica, Barn Swallow 

The Barn Swallow is a recent addition to Mandarte's breeding species. 
The species is known to rely heavily on human habitation for nesting (e.g. 
Nordberg, 1950: 22), and the building of cabins on the island provided a 
natural experiment in habitat selection. In 1957 a small cabin was constructed, 
in August 1958 the frame of another. In 1959 the Barn Swallow was first 
noted on the island, being seen on 15 days in the course of the season (usually 
one, maximum of three individuals), during which the second cabin was com- 
pleted. In 1960 the Barn Swallow was noted 39 times (usually two, maximum 
of three individuals) and at least two birds regularly flew into the second cabin 
in the period May 24- June 21, to perch on a roof-beam. In 1961 one pair 
nested on this beam, the mud necessary for the nest being brought in from else- 
where, probably Sidney Island. At least three young left the nest successfully. 

In 1962 a pair of Barn Swallows nested in the same site. On May 10, the 
birds were seen for the first time about the cabin, on May 1 1 they inspected the 
ledge, starting nest-building on May 17. Laying commenced June 3, but the 
female was disturbed and the second egg was not laid until June 6, and the 
clutch of five was completed on June 9. Two nestlings hatched June 26, the 
remainder June 27. Four young survived to leave the nest on July 17, return- 
ing on July 18, but permanently gone by July 23. On July 26 the first tgg of 
the second clutch was laid, the last of the five eggs being laid July 30. Hatch- 
ing occurred August 15-16, and the five nestlings were close to fledging when 
the observer left the island August 31. Assuming that the tgg'^ hatched in the 
order laid, incubation period (E egg) for the first clutch was 18 days, for the 
second 17, rather longer than the 14-15 days given by Kendeigh (1952: 245) as 
usual for the species. Probably the frequent disturbance of the sitting bird 
(the cabin served as kitchen) is the explanation. Nestling period (hatching to 

1964 Drent, van Tets, Tompa and Vermeer: Mandarte 249 

first departure) for the first clutch was 20-21 days for the various young, 
Kendeigh (1952) gives 20-22 days for H. r. rustica and 18-20 for H. r. erythro- 

8. Corvus caiirinus Northwestern Crow 
Ce?jsiis mid distribution 

The crow has had a rather chequered career on the island, as wardens 
posted intermittently from 1915 on made a practise of shooting the birds. 
However the species is an abundant local nester, and doubtless was always able 
to exploit the Mandarte sea-birds as a food source (cf. Munro, 1937). In our 
period on the island approximately 20-25 pair have nested every season, the most 
complete coverage of the island being attained in 1960 when a trail was cut 
through the brush (minimum 20 pairs: 21 nests located of which two probably 
were replacements, and at least one missed). Figure 2B shows the location of 
crow nests in 1960. 

Nesting habitat 

All nests save one were located in the shrub and tree belt, the exception 
being a nest built in 1960 on the ground in a recess between two boulders on an 
uneven grassy slope at the north end of the island (eggs w^ere laid but deserted). 
The remainder fall into three categories: (1) nests built on the ground, and 
hidden in dense thickets, the most difficult type to find; (2) nests built in dense 
shrubbery (especially Waxberry, Wild Rose, Saskatoon Berry) about 1-1 ^2 
meters off the ground, often below a snag or tree serving as perch; and (3) nests 
built in trees (Douglas Fir, Grand Fir, Saskatoon Berry) at 3 meters up to about 
7 from the ground. The tree nests were always so built as to be obscured by 
foliage, an especially noticeable feature in the older Douglas Fir where bare 
limbs prevail. Garry Oak appear to be unsuitable nesting trees. As an indica- 
tion of frequency, in 1960 there were five ground, eight shrub, and seven tree 
nests, and the one boulder site. Darcus (1930) has described ground nesting of 
this species in the Queen Charlotte Islands. 

Methods of gathering nesting data 

Casual search for crow nests was carried out in 1958 and 1959 (nine and 
ten nests respectively), and trail cutting enabled thorough search in 1960 (21 
nests). The objective in the first three seasons was banding of the young, the 
usual aluminium rings being supplemented by plastic colour rings from 1958 on. 
In 1960 the nests were visited more frequently to obtain figures on nesting 
success, and effort was made to follow the fate of the colour-banded young to 
the close of the season. A handicap in working with the crows was that visits 
during egg-laying caused desertion. 

Layi?ig seaso?i 

Dates of clutch commencement (to the nearest week) have been deter- 
mined for 18 of the 21 nests found in 1960 (three from laving dates, 15 from 
hatching dates) as follows: 

April 23-30 5 clutches 

250 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

May 1-7 6 clutches 

8-15 1 clutch 
16-23 3 clutches 
24-31 1 first clutch & 1 renesting 
June 1-7 1 first clutch & 1 renesting 

It will be seen that 1 1 of the 16 first clutches were commenced in the last week 
of April and the first week of May. The two renestings were replacements 
for nests disturbed by us in the laying period, and have been included in the 
data below. 

Clutch size 

Eight reliable figures for clutch size are available from nests located shortly 
after clutch completion: 

three eggs 1 clutch 

four eggs 4 clutches 

five eggs 3 clutches 

The clutch of three was laid in the first week of May. Over-all mean is 4.3, 
comparing to 4.5 reported by Black (Kendeigh 1952:244) for Corviis brachyr- 

Incubatioji period 

We have no figures; Kendeigh (1952:245) quotes Black {MS) for an 
incubation period of 19 days in the closely related C. brachyrhynchos. 

Nestling period, fledging, cmd independence 

Six nests provide data on the age at which young leave the nest. This is 
a gradual procedure, the young first perching on the nest rim, then on nearby 
twigs, returning to the nest from time to time. Age differences in the brood 
have been disregarded for the following determinations: 
3 young at 20-23 days 

2 young at 25 days 

3 young at 27-29 days 
3 young at 31-33 days 
3 young at 30-32 days 

The two shortest periods were recorded from nests built on the ground, the 
remainder from shrub nests at IV, meters from the ground. The 14 young 
give a mean nestling period of 28 days, in accord with figures for C. brctchyr- 
hynchos, for which Kendeigh (1952:245) cites Black for a nestling period of 
27 days, and Parmalee (1952) gives four to five weeks. 

The young are uncertain in flight in the first days after leaving the nest, 
but probably all normal young can fly to some extent. Occasionally young 
incapable of flight were captured after nest departure, but as some were sickly 
at the time, and all died within a few days, this flightlessness can be considered 

The period of at least partial dependence on the parents for food seems 
gradually to come to a close about a month after nest departure. The following 

1964 Drent, van Tets, Tompa and Vermeer: Mandarte 251 

observations on colour-banded nestlings in 1960 are pertinent: 

no. 23: foraging alone on beach 55 days old, seen begging 56 days old 

no. 26: do. 60 

no. 43: do. 58 

no. 72: seen being fed 63 days old, begging at 69 days old 

Parmalee (1952) reported that young C. hrachyrhynchos were fed by the 

parents in the first one to three weeks after nest departure. 

Survival of eggs and young 

Desertion occurred in five of the 21 nests in 1960, and these have been 
omitted here (our disturbance was responsible in four cases). Six nests 
provide data on hatching success: from 25 eggs laid 22 chicks hatched (88%), 
two of the &^^s failing to hatch and one disappearing during incubation. Eight 
nests supply figures up to nest departure: of 28 chicks hatched 22 left the nest 
successfully (79%). Age at disappearance was established for five of the six 
young lost in the nestling period, and all were less than 10 days old. Further, 
all of the five disappeared from nests where four young hatched. We noted 
asynchronous hatching in these broods, the last-hatching young being recog- 
nizeable as a 'runt' or 'dwarf compared to its siblings. This is explained by 
incubation setting in with the third egg (Black in Kendeigh 1952:245). We 
assume that it was the 'runt' that died in these five nests, but this is established 
for only one nest. 

Asynchronous hatching in Corvids among others is considered to be an 
adaptation to allow raising a large brood in years of exceptionally favourable 
food supply without endangering the survival of a smaller brood in other years, 
in which the bonus young will speedily be eliminated by starvation (cf. Lack 

Among Corvidae the colonially-nesting Rook has received much attention; 
it will suffice here to point out that nesting success is comparable to that in the 
Northwestern Crow. In the Rook hatching success varied from 80 to 91 per 
cent, survival at nest departure from 66 to 79 per cent, in a large material over 
a six-year period as summarized by Owen (1959). 

In 1960 fate of the young after nest departure was followed. Thirty-three 
nestlings from 15 nests were colour-banded, of which 10 were subsequently 
recovered dead on the island, 18 were observed to the close of observations 
(end August), and the remaining five were not accounted for. To estimate the 
mortality in the first month after nest departure, 11 nests where fate of the 
young was accounted for have been selected. In this group 25 young left the 
nest successfully, and 18 (72%) were still ahve at an age of 60 days. Of the 
seven young dying, three became sick and died at the ages of 36, 47, and 69 
days. The birds gradually lost the ability to fly, and spent the last day or so 
^liopping about in the underbrush, eventually becoming immobile and dying. 
The remaining four died of unknown causes, the dessicated carcasses of three 
of them being recovered during gull banding, and the last disappearing after the 
age of 30 days from a family closely watched. In 19.59 we observed adult gulls 
to attack and kill a crow just out of the nest, after it had wandered into the gull 
meadow, and the circumstances of recovery of four of the seven crow car- 

252 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

casses in 1960 suggest a similar fate. We believe the chicks so attacked were 
abnormal, similar to the uncoordinated birds we were able to capture in the 
shrubbery after nest departure — as noted above, these all died later. 

When observations were closed 15 crows from nine nests had reached an 
age between 90 and 100 days, and three young from two nests an age between 
60 and 70 days. In the group of nine nests, 20 young had left the nest success- 
fully, so the 15 remaining two months later represent 75 per cent. 

9. Agelaius phoeniceus, Red-winged Blackbird 

Although resident on the island at least in the early summer of every season 
1957-1959, the first breeding evidence was secured in 1960. At least three males 
and two females were present on the island when we arrived iUay 5, on May 8 
an abandoned nest was found, and on the morning of May 16 nestbuilding was 
observed. When located that afternoon, the fresh nest was virtually complete 
but the pair was continuously disturbed by crows and eventually deserted. 
No Red-wings were seen on the island thereafter until three males arrived on 
June 21, remaining until June 28 (one of them had yellow epaulets and was thus 
recognizeable). Finally, at the close of the season an old nest was found at 
the north end. We feel that at least three pair made efforts to nest on the 
island in 1960; two were certainly unsuccessful and the other probably so. 

In 1961 at least one pair was present when we paid a brief visit March 17-20, 
and a maximum of four males and three females was observed in the first two 
weeks of May. By May 20, three males on territory remained, and two nests 
were located in the course of the month. In one, building was observed on 
May 5, and the nest held four eggs May 21, all hatching on May 28. When 
visited again June 3 the nest was empty, probably due to plundering by crows. 
The second nest contained four young, about two days old, on May 29; and on 
June 3, two young remained when the nest was visited for banding. Thus 
certainly two pair and probably three nested on Mandarte in the 1961 season. 
In 1962 at least one pair raised a brood, but further data are lacking. 

The five nests (three in 1960, two in 1961) were all located in the shrubbery, 
and were built 1-1.5 meters off the ground in Waxberry bushes. In the Sidney 
area the only other island on which we found Red-wings was Imrie Islet, where 
a nest with a single well-grown young was found in low brush June 19, 1960, 
and adults observed in other years. The vegetation on this islet, which also 
harbours a sea-bird colony, is closely similar to that on Mandarte. Islands we 
visited often enough to be certain of Red-wing absence are Halibut, Rum, 
Gooch, Rubly, Domville, Forrest, and the smaller Reay, Greig, and Dock. 

C. J. Guiguet informed us that the Red-wing is a common though not 
abundant breeder in similar habitat in the Victoria area (several low dry islets 
in Oak Bay region, Gordon Head, Albert Head, etc.). Orians (1961) notes 
nesting on an arid island in San Francisco Bay, so the Mandarte situation is by 
no means exceptional. 

10. Melospiza melodia, Song Sparrow 

Casual observations in our first seasons on the island indicated the Song 
Sparrow population on Mandarte to be unusually dense, and prompted a popula- 


Drent, van Tets, Tompa and Vermeer: Mandarte 


tion study, begun in 1960 and still in progress. Findings from the first three 
seasons will be briefly reported here. 


Essential to the study was the marking of as many Song Sparrows (both 
adult and juvenile) as possible. The birds were captured for the most part in 
Japanese mist nets, set up along trails cut through the shrubbery. A few 
juveniles were caught in a wire box-trap, and several by chance in our cabins. 
The banding of nestlings was found to bring about an increase in mortality, 
either by leading crows to the nest, or by causing premature nest departure, 
and was therefore kept to a minimum. Where possible the history of individual 
nests was followed and the young banded soon after fledging. 

Mist-netting was found highly effective. By the close of the first season 
more than half, and by the end of the second (when including the birds ringed 
as juveniles in the previous year which had survived to breed) more than 90 
per cent of the adult population had been ringed. In total 103 adults, 32 
nestlings, and 406 fledglings (or juveniles) were ringed in the three seasons. 

All birds received standard aluminum rings together with one or two 
plastic colour bands. By using eight colours in different combinations each 
bird could be recognized individually. 

Census work was carried out continuously during the three summer seasons, 
and at spaced intervals in the intervening winters (four visits in 1960-1961, 
seven visits in 1961-1962). 


The composition of the adult Song Sparrow population on Mandarte is 
shown in Table 26. The figures for 1960 are approximate within the limits 
given, as but few birds had been marked at the onset of breeding. The situa- 
tion was closely similar in 1960 and 1961, but 1962 was markedly different. 
Although the breeding population showed a slight decline in 1962, 25 unmated 
males were present, so that the total population showed a 12 per cent increase 
over 1961. It should be mentioned, however, that the 1962 figures characterize 
only a few days at the beginning of breeding. The high frequency of unmated 
birds in the population led to territorial fights throughout the season, and 
resulted in the death of some males and the desertion of others. By mid- 
summer the number of adults on the island approximated the level of previous 

Table 26. — Adult Song Sparrow population on Mandarte Island at the onset of three 

successive breeding seasons. 





Breeding male 
Breeding female 
Unmated males a) territorial 
b) floating 












Total adult population 





The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

That territorial behaviour is believed to play a very important role in 
regulating the size of the Mandarte Song Sparrow population has been discussed 
in an earlier paper (Tompa, 1962). 

Territory and habitat utilization 

The habitat on Mandarte can be divided into three zones: (1) bare rock 
and cliff surface along the shoreline, (2) grassland, and (3) shrubbery, including 
small groups of trees. Although the first two of these zones are frequently 
utilized by foraging Song Sparrows, most other activities are confined to the 
shrubbery, which provides shelter, concealment, and also nesting and mating 
grounds including singing and perching posts for the males. Territory defense 
is extended only to the shrubbery area of a male (or breeding pair) and its 
immediate surroundings, and this actively defended area has been considered 
the territory proper, in distinction to the foraging areas outside the shrubbery 
which often overlapped (for a fuller discussion see Tompa, in press). The 
grouping of territories is dictated by the configuration of the shrubbery (see 
Figure 2C and D). Nests are generally built along the shrub edges, either in a 
tuft of grass just off the ground, or up to about 0.5 meters in shrubs. 

The shrub areas on Mandarte have been accurately measured, and come to 
a total of 14,100 square meters. The amount of shrubbery utilized by Song 
Sparrows in each season is known, and by using the population census the mean 
territory size for 1960 and 1962 has been calculated (Table 27). In 1961 all 
territories were measured individually (Tompa, 1962) when territories of 47 
breeding males were found to range from 110 to 400 square meters (mean 288), 
of five unmated males from 65 to 105 square meters (mean 82). The overall 
mean was 268 square meters. 

Comparing the three seasons, the effect of the increased number of terri- 
torial males in 1962 is evident: the average territory size was smaller, and isolated 
patches of shrubbery not utilized in the previous years were occupied (compare 
also the territory maps). 

Table 27. — Mean territory size of Song Sparrows on Mandarte Island 


Number of territories 
(Mated and unmated c? cf ) 

Area of shrub 

Mean territory 



13,946 m2 
13,946 m2 
14,050 m2 

c. 268 m2 
268 m2 
230 m2 

Figures for Song Sparrow territory size for a number of localities in 
Eastern North America are available for comparison, as set out in Table 28. 
(Figures originally given in acres have been converted to square meters). 

It will be seen that on the average territories on Mandarte Island are no 
more than one tenth the size of mainland territories in the East, and secondly 
that the same tendency to reduction in size is shown by the island populations 
there. The unusually high density of Mandarte Song Sparrows calls for 

1964 Drent, van Tets, Tompa and Vermeer: Mandarte 

Table 28. — Territory size of Song Sparrows in different localities 




Territory size in m^ 





Mainland, continuous area, Ohio 
Mainland, lakeshore, Minnesota 
Islands (freshwater), Minnesota 
Island (freshwater), Minnesota 
Mandarte Island, B.C. (1961) 















Nice 1943 
Suthers 1960 
Beer et al. 1956 
Swedberg 1957 
Tompa 1962 

explanation. Although a final answer cannot yet be given, the following 
factors play an important role: (1) the quantity and availability of food on 
Mandarte throughout the year; (2) partial spatial isolation of the population; 
(3) complete absence of mammalian predators; (4) the scarcity of avian pre- 
dators, especially during the breeding season when the island is inhabited by 
numbers of sea-birds. 

General phenology 

Song Sparrows on Mandarte Island stay on their territories throughout the 
year. Territorial activity is minimal during the post-nuptial moult, and again 
from late November to early January. Territory establishment by young males 
goes on throughout the winter, even though this is not always conspicuous: in 
mid-winter song and serious fighting are absent. Final spacing normally takes 
place in late February and March, but in years with a surplus of males (such 
as 1962) the process can be considerably delayed. In that year the unbalanced 
sex ratio was due to a late snow storm which resulted in the death of many 
females. The delay in breeding, however, cannot be attributed to bad weather 
conditions directly, as on other islands with low Song Sparrow densities breed- 
ing started as usual. 

Nest building normally occurs during the last week of March or first half 
of April. During the first two seasons a substantial portion of the pairs raised 
three broods, the successive broods being well synchronized in the population. 
In 1962, mainly because of the continuous fighting, territory desertions, and 
shifts in territories which resulted from the unbalanced sex ratio, breeding was 
most irregular. Young from the first brood appeared throughout the season, 
even as late as July. The number of second broods was low, and there was no 
evidence of a successful third brood. 

Clutch size 

Johnston (1954) gave the average clutch size for the Song Sparrow in 
Oregon and Washington as 3.81. Only the first and second clutches (3.65 and 
4.00 respectively) were included in this figure. 

The data most applicable to the Mandarte situation are those gathered in 
the Vancouver- Victoria region of southwestern British Columbia, representing 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

the same subspecies in approximately the same climatic region. These figures 
(from the B.C. Nest Records Scheme) show essential agreement with the 
Mandarte data, as shown in Table 29. 

Table 29. — Clutch size of Song Sparrows in southwestern British Columbia 
















Adjacent area 
(see text) 











Fledging success 

Figures on hatching rate were not obtained in sufHcient quantity, but an 
attempt was made to estimate the fledging success. Since the conditions in 
1960 and 1961 were very similar, and the number of juvenile birds at the end of 
breeding much the same, it is thought that fledging success was also approxi- 
mately the same in these years. The 1961 minimal fledging success was 60 
per cent (from eggs to fledged young), calculated from the total number of 
broods throughout the season, and the total number of birds fledged, the latter 
determined by the ringing and census program. The actual fledging success 
was most likely higher, since in a group of 13 nests observed in 1962 all young 
hatched left the nest successfully, and only three eggs (of a clutch of four) 
failed to hatch. It is clear that fledging success is higher on Mandarte than has 
been reported elsewhere (c. 36% in Ohio: Nice, 1937; and 49.3% in San 
Francisco Bay: Johnston, 1956). 

The food supply for the nestlings has been sufficient in the past three 
seasons. Only one instance was observed where death of a nestling resulted 
from starvation. In this nest four eggs hatched one morning, and a fifth one 
and a half days later. The fifth young, smaller than its siblings, could 
apparently not compete for the food brought by the parents, and died. 

Dispersion and Philopatry 

Fledglings stay on the territories of the parents for two to three weeks 
before gaining complete independence. During this period very few die. 
Fledglings from the first broods are mainly cared for by the male, whilst the 
female is occupied starting the next one. Fledglings from the last brood are 
normally fed by both parents, unless one of them goes through an early moult. 
Fledglings entering neighbouring territories were often observed being fed by 
the owners of these territories. 

The replacement on the territory of old birds which have perished begins 
as early as September, when juvenile birds have gone through their first moult. 
This spacing, however, is not final, and fighting continues throughout the 

1964 Drent, van Tets, Tompa and Vermeer: Mandarte 257 

winter. Most young stay in loose feeding groups during the winter, shifting 
from one part of the island to another. 

As has been discussed elsewhere (Tompa, 1962) the revival of territoriality 
in the autumn, once the birds have completed their moult, coincides with a 
pronounced emigration of a part of the juvenile surplus. Hahbut Island, a 
small wooded islet 1.3 kilometers south of Mandarte, and with a sparse Song 
Sparrow population, has been reached by Mandarte emigrants each fall, and 
from time to time some of them even establish territories there. One Mandarte 
juvenile was discovered as far as six kilometers to the west, on James Island. By 
contrast, there is no evidence of the immigration of Song Sparrows to Mandarte, 
and it certainly cannot involve more than one to two per cent of the residing 
population. Many birds that fledge on Mandarte and leave the island during 
their first winter, return and attempt to establish themselves the following 

Once they have bred on the island the site tenacity of Mandarte Song 
Sparrows is very strong. The few exceptions to this rule follow. One male, 
which had spent the summer of 1960 unmated, in 1961 moved to a neighbouring 
territory whose owner had perished during the winter. In 1962 there were a 
few cases of territory desertion by males. The only shifts of breeding females 
were caused by the death of their male, the females moving to territories of 
unmated males. In one case a female deserted her mate, because of the con- 
tinuous interference by several unmated males which completely surrounded her 

Summing up, Mandarte Island affords the optimum habitat for Song 
Sparrows in the area, and its population has been extremely high during the 
three seasons under consideration. Territoriality plays a vital role in adjusting 
the population level to the environmental conditions, which may vary slightly 
from year to year, and also in redressing any maladjustments in the population 
composition (e.g. the unbalanced sex ratio in 1962). A full analysis of the 
mechanisms of population regulation of the Song Sparrow is in preparation 
(Tompa, Ph.D. thesis). 

Species of Changing or Uncertain Status 

Fhalacrocorax penicillatus, Brandt's Cormorant 

Though present in summer on the British Columbia coast at least as far 
north as Queen Charlotte Sound (Munro and Cowan 1947: 52), there are no 
known nesting sites of the Brandt's Cormorant in the province (Drent and 
Guiguet 1961: 116). At Mandarte the species is an abundant winter visitor 
(adults and immatures) and scarce summer visitor (predominantly immatures), 
an interesting situation in view of the nearby nesting sites in the San Juan 
Islands of Washington. 

North Rock and the cliflFs of Mandarte are favoured roosts in the area, the 
number present through May and early June being roughly 40-70, increasing 
as the adults begin returning in July to a full occupancy of about 1000 birds, 
which may be reached by the close of August. Figure 22 shows the return of 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 


2 3^ ^? 5 

2 3 4 12 3 


Figure 22. Composition of the Brandt's Cormorant roost on Mandarte Island in the course 
of the summer (weekly averages). 

adult Brandt's Cormorant to the Mandarte roost in 1958 (aged by plumage by 
van Tets). The number using the roost during the winter is indicated by the 
following counts: 500, January 17, 1959; 800, December 29, 1959. Peak 
numbers are usually seen only at dusk, with less than 100 birds present by day. 

Birds in immature plumage can be seen to court and build flimsy nests of 
grasses and algae throughout June, but up to 1962 no eggs have been laid. 
Kortlandt (1942) made an intensive study of Dutch colonies of Phalacrocorax 
carbo, and found that almost all one and two year old birds live in the colonies 
in May, displaying immature reproductive behaviour and building play nests. 
He found the species to start breeding at three years, though many individuals 
first bred at four and five years. Of interest here is that though birds usually 
bred in the natal colony, they often spent the immature years in other colonies, 
and Kortlandt gathered suggestive evidence that new colonies originate in three 
phases. First the cormorants use the site as a sleeping place, next immatures 
move in during the breeding season and go through play nesting, still returning 
to the natal colony when mature however, and finally the colony becomes 
established when birds with previous breeding experience elsewhere settle and 
begin to nest. We feel that the Mandarte roost of Brandt's Cormorant repre- 
sents the second phase, namely use of the site as winter roost and occupation 
by immatures in the breeding season, and consider it likely that a nesting group 
will be established in the next few years. 

1964 Drent, van Tets, Tompa and Vermeer: Mandarte 259 

Ardea herodias, Great Blue Heron 

Members of the Victoria Natural History Society are responsible for 
establishing the nesting of the Great Blue Heron on Mandarte. The records made 
by this group on their numerous excursions to Mandarte have been kindly 
reviewed by Mr. A. R. Davidson who supplied the following summary (m lift. 
8 November 1961). On May 27, 1945, seven heron nests were found, two in 
an Arbutus, the remainder in Douglas Firs: four in one tree, one in another. 
One nest examined contained only broken eggshells, evidently the work of the 
Northwestern Crow. No herons were noted on the next two recorded trips 
(June 10, 1950; June 16, 1951), but on June 21, 1952 and June 27, 1953 herons 
flew from the trees upon arrival of the party. However, no nests were found. 
On July 2, 1955, no herons were noted. 

Since 1957 our records indicate that the Great Blue Heron, though common 
in the area and nesting as close as Tsehum Harbour, has been only an occasional 
visitor to the island in the summer. For example: in 1959 herons were seen 
seven times on the island during our stay; in 1960, four times. In summary, at 
least seven pairs of Great Blue Herons nested on Mandarte in 1945. No herons 
were mentioned by Munro (last recorded visit 1936), and no nests were found 
in 1950 or later. 

Selasphorus rufus, Rufous Hummingbird 

The Rufous Hummingbird is a summer resident on the island, where male 
display flights are conspicuous in early summer and individuals have been noted 
to the close of August. Hummingbirds have been seen to chase Northwestern 
Crows, Red-winged Blackbirds and Savannah Sparrows (the latter does not 
breed on Mandarte). We suspect the species to nest in small numbers on 
Mandarte, but have not found nests or young to prove this. 


Mandarte supports flourishing breeding populations of Double-crested and 
Pelagic Cormorant, Glaucous-winged Gull, Pigeon Guillemot, Northwestern 
Crow, and Song Sparrow. Strictly marginal are the other breeding species. 
Black Oystercatcher, Tufted Puffin, (? Rufous Hummingbird), Barn Swallow, 
and Red-winged Blackbird. Factors promoting the success of the first group 
will be mentioned here, and some general comparisons made. 

The sea-birds require freedom from excessive molestation by man, freedom 
from land predators, and suitable nesting sites within reach of an adequate food 
supply. These conditions are all met at Mandarte. Through protection human 
disturbance has been kept below the critical level, and mammalian predators 
are absent. As far as nesting sites are concerned, the steep irregular southwest 
facing shore offers extensive ledges for the cormorants, the scarcity of vegeta- 
tion makes much of the island suitable for gulls, and the broken nature of the 
rocky shores provide abundant nesting holes for the guillemots. 

The data presented on breeding seasons serve as a description, but are in- 
adequate for analysis of either the environmental timers or of the possible 
ecological advantage conferred upon the species at that particular time (e.g. 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

superabundance of the food required for the nestlings). It is hoped that this 
report will stimulate continued observation to attack these problems. 

Table 30. ■ — Nesting success in Mandarte sea-birds 

Number per pair 
per season of: 



winged Gull 


eggs laid 
chicks hatched 
young fledged 
Over-all success 











1 . 1 (90%) 

Turning now to nesting success, Table 30 shows that hatching success is 
similar for all of the "successful" sea-birds on Mandarte, at about 60 per cent. 
It appears that "addling", i.e. failure of eggs to hatch due to in'^ertility or 
embryonic death, is roughly the same in these species (21%, 18%, 15%, 21% 
of all eggs laid, in the order listed in the table), the remainder of the egg loss 
being accounted for largely by crow predation. The data on tgg predation 
suggest that the presence of the adult at the nest is the only effective mode of 
protection. The easily panicked cormorants suffer a far higher loss than the 
more steadfast gulls, and of particular significance is the situation in the hole- 
nesting guillemot, where egg loss was as heavy as in the gulls, and centred in 
the first few days of incubation, before the parents attend the egg continuously. 

The cormorants and the Pigeon Guillemot have comparable over-all success 
of better than 50 per cent of all eggs laid resulting in fledged young, and it will 
be noticed that practically all loss occurs in the egg stage. The Glaucous- 
winged Gull is radically different, here losses in the chick stage equal or even 
exceed losses of eggs. The primary reason for this difference lies in the 
mobility of the gull chicks and the trait of the adults to attack strange chicks 
that stray onto their territory. In the dense Mandarte colony this accounts 
for most of the chick mortality (as was the case in the Herring Gull studies of 
Paynter and Paludan), 

Considering now the successful passerines, the dense nesting population of 
the Northwestern Crow is doubtless related to exploitation of the eggs and 
young of the sea-birds. Calculations from the figures given earlier indicate 
that in the period under review, for the whole Mandarte colony in one season, 
crows took about 150 eggs of the Double-crested Cormorant, 450 eggs of 
Pelagic Cormorant, 700 eggs of the Glaucous-winged Gull, and 30 of the 
Pigeon Guillemot. This is a total exceeding 1000 eggs, and it may be assumed 
that the resident 25 pair take the major share. Further, many small chicks 
are taken, and an additional food source are the fish scraps found in abundance 
in the cormorant colonies during the chick stage. The Northwestern Crow 
on Mandarte has thus specialized in plundering the sea-birds as has been 
reported at other colonies (e.g. Heath, 1915), even to the extent of openly 
attacking incubating Pelagic Cormorants (compare Nordberg (1950) on Corviis 
corofie molesting incubating Eiders). 


Drent, van Tets, Tompa and Vermeer: Mandarte 


The factors promoting the success of the Song Sparrow on Mandarte are 
more complex, and discussion is deferred until completion of the population 


Distribution and numbers of the ten species of birds presently breeding on 
iVlandane are described on the basis of six summers' residence on the island. 
Statistics on breeding season, nesting success and related topics are presented 
for Phalacfocorax auritiis, P. pelagicus, Haematopus bachmani, Larus glaii- 
cescens, Cepphr/s columba, Corviis caurinus, and Melospiza melodia. 


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Director on Bare Island Indian Reserve) . 
Annual Report B.C. Provincial Museum 
1915, pp. N15-N16. 

Barth, E. K. 1955. Egg-laying, incubation 
and hatching of the Common Gull {Larus 
emus). Ibis 97:222-239. 

Beer, C. G. 1962. Incubation and nest- 
building behaviour of Black-headed Gulls 
II. Behaviour 19:283-304. 

Beer, J. R., L. D. Frenzel and N. Hansen. 
1956. Minimum space requirements of 
some nesting passerine birds. Wilson Bul- 
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Behle, W. H. and W. A. Goates. 1957. 
Breeding biology of the California Gull. 
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Bowles, J. H. 1921. Breeding dates for 
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Boyd, H. 1962. Mortality and fertility of 
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Carl, G. C. and C. J. Guiguet. 1958. Alien 
animals in British Columbia. B.C. Provin- 
cial Museum Handbook 14, 94 pp. 

Darcus, S. J. 1930. Notes on the birds of 
the northern part of the Queen Charlotte 
Islands in 1927. Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Davis, D. E. 1942. Number of eggs laid by 
Herring Gulls. Auk 59:549-554. 

Dawson, W. L. and J. W. Bowles. 1909. 
The birds of Washington. Seattle, Occi- 
Jental Publishing Company, 2 volumes, 
iii -(- 997 pp. 

Drent, R. H. 1961. Breeding biology of 
the Pigeon Guillemot (Ave ; Cepphw;) 

Unpublished M.A. thesis. University of 
British Columbia. 
— , and C. J. Guiguet. 1961. A cata- 

logue of British Columbia sea-bird colonies. 

Occasional Papers B.C. Provincial Museum 

No. 12, 173 pp. 
Drost, R. 1951. Beobachtungen an einer 

kleinen Silbermowen-Population im Jah- 

reslauf. Vogelwarte 16:44-48. 
. 1952. Das Verhalten der mann- 

lichen und weiblichen Silbermowe (Larus 

argentatus Pont.) ausserhalb der Brutzeit. 

Vogelwarte 16:108-116. 
, E. FocKE and G. Freytag. 1961. 

Entwicklung und Aufbau einer Population 
der Silbermowe, Larus argeiitatus argenta- 
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Goethe, F. 1955. Beobachtungen bei der 
Aufzucht junger Silbermowen. Zeitschrift 
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— — — — . 1956. Die Silbermowe. Die Neue 
Brehm Biicherei Nr. 182, Wittenberg, 95 

. 1960. Felsbriitertum und weitere 

beachtenswerte Tendenzen bei der Sil- 
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GuDMUNDSsoN, F. 1953. Islenzkir fuglar 
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of maintaining Glaucous- winged Gulls 
{Larus glaucescens) on fresh water and 
sea water for long periods. Journal of En- 
docrinology 23:53-61. 

Johnston, D. W. 1961. The biosystematics 
of American crows. University of Wash- 
ington Press, Seattle, 119 pp. 


Thp: Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

Johnston, R. F. 1954. Variation in breed- 
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rows of the Pacific coast. Condor 56:268- 

■ . 1956. Population structure in salt 

marsh inhabiting Song Sparrows. Part II. 
Density, age structure, and maintainance. 
Condor 58:254-272. 

JuNGFER, W. 1954. Ueber Paartreue, Nist- 
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Kartaschew, N. N. 1960. Die Alkenvogel 
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Drent, van Tets, Tompa and Vermeer: Mandarte 


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Received for publication 22 November, 1963 

TOAD, Bujo hemiophrys 

Francis R. Cook 

National Museum of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario 

The dorsal ground colour of the Canadian Toad, Bufo hevnophrys, has been 
described as "brown" (Dickerson, 1908: 98), "brownish or greenish" (Wright 
and Wright, 1933: 66, 1949: 180; Conant, 1958: 268) or "greenish or brownish" 
(Stebbins, 1951: 263, 1954: 108). During studies of the herpetofauna of the 
Canadian prairie provinces 3,051 live adult and juvenile toads of this species 
have been examined. In the majority the dorsal ground colour varied from 
muddy brown to light grey with greenish shades in some individuals. 

However, 50 specimens have been collected which differ markedly from 
published accounts. In these the dorsal ground colour was reddish, varying 
from a light rust-red to reddish brown, distinct from the usual brown variations 
which occur in this species. In all aspects of pattern the contrast was the same 

264 The Canadian Field-Naturalisi Vol. 78 

Table 1. — Collections of Biifo hemiophrys in which the rusty phase occurred. 

Cat. No. 










White Fox, 2.8 mi. W. on Hw\'. 55 

Flin Flon, 14.2 mi. SE. on Hwy. 10 
Mafeking, 0.8 mi. N. on Hwy.'lO 
Birch River, 4.9 mi. S. on Hwy. 10 
Benito, 3.8 mi. N. on Hw}-. 83' 
Camperville, 11.4 mi. W. on Hwy. 20 
Winnipegosis, 16.2 mi. NW. on Hwy. 20 
Ethelbert, 13.0-16.1 mi. N. on Hwy. 10 
Steinbach, 26.3 mi. SE. on Hwy. 12 





8 July 1962 

li luly 1962 
18 Aug. 1960 

18 Aug. 1960 
21 Aug. 1960 

19 Aug. 1960 
14 Aug. 1960 

12-13 Aug. 1960 
3 luly 1960 






























"6 collections (4809 (35), 4812 (9), 4814 (3), 4819 (9), 4829 (10), 4832 (49) which contained 
one or more rusty individuals, and 4 collections (4826 (3), 4820 (1), 4817 (2), 4811 (3)) which 
did not contain rusty individuals, all taken from the same continuous area of road on the same 
night, are lumped together here. 

as in typical examples. There were usually dark patches in which the warts, 
although lighter than the patch, were darker than the ground colour. The 
vertebral stripe and lateral streaks were Hght and the underside was dirty white 
or slightly yellowish white with a variable amount of dark flecking or spotting. 
Structural characters such as the cranial crests or boss varied as in typical 
individuals. As this colour seems to be distinct from the usual spectrum of 
variation in Bitjo hemiophrys it is designated as the rusty colour phase. 

The 3,051 specimens seen ahve from Canada are contained in 216 collec- 
tions. Fourteen of these collections have specimens designated as "red" or 
"reddish" in field notes taken before they were preserved and are assigned to 
the rusty phase. After a period of preservation in formaHn of H or more years, 
most rusty specimens are indistinguishable from other colour variations as all 
fade to more or less dull greyish. Figure 1 shows the localities where this 
phase has been collected. Only nine localities are plotted for the 14 collec- 
tions as six collections taken August 12, 1960, 13.0-16.1 miles north of Hwy. 10 
of Ethelbert, iVIanitoba, are represented by the same circle. In addition, all 
collections of 20 or more B. hemiophrys taken in 1959-63 which did not con- 
tain this phase are also mapped. Over 150 smaller collections examined which 
also lacked the rusty phase are not shown. The apparent gap between the 
southeastern collection in which this phase was present and those northwest of 
it is probably real. Large collections from two intermediate localities did not 
contain rusty toads. One, taken 2.2 miles north and 0.5 miles east of St. 
Francois Xavier (=13 miles west of Winnipeg) totals 266 individuals (NMC 
4515, 4517, 4520, 5333, 5334) and the other, from Delta at the southern tip of 
Lake Manitoba contains 721 (NAiC 4525, 5388, 5390, 6052). Although the 


Cook: Canadian Toad 


Figure 1. The occurrence of the rusty phase in collections of Biifo he?mopbrys from 
Canadian prairie provinces. Solid circles represent collections which contained nisty in- 
dividuals. Hollow circles represent collections of 20 or more specimens which did not 
contain rusty individuals. The solid triangle is Emma Lake where the rusty phase was 
reported by D. J. Buckle. The solid line indicates the approximate known limit of Bufo 
hemiophrys modified from previously published maps on the basis of the author's un- 
published data. 

rusty phase occurs near the eastern edge of the range of B. hemiophrys it may 
not be present at the edge. It was not found among 34 specimens (NMC 5364) 
taken 22.6 miles west on Hwy. 1 of the junction of Hwys. 1 and 11 (= 32 
miles southeast of Winnipeg). This locality is within a few miles of the 
eastern limit for the species where it contacts the range of Bufo americanus. 

In Table 1 the collections which contained rusty toads are listed with the 
percentage of this phase in each. As in Figure 1, collections from near Ethel- 
bert are lumped. This percentage of rusty specimens in collections of more 
than two individuals varies from 34.8 to 15.7% within the Manitoba area east 
of Lake Winnipegosis, with the outlying occurrences, White Fox and Stein- 
bach, containing 9.5 and 6.4% respectively. All collections were random with 
no conscious attempt to select the rusty phase. No correlation with soil colour 
or other habitat factor was noted for rusty individuals that would favour selec- 
tion for this phase in nature. 

266 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

In snout- vent length rusty specimens measured 16 to 57 mm with a mean 
of 34.8 mm. All large collections containing this phase showed a more or less 
typical bell curve of distribution when size and numbers were plotted. Rusty 
toads occurred only in those size groups which were most plentiful in a given 
collection. The minimum and maximum snout-vent measurements of all toads 
in collections which contained rusty individuals were 13 and 69 mm. The 
maximum length for all Canadian Bjifo he?mophrys examined is 85 mm for 
males and 91 mm for females. (The latter betters by slightly more than k inch 
the maximum given by Conant, 1958: 265.) It is likely that the apparent 
failure of rusty individuals to approach the maximum size is due to the lack 
of any large adults in collections from areas where they occur, rather than 
a loss of the colour with age, or differential selection between adults and im- 
matures. No collections have been made from breeding aggregations in these 
areas and this accounts for the paucity of large individuals from them. There is 
no correlation between sex and the rusty phase as the 50 specimens were 
identified by dissection as 24 males and 26 females. 

D. J. Buckle (PC: February 7, 1964) has reported the occurrence of "red" 
specimens of B. he?mophry s which presumably were the ritsty phase from 
Emma Lake, 25 miles north of Prince Albert, Saskatchewan. This report, the 
westernmost for the rusty phase, is indicated on Figure 1 by a solid triangle. 
Of a series of 99 specimens measuring 19-25 mm collected July 23 and 29, 
1962, 26% were classified as the rusty phase by Buckle. 

A presumably allopatric species, Bujo a. americmius, may exhibit brownish, 
greenish, yellowish or reddish coloration in eastern Aianitoba, based on 
examination of 197 specimens. The reddish colour of B. a?nericmms and the 
rusty phase of B. hemiophry s are similar. It is possible that past or present 
gene exchange between B. a?nericamis and B. heimophry s could account for the 
presence of the rusty phase in the latter. If so, however, one might expect 
other variations of B. americmius, such as the yellowish ground colour, to occur 
also, which is not the case. In addition, as noted previously a collection of 
B. heniiophrys a few miles from the western limit of B. americamis did not 
contain rusty individuals. Neither does it appear likely that rusty is a primitive 
coloration in B. hemiophrys, relict at the periphery of the species' range. 
Available information indicates that it occurs over a fairly large region, and 
may be absent at the range periphery. However, more collections are needed 
before this possibihty can be discarded. The most plausible explanation of 
the origin of this rusty phase is the survival of mutations originating at or near 
the area where the phase now occurs. The present disjunct range of the 
rusty phase could be due to historical reasons or because mutations have oc- 
curred and survived independently in the geographically separated populations. 
No factors are presently known which would promote or prevent r7(sty in- 
dividuals competing equally as well as other variations. 

The common name Canadian Toad is used here in preference to "Dakota 
Toad" which was recommended in the list of common names for North Ameri- 
can amphibians and reptiles proposed by the American Society of Ichthyolo- 
gists and Herpetologists (Committee, 1956: 176). Dakota Toad seems to have 
been originated by Schmidt (1953: 67) and presumably was chosen because the 

1964 Cook: Canadian Toad 267 

type specimens of the species were collected in what is now North Dakota. 
However, the name Canadian Toad has had extensive usage (Wright and 
Wright, 1933, 1949; Stebbins, 1951, 1954) prior to Schmidt. In addition it 
designates the country which contains the major portion of the species range. 
It is less restrictive than Dakota Toad, or other names previously coined, 
A4anitoba Toad and Winnipeg Toad. 

Acknowledgement is due to J. R. Otterdahl (1959), R. A. Henry (1960), 
M. G. Foster (1961) and C. Bruce Powell (1962, 1963) who assisted in field 
work in the years noted, to Joyce C. Cook who prepared the map, and to 
D. J. Buckle who contributed a report of the nisty phase. 

Among 3,051 specimens in 216 collections of the Canadian Toad, Bujo 
hemiophrys, examined alive, 50 specimens (contained in 14 of the collections) 
were an unreported colour variation for this species. This has been designated 
as the rusty phase and has a ground colour of light rust-red to reddish brown. 
Most rusty specimens have been collected in the area between Lake Winni- 
pegosis and the western i\4anitoba border. They have been collected in south- 
eastern Manitoba, and reported in central Saskatchewan at Emma Lake. The 
percentage of rusty individuals in populations in which they occur varied from 
6.4 to 34.8% of collections containing more than two specimens. They 
measured 16 to 57 mm. The 50 rusty specimens were determined by dissection 
to be 24 males and 26 females. The origin of this phase was probably by the 
survival of mutations in the area where they are now found. 


Breckenridge, W. J. 1944. Reptiles and American Society of Ichthyologists and 

amphibians of A4innesota. University of Herpetologists, Chicago, 111. 280 pp. 

Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. 202 pp. Stebbins, Robert C. 1951. Amphibians of 

Committee on Herpetological Common western North America. University of 

Names. 1956. Common names for North Cahfornia Press, Berkeley and Los An- 

American amphibians and reptiles. Copeia geles. 539 pp. 

1956(3) -172-185 • 19^4. Amphibians and reptiles of 

CONANT, Roger. '1958. A field guide to ^Tr North America. McGraw-Hill 

reptiles and amphibians of the United London'^Ts''^ Toronto, 

States and Canada east of the 100th meri- ^ur \ a j a tt 

,. TT u^ A/ivffi- /^ T> Wright, Anna Allen and Albert Hazen 

dian. Houghton Mifnin Company, Bos- tt7 ir>-,-, tt ju i r r i 

-,,, ^ r /' Wright. 1933. Handbook of frogs and 

r^ " ff ^ T-. r , 1 toads of the United States and Canada. 

DiCKERSON, Mary C. 1908. The frog book: Comstock Publishing Co., Inc., Ithaca, 

North American toads and frogs with a NY 231 dp 

study of the habits of those of the north- Wright, Albert Hazen and Anna Allen 

eastern states. Doubleday, Page and Com- Wright. 1949. Handbook of frogs and 

pany. New York. 253 pp. toads of the United States and Canada. 

Schmidt, Karl P. 1953. A check list of 3rd edition. Comstock Publishing Corn- 
North American amphibians and reptiles. pany, Inc., Ithaca, N.Y. 640 pp. 

Received for publication 26 February 1964 


Two Helpful Uses of 
"Terylene" for Biologists 

Justice and Schaldach (Journal of Mam- 
malogy, 39(1): 158) outlined the diffi- 
culties encountered in obtaining flujffy 
long-staple cotton for filling skins of 
small mammals, and their experience and 
satisfaction with "Dacron", a synthetic 
fiber manufactured by Du Pont. 

A similar synthetic fiber manufactured 
by Canadian Industries Limited under 
the trade name "Terylene" fiberfill is 
available in Canada. I have used this 
material for filling study skins of birds 
and small mammals, and found it super- 
ior to cotton because of Terylene's long 
fiber length and high resilience. 

Terylene has also proven more satis- 
factory than cotton for use as nesting 
material in live traps for small mammals. 
Some small mammals, particularly Mi- 
crotus pennsyhanicus, urinate extensive- 
ly when caught. As a result, cotton is 
trampled down into a soggy mat when 
used for nesting material in sheet metal 
live traps. Similar results occur when 
seepage from heavy rains dampens the 
floor of the traps. Terylene, through its 
high resilience and low water absorption, 
helps keep small mammals dry and warm 
by preventing contact with the wet floor 
of the trap. I have used Terylene fiber- 
fill in live traps near Hinton, Alberta. 
With captures ranging between 104 and 
158 small mammals daily during an 
eight-day period in August 1961, losses 
were only between 2.9 and 6.1 per cent, 
and those were primarily among shrews. 

I recommend Terylene for use as nest 
material in live traps for small mammals 
as well as for filling museum skins. 

Andrew Radvanyi 

Canadian Wildlife Service 
742 Federal Building 
Edmonton, Alberta 
27 April 1964 

A Range Extension for the Wood 
Frog in Northeastern 

Incidental to ornithological studies in 
northeastern Saskatchewan in the sum- 
mer of 1963, the senior author obtained 
nine specimens of the Wood Frog, Rana 
sylvatica. These were collected July 14 
to 16 at Hasbala Lake, 59° 58' N, 102° 
03''W. They have been deposited in the 
National Museum of Canada and cata- 
logued as NMC 7682. 

Althoug'h distribution maps in Conant 
(1958, A Field Guide to Reptiles and 
Amphibicms, p. 352) and Martof and 
Humphries (1959, American Midland 
Naturalist 61 (2): 350-389) include all 
of northern Saskatchewan within the 
range of the Wood Frog, the most 
northerly locality for the eastern part 
of the province previously authenticated 
by specimens was Wallaston (= Wol- 
laston) Lake. This was cited by Logier 
and Toner (1961, A Check List of the 
Amphibians and Reptiles of Canada and 
Alaska, p. 43) on the authority of H. 
Beck. Beck's communication was based 
on two collections at the University of 
Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, taken in Aug- 
ust 1956 from WoUaston Lake: Wel- 
come Bay (A-173, -174, -175) and Com- 
pulsion Bay (A-177, -178, 179). Wel- 
come Bay is not given in the Saskatche- 
wan volume of the Gazetter of Canada 
(1957) but Compulsion Bay is listed as 
57°47'N, 103°16'W. This is at the south- 
ern end of WoUaston Lake, approxi- 
mately 145 miles south of Hasbala Lake. 

Hasbala Lake is within the North- 
western Section of the Boreal Forest, a 
region which is described generally as 
"open subarctic woodland" or "open 
lichen-woodland" (Rowe, 1959, Forest 
regions of Canada). The Transition Sec- 
tion in Saskatchewan has been related to 





the Hudsonian Life Zone (e.g., see Nero, 
1963, Birds of the Lake Athabasca re- 
gion, Saskatchewan. Special Publication 
No. 5, Saskatchewan Natural History 
Society, Regina). A camp was establish- 
ed on the southwest end of Hasbala 
Lake, five miles southwest of the north- 
east boundary corner and two and one- 
half miles west of the Manitoba border. 
Although this area consisted predomin- 
antly of open black spruce forest, the 
best available campsite was found on a 
low esker ridge in an old burn. The 
immediate environs were chiefly charred 
boles of spruce and pine with scattered 
green alder and birch clumps and a few 
pine seedlings. In wet places lichens, 
mosses, willows, and other bushy or 
herbaceous plants grew abundantly, but 
the burned area was otherwise rather 
bleak. Certain bird species, e.g., Grav- 
cheeked Thrush, White-crowned Spar- 
row, and Harris' Sparrow, seemed es- 
pecially attracted to the burned area. 
Black flies and especially horse or bull- 
dog flies were unusually abundant at this 

A few frogs were found at the camp 
in a wet sphagnum bog adjacent to a 
narrow ice-formed ridge along the edge 
of the lake. In a depression behind the 
camp there was a dry, heavily-grassed 
"meadow" and a well-established pond 
which attracted an even larger number 
of frogs. Large willow clumps were 
scattered abundantly throughout the 
meadow and around the pond. Numer- 
ous holes in the ground, apparently 
formed when this meadow was a wet 
bog, were half-hidden by the tall grass 
and made walking difficult. At least one 
Wood Frog was seen in the muskeg as 
gear was being unloaded on the shore on 
July 9, the day of arrival. In the evening 
of July 14 four frogs were collected 

in the meadow; two others were taken 
on July 15, and three on July 16, either 
in the meadow or in front of the camp. 
On wet days a few frogs were encoun- 
tered out in the open on the scorched, 
barren surface of the ridge. On one or 
two occasions Wood Frogs were seen in 
wet situations inland, but the largest 
number was noted in the grassy meadow 
behind the camp. On the whole, frogs 
were uncommon in the area, and there 
were numerous suitable situations where 
none was encountered. No other species 
of herptiles were found. 

Of the nine specimens, six were adults 
and measured, after preservation, 46, 47 
(2), 48 and 50(2) mm snout- vent, aver- 
age 48 mm. Their tibia/body length 
ratios varied from .417 to .457, average 
.433. The four largest specimens were 
females with their ovaries distended with 
eggs. The three immatures measured 35, 
28 and 23 mm. Only two specimens had 
a middorsal white stripe. In their detail- 
ed maps of variation in Rana sylvatica, 
Martof and Humphries (1959) included 
populations in northeastern Saskatche- 
wan within regions where the adults 
averaged less than 40 mm in body length 
(p. 358) and more than half the popula- 
tion had a middorsal white stripe (p. 
367). They noted, however, (p. 355) 
that the maps "do not show local condi- 
tions with the exactitude one would like 
to have". The Hasbala Lake specimens 
do agree with the tibia/body length 
ratio "less than .475" in which northern 
Saskatchewan Wood Frogs are included 
(p. 363). 

Robert W. Nero 
Francis R. Cook 

Natural Sciences Division 

University of Saskatchewan Regina Campus 

Regina, Saskatchewan, and 

National Museum of Canada, 

Ottawa, Ontario 

1 June 1964 


Compiled by 

Mrs. G. R. Hanes 

Abies balsamifera, 81; grandis, 211 
Abietinella abietina, 147 
Ac emtio is homajicinni homemanni, 4 
Accipiter cooperii, 14; gentilis, 13; striates, 14 
Acer rubnm?, 81, 116; saccharimmi, 117; 

spicaUnn, 116 
Achillea millejoliimi, 45, 114, 147 
Aconitum delphinifoliu?n, 96 
A corns calamus, 126 
/icm crepitans blanchardi, 202 
Actitis ?nacularia, 14 
Additional records and a correction of the 

type locality for the boreal chorus frog 

in northwestern Ontario, bv F. R. Cook, 

Additional specimens of the small-mouthed 

salamander from Pelee Island, Ontario, by 

F. R. Cook, 201 
Agelaius phoeniceus, 179, 213, 252 
Agrostis borealis, 71; tenuis, 110 
Aix sponsa, 90, 204 
Alberta, Black Duck breeding record for, 

by W. G. Leitch, 199 
Alberta, Bushv-tailed wood rat in the Peace 

River district, by A. W. F. Banfield, 128 
Alberta, A probable breeding record of the 

Bobolink at Vermilion, by J. K. Lowther, 

Alberta, The stonecat, Noturus flavus, newly 

recorded in, by J. R. Nursall and V. 

Lewin, 128 
Alca tor da, 242 
Albula, 194 
Alcock, F. J. 

Review of: Minnesota's Rocks and Wat- 
ers: A Geological Story, 122 
AUigatorfish, arctic, 175 
4imis, 45, 46, 81; crispa, 112, 145, 152; 

oregona, 65 

Alopex lagopus, 5 

Avibly stigiella sprucei, 148 

Ambystcnna jeffersonianum, 156; later ale, 

156, 160, 202; maculatum, 156, 160; 

texanwn, 201, 202 
Ainelanchier alnifolia, 140, 146; Bartrarniatia, 

113; florid a, 111 
Ammodytes hexapterus, 177 
Aminophila, 81 
Amphibians of Browns Flat area, N.B., Notes 

on, by S. W. Gorham, 154 
Anas acuta, 90; carolinensis, 13, 90; cyanop- 

tera, 13; discors, 13; platyrhynchos, 90; 

rubripes, 90, 199 
A?idro7ueda glancophylla, 113 
Androsace ochotensis, 94; septentrio7ialis, 146 
Aney/ione imilticeps, 94; multifida, 145; 

parviflora, 140, 145 
Angelica atropurpurea, 113, 117 
A^itemiaria, 116; a?igustata, 76; canesce?is, 76; 

Ekvia7iiana, 76; pulcherriina, 144, 157; 

rosea, 147 
Ant bus spinoletta, 15 
Aquilegia brevistyla, 145 
Arabis alpina, 74; Holboellii, 125, 145; lyrata, 

Aralia bispida, 113; nudicaulis, 117 
Arbutus menziesii, 211 
Arctostapbylos alpina, 75, 113; Uva-ursi, 

113, 143,' 203, 246 
Ardea herodias, 59, 213, 259 
Arenaria interpres interpres, 3 
Arefiaria lateriflora, 112; peploides, 73; 

rubella, 73; sajanensis, 73; stricta, 145 
Aretbusa bulbosa, 112 
Argus, George W. 

Plant collections from Carswell Lake and 

Beartooth Island, northwestern Saskat- 
chewan, Canada, 139 



Index to Volume 7^ 


Aristida, 28, 30 

Armeria maritinia, 75 

Arnica alpina, 76 

Artemisia borealis, 76; campestris, 147 

Asio otus, 14 

Aspidium Filix-mas, 108, 117; fragrans, 117; 

Tfiarginale, 108, 110, 117; spinulosjim, 110 
Aspidophoroides olrikii, 175 
AspleniuTH jilix-jeinina, 110; thelypteroides, 

108, 116; trichomanes, 126 
Aster, 45, 102; jimciiormis, 147; imihellatus, 

Athyriuvi Filix-femina, 1 10 
Auk, Great, 194 
Autoserica castanea, 62 
Ay thy a inarila, 96; valisneria, 13 

Banfield, A. W. F. 

Bushy-tailed wood rat in the Peace River 

district, Alberta, 128 

Review of: The Monarch of Alularchy 

Mountain, 57 

Review of: Never Cry Wolf, 52 
Barbarea orthoceras, 145 
Bartsia alpina, 75 
Bayly, Isabel L. 

A plant collection from southwest New- 
foundland — John Bell, 1867, 107 
Betula, 81; glandulosa, 112, 145; lenta, 108, 

116, 117; lute a, 81, 112, 117; Michauxii, 

112; papyrifera, 140, 145; pumila, 112 
Bird, Ralph D., and Lawrie B. Smith 

The food habits of the Red-winged 

Blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus, in 

Manitoba, 179 
Bird and mammal observations at Hazen 

Camp, northern Ellesmere Island, in 1962, 

by D. B. O. Savile and D. R. Oliver, 1 
Bird records. New, from Cape Breton Island, 

N.S., by A. J. Erskine, 89 
Bird records, Three new, for Prince Edward 

Island, by W. J. /Mills, 62 
Birds, The, reviewed by W. E. Godfrey, 56 
Birds, The breeding, of Mandarte Island, 

B.C., by R. Drent et al, 208 
Birds of Kleena Kleene, Chilcotin district, 

B.C., 1959-1962, by W. A. B. Paul, 13 
Birds of the Labrador Peninsula and Adja- 
cent Areas, reviewed bv W. E. Godfrey, 

Birds of the Lake Athabasca Region, Saskat- 
chewan, reviewed bv W. E. Godfrey, 

Birds of Riding Mountain National Park, 

Manitoba, Notes on, by D. A. Blood, 204 
Black Duck breeding record for Alberta, by 

W. G. Leitch, 199 

Blackbird, Brewer's 42-46, 181; Red-winged, 
179-186, 209, 252; Yellow-headed, 16, 

180, 181 
Blackbird, Brewer's, An extension in the 

breeding range of, by O. E. Devitt, 42 
Blackbird, Red-winged, in Manitoba, The 

food habits of, by R. D. Bird and L. B. 

Smith, 179 
Blarina brevicatida, 78, 103 
Blood, Donald A. 

Notes on the birds of Riding Mountain 

National Park, Manitoba, 204 
Bluebird, Mountain, 202 
Bobolink, A breeding record for the, in 

Prince Edward Island, by S. E. Vass, 60 
Bobolink, A probable breeding record at 

Vermilion, Alberta, by J. K. Lowther, 200 
Boniby cilia garndiis, 91 
Bourguignon, A. E. 

Piping Plover at Ottawa, Ontario, 199 
Brachyrhinus ovatiis, 184 
Brachytheciiait salebrosum, 148 
Brayshaw, T. C. 

Some interesting plant records from the 

Chalk River district, Ontario, 150 
Breeding birds of Mandarte Island, B.C., by 

R. Drent et al, 208 
Breeding record for the Bobolink in Prince 

Edward Island, by S. E. Vass, 60 
Breeding record for the Bufflehead west of 

the Coast Range in B.C., by D. A. Han- 
cock, 64 
British Columbia, Birds of Kleena Kleene, 

Chilcotin district, 1959-1962, by W. A. 

B. Paul, 13 
British Columbia, Breeding birds of Man- 
darte Island, by R. Drent et al, 208 
British Columbia, Breeding record for the 

Bufflehead west of the Coast Range in, 

by D. A. Hancock, 64 
British Columbia, Notes on Townsend's 

Solitaire in western Chilcotin district, by 

W. A. B. Paul, 203 
British Columbia, Two interior B.C. records 

for the Ancient Murrelet, by W. B. John- 
stone, 199 
Bronius carinatiis, 111 
Bryoerythrophylhan reciirvirostnmi, 148 
Br yum lacustre, 148; pseud otriquetnmi, 140, 

143, 148 
Bilbo virginianus, 14, 59 
Bucephala albeola, 64, 90, 202, 205; ishrndica, 

Buckner, C. H. 

Preliminary trials of a camera recording 

device for the study of small mammals, 77 
Bufflehead, 64, 201, 205 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

Bufflehead, Breeding record for, west of the 
Coast Range in B.C., bv D. A. Hancock, 


Bufo mnericamis, 65, 157, 160, 188-190, 265, 
266; a. americanus., 266; hemiophrys, 263- 

Bunting, Snow, 4, 5, 6 

Bushy-tailed wood rat in the Peace River 
district. Alberta, by A. W. F. Banfield, 

Buteo jamaicejisis, 14, 23; lagoptis, 23; swain- 
soni, 14 

Butomus umbellatus, 150, 153 

Butorides virescens, 59, 90 

Cacti and Other Succulents, reviewed by E. 
W. Greenwood, 121 

Cakile edentula, 112 

Calamagrostis canadensis, 110, 143; pnrpuras- 
cens, 143 

Calcarms lapponicus, 30, 31, 92; /. lapponicus, 
4; pictiis, 28-31 

Calidris canutus camitus, 3 

Caloplaca elegans, 148 

C alt ha palustris, 145 

Canmssia quamash, 111 

Ca?nmda pellucida, 184 

Cainpa7iula rotundifolia, 75, 94, 147; 
tiniflora, 75 

Campsis radicans, 114, 118 

Campy Ihnn stellatuni, 143, 148 

Canachites canadensis, 127, 161; franklinii, 127 

Candelariella vitellina, 148 

Canis lupus, 5 

Canvasback, 13 

Capelin, 172 

Capella gallinago, 3, 14 

Cardainine bellidifolia, 74; hirsuta, 112; 
pennsylvanica, 112; pratensis, 74; purpurea 

Carex, HI; angiiillata, 11; arctata, HI; aurea, 
111, 116; Bigelowii, 11; buxbaumia, 144 
capillaria, 11, 111, 144; cephalantha, 111 
crinita. 111; deflexa, 144; dispernia, 144 
eburnea, 144; f/^i'a, 111; joena, 144; g/^rf- 
a/iV, 72; glareosa, 11; holostatna, 11; in- 
terior, 111, 144; intumescens. 111; Lache- 
nalii, 11; lacustris. 111; lasiocarpa. 111; 
lenticularis. 111; leptalea, 140, 144; lepton- 
ervia. 111; Mackenziei, 111; vienibranacea, 
11; fnisandra, 11; nardi?ia, 11; norvegica, 
11; paleacea. 111; rariflora, 111; roj«7, 144; 
rosirata, 111; rupestris, 11, 94; ^a/ma, 111; 
scirpoidea, 11, 111, 144; scoparia, 111; 
stipata, 111; supina, 11; tonsa, 144; wVi- 
^z^/a, 111 
Caribou, 6 
Carpodacus f/iexicanus, 16 

Carya ovata, 59 

Casmerodias albus egretta, 59 

Cassiope hypnoides, 75; mertensiana, 126; 

tetragona, 75 
Castanea, 118; dentata, 112 
Castilleja septentrionalis, 114 
Catbird, 91 
Cathartes aura, 205 
Catoptropborus seinipalniatus, 61 
Catostomus catostomus, 172 
Ceanothus ovatus, 126 
Celasirus scandens, 126 
Cephalanthus occidentalis, 126, 150, 154 
Cepphus columba, 213, 240; grj//^ columba, 

Cerastium alpinum, 73, 94; cerastoides, 73 
Chamaedaphne calyculata, 82, 113 
Changing status of the Cowbird in Prince 

Edward Island, by S. E. Vass, 125 
Charadrius melodus, 109; vociferus, 14 
Charr, arctic, 170; Brook, 170; lake, 170, 173 
C/je77 hyperborea atlantica, 1 
Chenopodiu?n album, 112 
Chlidonias niger, 14 
Cbondestes gra?rmiaciis , 92 
Chorophilus triseriatus, 191 
Chrysemys picta belli, 128 
Cicuta mackenzieana, 146 
Cinclidimn stygium, 140, 143, 148 
Circium muticum, 108, 117; pumilum, 108, 

Cisco, 172, 173 
Cistothorus platensis, 45 
Cladonia amaurocrea, 148; coccifera, 148 
Clafigula biemalis, 1 
Claytonia caroliniana, 107, 112, 117 
Cletbrionomys andersonii, 87; gapperi, 78; g. 
gap peri, 198; g. pallesce?7S, 80-88; n/fo- 
canus, 87 
Clough, Garrett C. 

Local distribution of two voles: evidence 
for interspecific interactions, 80 
Chi pea bare?igus, 194 
Coccyzus erytbropbtbahfms, 205 
Cocblearia officinalis, 74; tridactylites, 112 
Cod, Atlantic, 70; Greenland, 172 
Coefiagrion interrogatimi, 123 
Columba livia, 17, 91 
Colymbus grisagena, 67 
Coma?idra livida, 112 
Common Egrets nesting near Amherstburg, 

Ontario, by Winnifred Smith, 59 
Conioselinum cbi?iense, 113 
Contopus sordidulus, 15 
Cook, Francis R. 

Additional records and a correction of 
the type locality for the boreal chorus 
frog in northwestern Ontario, 186 


Index to Volume 77 


Additional specimens of the small-mouth- 
ed salamander from Pelee Island, Ontario, 

A northern range extension for Bufo am- 
ericanus and Rana sylvatica, 65 
The rusty colour phase of the Canadian 
toad, Bufo hemiophrys, 263 
Review of: A Sharing of Joy, 58 

Cook, Francis R., and D. R. M. Hatch 
A spadefoot toad from Manitoba, 60 

Corallorhiza trifida, 112 

Corbet, Philip S. 

Review of: Les Libellules du Quebec, 123 

Coregonus artedi, 172, 173; clupeaformis, 172 

Cormorant, Brandt's, 213, 257, 258; Double- 
crested, 13, 209, 213-219; Pelagic, 209, 
213, 221-224 

Comus alba, 140, 146; caTiadensis, 113, 136; 
nuttallii, 135; stolanifera, 45; suecica, 113 

Corvus brachyrhynchos, 250, 251; b. caurinus, 
214; caurinus, 213, 249; corone, 260 

Cottus bairdii, 175; cognatus, 175 

Couesius plumbius, 172 

Cowan, I. McT 

The holotype of the Franklin Grouse 
(Canac bites franklinii) , 127 

Cowbird, Brown-headed, 16, 181; Eastern, 

Cowbird in Prince Edward Island, Changing 
status of, by S. E. Vass, 125 

Crane, Sandhill, 2; Whooping, 194 

Crataegus Brunetiana, 113; coccinea, 117 

Crocethia alba, 3 

Crow, Northwestern, 209, 214, 249 

Cuckoo, Black-billed, 205 

Curlew, Eskimo, 194 

Cyclocephala borealis, 62 

Cy clopterus lumpus, 175 

Cyprepedium calceolus. 111 

Cystopteris fragilis, 71, 143 

Dace, longnose, 172 

Dendroica auduboni, 16; juagnolia, 16; 

petechia, 16; townsendi, 16 
Derfuatocarpon miniatuni, 148 
Desmognathus fuscus, 157, 160 
Devitt, O. E. 

An extension in the breeding range of 

Brewer's Blackbird in Ontario, 42 
Diapensia lapponica, 75, 113 
Dickcissel, 119 
Dicranwn rugosimi, 148 
Dicrostonx groenlandicus, 6 
Digitaria ischaemum, 30 
Distichium capillaceujn, 148; flexicaule, 148 
Distributional summary and some behavioral 

notes for Smith's Longspur, 

Calcarius pictus, bv E. Kemsies and W. 
Randle, 28 

Dolichonyx oryzivorus, 60, 200 

Dove, Mourning, 14; Rock, 91 

Dow, Douglas D., and M. Anne Dow 

iMass mortality of gulls at Rondeau Park, 
Lake Erie, 62 

Drab a arabisans, 112, 118, 126; aurea, 94; 
cinerea, 74, 140, \'\S;crassifolia, 74; glabel- 
la, 74; hirta, 126; lactea, 74; nivalis, 74; 
sibirica, 92, 96 

Dracocephalum parvijlormn, 147 

Drent, R., G. F. van Tets, F. Tompa and K. 
Vermeer The breeding birds of Man- 
darte Island, British Columbia, 208 

Drosera intermedia, 112; rotmidifolia, 145 

Dryas drummondi, 140, 146; integrifolia, 75 

Dryopteris Filix-nms, 110, 117; fragrans, 107, 
110, 117, 126, 150, 152 

Duck, Black, 90; Labrador, 194; Ruddy, 13, 
90; Wood, 90, 204 

Duck, Black, breeding record for Alberta, by 
W. G. Leitch, 199 

Dumatella caroli7iensis, 91 

Dunlin, 91 

Eagle, Bald, 59 

Eastern spiny sofe-shelled turtle from Que- 
bec Province, by J. Lovritv and N. 

Denman, 63 
Eelbenny, slender, 177 
Egrets, Common, nesting near Amherstburg, 

Ontario, by Winnifred Smith, 59 
Eider, King, 2, 6 
Eleocharis halopbila, 110; palustris, 111; par- 

vula, 110 
Elymus innovatus, 143; viollis, 110; virgini- 

cus, 110 
Empetrum hermaphroditum, 140, 146; 7ii- 

grimi, 75, 82, 113 
Empidonax dificilis, 15; ha?mfwndii, 15; 

minimus, 14; trail Hi, 14, 45 
Encalypta procera, 148; vulgaris, 148 
Epilobium angustifolimn, 32-41, 75, 212; 

hirsutimi, 38; latifolium, 25, 27, 75, 108, 

113, 114, 117; palustre, 113 
Epipactis belle borine, 150, 153 
Equisetum arvense, 71, 142; fluviatile, 142; 

byemale, 142; sylvaticimi, 110; variega- 

tum, 71 
Eremopbila alpestris, 15 
Ereunetes matiri, 14 
Erigeron, 76; alpiniformis, 16; borealis, 16; 

compositus, 140, 147; eriocephalus, 15, 76; 

glabellus, 147; humilis, 76; hyssopifolius, 

147; unalaschkensis, 16; uniflorus, 16 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

Eriophorum angustijolium, 72, 111; callitrix, 
72; Chamissonis, 111; opaciim, 111; 
Scheuchzeri, 72; tenellum, 111; vaginatum, 
72, 111; viridi-carinatum, 111, 114 

Ermine, 5, 6 

Erolia alpina, 91; bairdii, 3, 91; mmutilla, 14 

Erskine, Anthony J. 

Nest-site competition between Bufflshead, 
iMountain Bluebird and Tree Swallow, 
New bird records from Cape Breton 
Island, Nova Scotia, 89 

Erysinmm, 96 

Esox litems. 111 

Euphagiis cya770cephalus, 42, 181 

Euphrasia, 94; arctic a, 75; Randii, 114 

Eiirycea bislineata, 157, 160 

Eiitainias miniums, 78; in. neglectus, 198 

Extension in the breeding range of Brewer's 
Blackbird in Ontario, by O. E. Devitt, 42 

Fagiis graiidifoUa, 81 

Falco cohuubarius, 14; peregrinus, 14 

Falcon, Peregrine, 14 

Festuca brachyphylla, 72; rubra, 110; saxi- 
VTontana, 142, 143 

Finch, House, 16 

Fish collections from eastern Hudson Bay, 
by D. E. McAllister, 167 

Fish and Wildlife: A Memorial to W. J. K. 
Harkness, reviewed by D. E. McAllister, 

Fishes of the Western North Atlantic, re- 
viewed by D. E. McAllister, 194 

Flicker, 125 

Florida caerulea, 62, 90 

Flower variation of Epilobiuni angustifoliuni 
L. growing over uranium depositis, by 
H. T. Shacklette, 32 

Flycatcher, Hammond's, 15; Least, 14; Olive- 
sided, 15; Traill's, 14, 45; Western, 15 

Food habits of the Red-winged Blackbird, 
Agelaius phoeniceus, in Manitoba, by 
R. D. Bird and L. B. Smith, 179 

Fox, arctic, 5, 6 

Fragaria, 45; virginia?ia, 146 

Fratercula arctica, 242 

Frog, Blanchard's cricket, 202; bullfrog, 159; 
gray treefog, 159; green, 159; leopard, 
158; mink, 159; pickerel, 158; wood, 158, 

F"rog, boreal chorus, in northwestern On- 
tario, Additional records etc., by F. R. 
Cook, 186 . 

Gadus morhua, 70; ogac, 172 

Galiwn asprellum, 114; ka?nschaticum, 114; 

labradoricmn, 114; palustre, 114; septen- 
trional e, 147 
G aster osteus aculeatus, 177 
Gaultheria shallon, 65 
Gavia stellata, 2, 90 
Gentiana iiesophila, 114 
Geothlypis trichas, 16, 45 
Gemn macrophylluvi, 113 
Glaiicidiiim gnoma, 14 
Glyceria canadensis, 110 
Godfrey, W. Earl 

Review of: The Birds, 56 

Review of: Birds of the Labrador Penin- 
sula and Adjacent Areas, 119 

Review of: Birds of the Lake Athabasca 
Region, Saskatchewan, 120 

Review of: Where is that Vanished 
Bird?, 193 
Godwit, Hudsonian, 91 
Goose, Greater Snow, 6; Snow, 2 
Gorham, Stanley W. 

Notes on the amphibians of Browns Flat 
area, New Brunswick, 154 
Goshawk, 13 

Grackle, Common, 125, 181 
Grebes, Red-necked, Winter mortality 

among, in Ontario, by A. de Vos and 

A. E. AUin, 67 
Greenwood, E. W. 

Review of: Cacti and Other Succulents, 
Grivnnia apocarpa, 148 
Grosbeak, Evening, 16 
Grouse, Franklin, 127; Spruce, 161 
Grouse, Franklin, The holotype of, by L 

McT. Cowan, 127 
Grus canadensis canadensis, 2 
Guillemot, Pigeon, 209, 214, 239-246 
Gull, Bonaparte's, 62; California, 14; Glau- 
cous, 4; Glaucous-winged, 209, 230-238; 

Herring, 62; Iceland, 91; Ring-billed, 62 
Gyvmocanthus tricuspis, 174 

Habenaria, 116; dilatata, 111; hyperborea, 

HI, 144; obtusata, 111; viridis, 111 
Haematopus bachmani, 213, 224; ostralegus, 

226, 230 
Haliaeetus leucocephahis, 59 
Hancock, David A. 

Breeding record for the BufHehead west 
of the Coast Range in British Colum- 
bia, 64 


Index to Volume 77 


Handbook of North American Birds, Vol. 
1. Loons through Flamingos, reviewed 

by D. A. Munro, 121 
Hare, arctic, 5 
Hawk, Cooper's, 14; Pigeon, 14; Red-tailed, 

14, 23; Rough-legged, 23; Sharp-shinned, 

14; Swainson's, 14 
Hedysarmn alpinimi, 113 
Heron, Black-crowned Night, 59; Great 

Blue, 59, 213, 259; Green, 59, 90; Little 

Blue, 62, 90 
Hesperiphona vespertina, 16 
Hieracium kalmii, 114 
Hierochloe alpina, 71; odorata, 110 
Hippoglossoides platessoides, 167 
Hippiiris 'mil gar is, 146 
Hirmido rustica, 15, 213, 248 
Flogarth, Donald D. 

Pseudofossils near Old Chelsea, Quebec, 
Holodiscus discolor, 211, 212 
Holotype of the Franklin Grouse (Canachites 

frcinklinii), by L McT. Cowan, 127 
Honkenya peploides, 112 
Hummingbird, Calliope, 14; Rufous, 14, 213, 

Hybopsis gracilis, 128 
Hydroprogne caspia, 62, 91 
Hyla crucifer, 158, 160, 187-190; versicolor, 

159, 188, 190 
Hylocichla fuscescens, 15; guttata, 15; ustJi- 

lata, 15 
Hylodes ?naculatus, 191 
Hypmmi cupressifor?ne, 148; jastigiatiiin, 148 
Hypochaeris radicata, 65 

Investigations in the Natural History of the 
Soviet Far East, reviewed by L. K. Were- 
sub, 124 
Iridoprocne bicolor, 15, 203 
Iris pseudacorus, 153; versicolor, 111 
Isoetes macrospora, 150, 151; mzmcata, 150; 
riparia, 150 

Jaeger, Long-tailed, 3, 6 
Johnstone, Walter B. 

Two interior British Columbia records 
for the Ancient Murrelet, 199 
Judd, WiUiam W. 

A weevil in the ear of child at London, 
Ontario, 61 
Juncus balticus. 111, 144; bighmius, 72; bu- 

fonius, 111; trifidus, 72, 111 
Juniperus communis, 126, 140, 143; horizon- 

talis, 110, 126, 140, 143; virginiana, 150, 
Kalmia angustijolia, 82, 113; polifolia, 113 
Keith, Lloyd B. 

Territoriality among wintering Snowy 
Owls, 17 
Kemsies, Emerson, and Worth Randle 

A distributional summary and some be- 
havioral notes for Smith's Longspur, 
Calcarius pictus, 28 
Killdeer, 14 
Kingbird, Western, 91 
Knot, 1, 3, 5, 6 
Koeleria asiatica, 94 
Krebs, Charles J. 

Spring and summer phenology at Baker 
Lake, Keewatin, N.W.T., during 1959- 
62, 25 

Lagopiis americajiiis, 162; lagopus, 161; 

mutus rupestris, 2, 161 
Lance, sand, 177 
Lanius exciibitor, 15 
Larix decidua, 98; larici'iia, 81, 140, 143 
Lark, Horned, 15 
Larus argentatus, 62, 232, 237, 238; californi- 

cus, 14, 232, 238; delawarensis, 62; ftiscus, 

232, 238; glazicesceJ2s, 213, 230, 245; glau- 

coides, 91; hyperboreus, 4; Philadelphia, 

62; ridibundus, 232, 238 
Last Horizon, The, reviewed by F. R. Cook, 

Lathy rus maritinms, 113 
Lecanora melanophthahiia, 148; polytropa, 

Lecidea nibiformis, 149 
Ledum decumbens, 75; groenlandiciim, 65, 

142, 146 
Leitch, William G. 

Black Duck breeding record for Alberta, 
Lemming, collared, 6 
Leontodon autumnalis, 114 
Lepidurus arcticus, 2 
Lepus ainericanus, 78; arcticus, 5 
Lewisia rediviva, 137 
Libellules du Quebec, Les, reviewed bv P. S. 

Corbet, 123 
Limosa haemastica, 91 
Liquidainbar, 118; Styracifhta, 112 
List of vascular plants from around Ogac 

Lake, south coast of Frobisher Bay, 

N.W.T., by Ian A. McLaren, 70 
Lobelia dortmanna, 147 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

Local distribution of two voles: evidence 
for interspecific interaction, by G. C. 
Clough, 80 

Loiseleuria procu?nbens, 75, 113 

Long, Charles A. 

Occurrence of some small mammals in 
southwestern Ontario, 197 

Longspur, Lapland, 4, 92; Smith's, 28 

Longspur, Smith's, Calcarius pictus, A dis- 
tributional summary and some behavioral 
notes for, by E. Kemsies and W. Randle, 

Lonicera dioicu, 147; obloj2gifolia, 108, 114, 
116, 117; villosa, 114, 117 

Loon, Red-throated, 2, 90 

Lopbodytes cucullatus, 90 

Lota lota, 128 

Lovrity, Joseph, and Norris Denman 

An eastern spiny soft-shelled turtle from 
Quebec Province, 63 

Lowther, James K. 

Harris' Sparrow in Quebec, 200 
A probable breeding record of the Bobo- 
link at Vermilion, Alberta, 200 

Loxostege sticticalis, 184 

Lmtipeniis fabricii, 177 

Lumpfish, 175 

Lumsden, Harry G. 

The Rock Ptarmigan, Lagopus jfiutus 
rupestris in Ontario and Manitoba, 161 

Lu?tda cirrhata, 213, 246 

Liizula ca7Hpestris, 111; confusa, 72; multi- 
flora, 72; nivalis, 72; spicata, 72 

Lycopodium alpinum, 110; annotinimi, 71, 
110, 142; co?nplanatu7n, 110; luciduliim, 
110, 117; obscmmn, 45, 117, 142; Selago, 
71; sitchense, 110; tristachyimt, 110, 142 

Lygodiimt pahnatum, 118 

Lythru7fi salicaria, 113, 118 

Macpherson, A. H. 

Review of: Wildlife's Ten- Year Cycle, 
Macrosiphum pisi, 184 
Maianthe?num canadense, 45 
Mallard, 90 
Mallotus villosus, 172 
Malus fuse a, 212 
Mammal, Bird and, observations at Hazen 

Camp, northern Ellesmere Island, in 1962, 

by D. B. O. Savile and D. R. Oliver, 1 
Mammals, small. Preliminary trials of a 

camera recording device for the study 

of, by C. H. Buckner, 77 
Mammals, some small. Occurrence of, in 

southwestern Ontario, by C. A. Long, 

Manitoba, The food habits of the Red-wing- 
ed Blackbird in, by R. D. Bird and L. B. 
Smith, 179 

Manitoba, Notes on the birds of Riding 
Mountain National Park, by D. A. Blood, 

Manitoba, The Rock Ptarmigan in Ontario 
and, by H. G. Lumsden, 161 

Manitoba, A spadefoot toad from, by F. R. 
Cook and D. R. M. Hatch, 60 

Mass mortality of gulls at Rondeau Park, 
Lake Erie, by D. D. Dow and M. A. 
Dow, 62 

McAllister, D. E. 

Fish collections from eastern Hudson 

Bay, 167 
Review of: Fish and Wildlife: A Me- 
morial to W. J. K. Harkness, 195 
Review of: Fishes of the Western North 
Atlantic, 194 

McCalla, William Copeland, — an apprecia- 
tion, by A. E. Porsild, 131 

McLaren, Ian A. 

A list of vascular plants from around 
Ogac Lake, south coast of Frobisher 
Bay, N.WT, 70 

Melampyrum litieare, 114, 147 

Melandrium affine, 73; ape t alum, 73 

Melanitta deglandi, 13; perspicellata, 13 

Melanoplus bivitattus, 184 

Melospiza melodia, 213, 252 

Menyanthes trifoliata, 114 

Merganser, Hooded, 90 

Mertensia maritima, 75, 114 

Micropalama himantopus, 63 

Microtus, 98-106; ?nontebelli, 87; ochrogaster, 
88; pennsylvanicus, 78, 268; p. acadicus, 
80-88; p. pennsylvanicus, 98 

Milium effusu?n, 110 

Mills, Willett J. 

Three new bird records for Prince Ed- 
ward Island, 62 

Minnesota's Rocks and Waters: A Geologi- 
cal Story, reviewed by F. J. Alcock, 122 

Mitella mida, 112, 146 

Moldavica parviflora, 147 

Molotbrus ater, 16, 181; a. ater, 125 

Monarch of Mularchy Mountain, The, re- 
viewed by A. W. F. Banfield, 57 

Moneses uniflora, 113 

Montia fontana, 112, 117 

Moore, Mary I. 

Some interesting plants in the Barron 
Canyon in Algonquin Park, 125 


Index to Volume 77 


Mouse, deer, 78, 80; house, 103; meadow 
jumping, 78; white-footed, 103 

Munro, David A. 

Review of: Handbook of North Ameri- 
can Birds, Vol. 1., 121 

Murrelet, Ancient, Two interior B. C. re- 
cords for, by W. B. Johnstone, 199 

Mus, 88; musculus, 103 

Musk-ox, 5, 6 

Mustela erminea, 5; vison, 213 

Myadestes toivnsendi, 203 

Myoxocephalus quadricornis, 174; scorpioi- 
des, 174; scorpius, 174 

Myrica asplemfolia, 45; gale, 65, 145 

Myriophyllum spicatum, 117 

Najas flexilis, 152; gracillmia, 150. 152 
Neckera pennata, 148 
Nemopmithus mucronatus, 113 
Neotoma cinerea druntmondi, 128 
Nero, Robert W., and F. R. Cook 

A range extension for the wood frog in 
northeastern Saskatchewan, 268 
Nest-site competition between Bufflehead, 

Mountain Bluebird and Tree Swallow, 

by A. J. Erskine, 202 
Never Cry Wolf, reviewed by A. W. F. 

Banfield, 52 
New bird records from Cape Breton Island, 

Nova Scotia, by A. J. Erskine, 89 
New Brunswick, Notes on the amphibians 

of Browns Flat area, by S. W. Gorham, 

Newfoundland, A plant collection from 

southwest, — John Bell, 1867, by I. L. 

Bayly, 107 
Northern range extension for Bufo cmteri- 

canus with notes on B. americanus and 

Rana sylvatica, by F. R. Cook, 65 
Northwest Territories, A list of vascular 

plants from around Ogac Lake, south 

coast of Frobisher Bay, by I. A. Mc- 
Laren, 70 
Northwest Territories, Spring and summer 

phenology at Baker Lake, Keewatin, 

during 1959-62, by C. J. Krebs, 25 
Notes on the amphibians of Browns Flat 

area, New Brunswick, by S. W. Gorham, 

Notes on the birds of Riding Mountain 

National Park, Manitoba, by D. A. Blood, 

Notes on Townsend's Solitaire in western 

Chilcotin district, B.C., by W. A. B. Paul, 


Notopbtbahnus viridescens, 157, 160 

Notropis, 172 

Noturus flavus, 128 

Nova Scotia, New bird records from Cape 

Breton Island, by A. J. Erskine, 89 
Nupbar advena, 112, 117 
Nursall, J. R., and Victor Lewin 

The stonecat, Noturus flavus, newly re- 
corded in Alberta, 128 
Nuttallornis borealis, 15 
Nyctea scandiaca, 4, 17-24 
Nycticorax nycticorax, 59 

Occurrence of some small mammals in 
southwestern Ontario, by C. A. Long, 

Oenothera, 116; biennis, 113 

Oldsquaw, 2, 6 

Ontario, Additional specimens of the small- 
mouthed salamander from Pelee Island, 
by F. R. Cook, 201 

Ontario, Common Egrets nesting near Am- 
herstburg, by Winnifred Smith, 59 

Ontario, An extension in the breeding range 
of Brewer's Blackbird in, bv O. E. Devitt, 

Ontario and Manitoba, The Rock Ptarmi- 
gan, Lagopus niutus rupestris in, by H. G. 
Lumsden, 161 

Ontario, northwestern. Additional records 
etc., for the boreal chorus frog, by F. R. 
Cook, 186 

Ontario, Piping plover at Ottawa, by A. E. 
Bourguignon, 199 

Ontario, Some interesting plant records 
from the Chalk River district, by T. C. 
Brayshaw, 150 

Ontario, southwestern, Occurrence of some 
small mammals in, by C. A. Long, 197 

Ontario, A weevil in the ear of child at 
London, by W. W. Judd, 61 

Oporornis tolmiei, 16 

Orobancbe uniflora, 114 

Ort bo trie bum anomalum, 148 

Oryctolagus cuniculus, 213 

Osprey, 205 

Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club 

Report of Council, 85th Annual Meeting, 

Financial Statement, 1963, 51 

Ovibos moschatus, 6 

Owl, Great Horned, 14, 59; Hawk, 205; 
Long-eared, 14; Pygmy, 14; Snowy, 4, 

Owls, Snowy, Territoriality among winter- 
ing, by L. B. Keith, 17 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

Oxyria digyna, 73 
Oxytropis kuyukukensis, 94 
Oxyura jainaicensis, 13, 90 
Oystercatcher, Black, 209, 224-230 

Pafidion haliaetus, 205 

Panicum virgatimj, 150, 153 

Papaver, 94, radicatum, 74 

Parakeet, Carolina, 194 

Parmelia centrifuga, 149; conspersa, 149; 
lineola, 149 

Parry a nudicaulis, 96 

Passerculus sandvnchensis, 16, 119 

Passer ella iliac a, 16 

Paul, W. Adrian B. 

Birds of Kleena Kleene, Chilcotin dis- 
trict, B.C., 1959-1962, 13 

Pedicularis flarrmtect, 75; hirsuta, 75; lappo- 
nica, 75; lanata, 25, 27, 96 

Peeper, spring, 158 

Pellaea glabella, 140, 143 

Pemphigus betae, 184 

Peromyscus leucopus noveboracensis, 103; 
nianiculatus, 78, 213; m. maniculatus, 198 

Petasites frigidus, 147; sagittatiis, 147 

Petrochelidon albifrons, 205, pyrrhonota, 15 

Pewee, Western Wood, 15 

Phalacrocorax aristotelis, 218-222; auritiis, 
13, 213, 215; carbo, 219, 220; pelagicus, 
213, 221; penicillatus, 213, 257 

Phalarope, Wilson's, 14 

Philo7nachus pugnax, 120 

Phoebe, Eastern, 91; Say's, 14 

Phragniites contmunis, 180 

Phyllodoce coerulea, 75; glanduliflora, 96 

Physcia ?fmscigena, 149; sciastra, 149 

Phytolacca americana, 112 

Pfce^ glauca, 81, 98, 140, 143; mariana, 81, 
140, 141, 143; ra^^ra, 81 

Pigeon, Passenger, 193 

Pike, northern, 172 

Pinguicula vulgaris, 75, 114 

Pintail, 90 

Pinus, 113; banksiana, 98, 140, 142, 143; re«- 
nosa, 98; Strobus, 81, 98; sylvestris, 98 

Pipilo erythrophthalmus, 92 

Piping Plover in Ottawa, Ontario, by A. E. 
Bourguignon, 199 

Pipit, Water, 15 

Plant collection from southwest Newfound- 
land — John Bell, 1867, by I. L. Bayly, 

Plant collections from Carswell Lake and 
Beartooth Island, northwestern Saskatche- 
wan, Canada, by G. W. Argus, 139 

Plantago maritima, 114 

Plectrophenax nivalis nivalis, 4 

Plethodon cinereus, 157, 160 

Pleuroziimi schreberi, 148 

Plover, Piping, in Ottawa, Ontario, by A. E. 

Bourguignon, 199 
Poa alpigena, 71; alpina, 72; arctica, 5, 72; 

glauca, 72, 142, 143; hartzii, 5; interior, 

143; palustris, 110; pratensis, 102, 143 
Poly gala paucifolia, 45 
Polygonum convolvulus, 182; lapathijolium, 

112; virginianum, 112; viviparum, 73, 112 
Polystichum Braunii, 110 
Populus balsamifera, 142, 144; tremuloides, 

81, 140, 144 
Porsild, A. E. 

Potentilla stipularis L. and Draba sibirica 
(Pall.) Thell. new to North America, 

William Copeland McCalla — an appre- 
ciation, 131 
Porzana Carolina, 14 
Potamogeton epihydrus, 110; filifonnis, 143; 

Friesii, 110; gramineus, 143 
Potentilla Crantzii, 74; fruticosa, 112, 146; 

gracilis, 150, 153; Hippiana, 150, 153; 

hyparctica, 74; nivea, 74, 94; norvegica, 

146; palustris, 112, 146; pensylvanica, 146; 

rivalis, 150, 153; stipularis, 94; tridentata, 

112; Vahliana, 74 
Potentilla stipularis L. and Draba sibirica 

(Pall.) Thell. new to North America, by 

A. E. Porsild, 92 
Preliminary trials of a camera recording 

device for the study of small mammals, 

by C. H. Buckner, 77 
Prenanthes racemosa, 114 
Primula laurentiana, 113; mistassinica, 113 
Prince Edward Island, A breeding record for 

the Bobolink in, by S. E. Vass, 60 
Prince Edward Island, Changing status of 

the Cowbird in, by S. E. Vass, 125 
Prince Edward Island, Three new bird re- 
cords for, by W. J. Mills, 62 
Principles in Mammalogy, reviewed by P. M. 

Youngman, 57 
Probable breeding record of the Bobolink 

at Vermilion, Alberta, by J. K. Lowther, 

Prosopium cylindraceum, 111 
Primus emarginata, 212; pensylvanica, 142, 

146; virginiana, 140, 146, 212 
Pseudacris nigrita, 191; n. septentrionalis, 

190; n. triseriata, 191; triseriata, 191; t. 

maculata, 186, 192; t. triseriata, 189, 190 
Pseudofossils near Old Chelsea, Quebec, by 

D. D. Hogarth, 8 


Index to Volume 77 


Pseudotsuga menziesii, 65, 211; taxifolia, 133 
Ptarmigan, Rock, 2, 161; Willow, 161 
Ptarmigan, Rock, Lagopus nmtus rupestris 

in Ontario and Manitoba, by H. G. 

Lumsden, 161 
Pteridiwn aquilinum, 45, 65 
Puffin, Tufted, 209, 246-248 
Pulsatilla Ludoviciana, 137 
Pimgitius pungitius, 177 
Pyrola asarifolia, 113, 146; elliptica, 113; 

grandiflora, 75; secunda, 113 
Pyrus decora, 113; floribunda, 113 

Quebec, Harris' Sparrow in, by J. K. 
Lowther, 200 

Quebec, Pseudofossils near Old Chelsea, by 
D. D. Hogarth, 8 

Quebec Province, An eastern spiny soft- 
shelled turtle from, by J. Lovrity and 
N. Denman, 63 

Quercus garryana, 212 

Raja radiata, 170 

Ramalina intermedia, 149 

Rana catesbeiana, 159, 160; clamitans, 159, 

160, 187, 189; palustris, 158, 160; pipiens, 

158, 160, 188-190; septentrionalis, 66, 159, 

189; sylvatica, 65, 66, 158, 160, 187, 188 
Range extension for the wood frog in 

northeastern Saskatchewan, by R. W. 

Nero and F. R. Cook, 268 
Rangifer tarandus, 6 
Ranunculus acris, 117; Allenii, 73; aquatilis, 

145; Cymbalaria, 112; nivalis, 73; pennsyl- 

vanicus, 112; pyg?naeus, 73; repens, 112 
Ranvanyi, Andrew 

Two helpful uses of "Terylene" for bio- 
logists, 268 
Rat, Bushy-tailed wood, in the Peace River 

district, Alberta, by A. W. F. Banfield, 

Redpoll, Hoary, 4, 6 
Redstart, American, 16 
Rhinichthys cataractae, 111 
Rhinanthus, 116 
Rhizocarpon disporum, 148, 149; geographi- 

cum, 148, 149; obscuratum, 149 
Rhododendron canadense, 82, 113; lapponi- 

cum, IS 
Rhopalosiphum niaidis, 184 
Rlyus aromatica, 150, 154 
Rhytidiimi rugosum, 148 
Ribes glandulosum, 112, 142, 146; hirtellum, 

112; lacustre, 112; triste, 112 

Riparia riparia, 15 

Robin, 125 

Rock Ptarmigan, Lagopus nmtus rupestris in 

Ontario and Manitoba, by H. G. Lums- 
den, 161 
Rosa, 113, 212; acicidaris, 146; nitida, 113; 

virginiana, 113 
Rowan Field Notes — A Review, reviewed 

by W. Ray Salt, 195 
Rutus Chamaemorus, 113; idaeus, 146; ma- 

cropealus, 65, 212; pubescens, 113; stri- 

gosus, HI 
Ruff, 120 

Rumex mexicanus, 145; occidentalis, 145 
Rusty colour phase of the Canadian toad, 

Bu^o hetniophrys, by F. R. Cook, 263 

Sagina intermedia, 73; nodosa, 112; procum- 
bens, 117 

Salamander, blue-spotted, 156; dusky, 157; 
four-toed, 160; red-backed, 157; red- 
spotted, 157; small-mouthed, 201; spot- 
ted, 156; two-lined, 157 

Salamander, small-mouthed. Additional 
specimens, from Pelee Island, Ontario, 
by F. R. Cook, 201 

Salix, 45, 65, 211; arctic a, 73; arctophila, 73; 
athabascensis, 144; bebbiana, 112, 142, 144; 
Candida, 144; cordifolia, 73; glauca, 94; 
glaucophylloides, 112; herbacea, 73; myr- 
tillifolia, 144; pedicellaris, 144; pellita, 112, 
117; petiolaris, 108, 116; planijolia, 142, 
145; reticulata, 73; scouleriana, 145; seris- 
sima, H5 ■,Uva-7irsi, 73, 112 

Salt, W. Ray 

Review of: Rowan Field Notes — A 
Review, 195 

Salvelinus alpinus, 170; jontinalis, 170; na- 
maycush, 170, 173 

Sanderling, 3, 5 

Sandpiper, Baird's, 3, 91; Least, 14; Spotted, 
14; Stilt, 63; Western, 14 

Sanguisorba canadensis, 113, 117 

Saskatchewan, northeastern, A range exten- 
sion for the wood frog in, by R. W. Nero 
and F. R. Cook, 268 

Saskatchewan, northwestern. Plant collec- 
tions from Carswell Lake and Beartooth 
Island, by G. W. Argus, 139 

Savile, D. B. O., and D. R. Oliver 

Bird and mammal observations at Hazen 
Camp, northern Ellesmere Island, in 1962, 

Saxifraga, 2; aizoides, 74, 112, 117; Aizoon, 
74, 126, 150, 152, 153; caespitosa, 74; cer- 
nua, 74; foliosa, 74; nivalis, 74, 94; opposf- 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Vol. 78 

tifolia, 74; rhmlaris, 74; tenuis, 74; tricus- 
pidata, 74, 140, 146 

Sayornis phoebe, 91; say a, 14 

Scaphiopus bonibifrons, 60 

Scaup, Greater, 90 

Schizachne purpurascens, 143 

Scirpus, 179; atrovirens, 111; caespitosus, 72, 
111; cyperinus, 45; fluviatilis, 153; tei- 
sonianus, 111; rufus, 111; validus, 111 

Scoter, Surf, 13; White -winged, 13 

Sculpin, arctic, 174; arctic staghorn, 174; 
arctic staghorn, 174; fourhorn, 174; mot- 
tled, 175; shorthorn, 174; slimy, 175 

Scutellaria galericulata, 114, 147 

Sedum Rosea, 112 

Selaginella rupestris, 142; selaginoides, 140, 

Selasphorus rufus, 14, 213, 259 

Senecio, 94; streptanthifoliiis, 147 

Setaria viridis, 182, 184 

Setophaga ruticilla, 16 

Shacklette, Hansford T. 

Flower variation of Epilobium angusti- 
foliwn L. growing over uranium deposits, 

Shanny, arctic, 177 

Sharing of Joy, A, reviewed by F. R. Cook, 

Shepherdia, 114; canadensis, 146 

Shoveler, 13, 90 

Shrew, masked, 78; short-tailed, 80, 103 

Shrike, Northern, 15 

Sialia currucoides, 202 

Sibbaldia procwnbens, 75 

Sieurus noveboracensis, 16 

Silene acaulis, 73 

Siskin, Pine, 16, 91 

Sitona cylindricollis, 61, 184 

Skate, thorny, 170 

Smilacina stellata. 111, trifolia, 111 

Smith, Winnifred 

Common Egrets nesting near Amherst- 
burg, Ontario, 59 

Snipe, Common, 3, 14 

Solidago, 45, 82, 102; hispida, 147; 
macrophylla, 114 

Solitaire, Townsend's Notes on, in western 
Chilcotin district, B.C., by W. A. B. Paul, 

Soniateria spectabilis, 2 ,90 

Some interesting plant records from the 
Chalk River district, Ontario, by T. C. 
Brayshaw, 150 

Some interesting plants in the Barron Cany- 
on in Algonquin Park, by M. I. Moore, 

Sora, 14 

Sorbus scopulina, 142, 146 

Sorex cinereus, 78; palustris palustris, 197 
Spadefoot toad from Manitoba, by F. R. 

Cook and D. R. M. Hatch, 60 
Sparganium eurycarpuin, 153 
Sparrow, fox, 16; Harris', 200, 269; Lark, 92; 

Lincoln's, 200; Savannah, 16; Song, 200, 

209, 252-257; White-crowned, 16, 269; 

White-throated, 200 
Sparrow, Harris', in Quebec, by J. K. Low- 

ther, 200 
Spatula clypeata, 13, 90 
Sphagmim, 81 
Spinus pinus, 16, 91 
Spiraea, 45, 82; douglasii 65 
Spirant hes Romanzoffiana, 112 
Sporobolus vaginiflorus, 30 
Spring and summer phenology at Baker Lake, 

Keewatin, N.W.T., during 1959-62, by 

C. J. Krebs, 25 
Squirrel, red, 78 

Starling, 15, 17, 125, 181, 202, 205 
Steganoptis tricolor, 14 
Stelgidopteryx ruficollis, 15 
Stellaria calycantha, 112; ciliatosepala, 145; 

crassifolia, 112; edwardsii, 145; humifusa, 

73; longipes, 73, 112, 145; subvestita, 145 
Stellula calliope, 14 
Stercorarius longicaudus, 3 
Sterna hirundo, 62, paradisaea, 4 
Stichaeus punctatus, 111 
Stickleback, ninespine, 177; threespine, 177 
Stinson, Robert H. 

Vole populations in southwestern 

Ontario, 98 
Stonecat, Noturus flavtis newly recorded in 

Alberta, by J. R. Nursall and V. Lewin, 

Stumus vulgaris, 15, 17, 181, 202, 205 
Sucker, longnose, 172 
Surnia ulula, 205 
Swallow, Bank, 15; Barn, 248; Cliff, 15, 205; 

Rough- winged, 15; Tree, 15, 205; Violet- 
green, 15 
Symphoricarpos alba, 212; occidentalis, 180 
Synaptmnys cooperi cooperi, 199 
Synthliboramphiis antiquus, 199 

Tachycineta thalassina, 15 

Ta?mas striatus griseus, 198 

Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, 78; h. hudsonicus, 

Taraxacum lacerum, 16; lapponicum, 16 

Teal, Blue-winged, 13; Cinnamon, 13, Green- 
winged, 13, 80 

Tern, Arctic, 4; Black, 14; Caspian, 62, 91; 
Common, 62 


Index to Volume 77 


Territoriality among wintering Snowy Owls, 

by Lloyd B. Keith, 17 
Tetrao nmtus, 162; mpestris, 162 
Thalictrmn alpimim, 112, 117; cornuti, 112; 

dioiczmi, 108, 112, 116; venuloswu, 150, 

Thelypteris noveboracensis, 110, 117 
Three new bird records for Prince Edward 

Island, by W. J. Mills, 62 
Thrush, Gray-cheeked, 200, 269; Hermit, 15; 

Swainson's, 15, 200 
Thuja occidentalism 98; plicata, 65 
Toad, American, 157; Canadian, 263 
Tofieldia, 116; glutinosa, 111, 144; piisilla, 73 
Tortella tormosa, 148 
Tortilla ruralis, 148 
Totaniis melanoleuciis, 90 
Towhee, Rufous-sided, 92 
Triademmi virginicum, 113 
Trifoliimi agrarium, 113; procwfibens, 118 
Triglochin maritima, 110; palustris, 110 
Trilliujn cernuwn, 111; recurvatinn. 111 
Trionyx spinifer spinifer, 63 
Trisetum spicatum, 71, 110 
Troglodytes troglodytes, 15 
Tsuga canadensis, 81; heterophylla, 65 
Turnstone, Ruddy, 1, 3, 5, 6 
Turtle, eastern spiny soft-shelled, 63 
Two helpful uses of "Terylene" for biolo- 
gists, by A. Ranvanyi, 268 
Two interior B.C. records for the Ancient 

Murrelet, by W. B. Johnstone, 199 
Typha angustifolia, 45; latifolia, 143, 179 
Tyr annus verticalis, 91 

Uhnus ofiiericana, 59 
Ujnbilicaria hyperborea, 148, 149 
Uria aalge, 242; lomvia, 242 
Urtica iirens, 112 

Vacciniuni, 45, 82; angustifolium, 113; macro- 

carpon, 82; myrtilloides, 143, 146; Oxyco- 

ccos, 113; uliginosum, 33, 75, 113; Vitis- 

idaea, 75, 82, 113 
Vallisneria spiralis, 108, 117 
Vass, Stanley E. 

A breeding record for the Bobolink in 

Prince Edward Island, 60 

Changing status of the Cowbird in Prince 

Edward Island, 125 
Veery, 15 

Vermivora celata, 15 
Veronica alpina, 75 
Viburmmt, 81; acerifolium, 108, 114, 116, 

117; cassi?2oides, 81, 108, 114, 117; edtile, 

114, 117; Lentago, 108, 117; opulus, 114; 

pauciflorum, 114, 117 

Vicia Cracca, 113 

Viola pri?milijolia, 126 

Vireo, Philadelphia, 15, 91; Red-eyed, 15; 
Warbling, 15, 91 

Vireo gilviis, 15, 91; olivaceus, 15; pbiladel- 
phiciis, 15, 91 

Vise aria alpina, 73 

Vole, meadow, 78, 80-88; red-backed, 78, 

Vole populations in southwestern Ontario, 
by R. H. Stinson, 98 

Voles, two. Local distribution of, evidence 
for interspecific interaction bv G. C. 
Clough, 80 

Vos, Antoon de, and A. E. Allin 

Winter mortality among Red-necked 
Grebes (Coly/nbiis grisegena) in On- 
tario, 67 z 

Vulture, Turkey, 205 

Wade, Douglas E. 

Letter to the Editor, 130 

Warbler, Audubon's, 16; Macgillivray's, 16; 
Magnolia, 16; Orange-crowned, 15; 
Townsend's 16; Wilson's, 16; Yellow, 16 

Waterthrush, Northern, 16 

Waxwing, Bohemian, 91 

Weevil, sweet clover, 61 

Weevil in the ear of child at London, On- 
tario, by W. W. Judd, 61 

Weresub, Luella K. 

Review of: Investigations in the Natural 
History of the Soviet Far East, 124 

Where is that Vanished Bird?, reviewed by 
W. E. Godfrey, 193 

Whitefish, lake, 172; round, 172 

Wildlife's Ten- Year Cycle, reviewed by A. 
H. Macpherson, 55 

Willet, 62 

Wilsonia pusilla, 16 

Winter mortality among Red-necked Grebes 
{Colymbus grisegena) in Ontario, by A. 
de Vos and A. E. Allin, 67 

Wolf, 5, 6 

Wood, Albert Andrew, 1885-1963, by H. B. 
Wressell, 207 

Woodsia alpiiia, 110; cathcartiana, 126; gla- 
bella, 71, 143; ilvensis, 71. 110, 126 

Woodpecker, Ivory-billed, 194 

Wren, Short-billed Marsh, 45; Winter, 15 

Wressell, H. B. 

Albert Andrew Wood, 1885-1963, 207 

Xanthocephalus xa?itbocephalns, 16, 180 
Xantboria candelaria, 149 

282 The Canadian Field-Naturalist Vol. 78 

Yellowlegs, Greater, 63, 90; Lesser, 63 Zapus hiidsonius, 78; h. hudsonius, 199 

Yellowtbroat, 16, 45 Zenaidtira macroiira, 14 

Youngman, Phillip M. Zonotrichia leucophrys, 16; querula, 200 

Review of: Principles in Mammalogy, 57 Zoster a marina, 108, 117 

A Note on the Production of this Journal 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist conforms to recommendations on the lay-out of period- 
icals issued by the International Organization for Standardization. It is set by linotype 
in Janson. The title is Kennerley. Boldface headings are Bodoni. Coverstock is 'Mayfair' 
by Howard Smith and text paper is Provincial Paper 'Thriftcoat'. The journal is printed 
by The Runge Press Limited, 124 Queen Street, Ottawa, Ontario. 

The Publications Committee acknowledges with thanks the contribution of the Con- 
servation Council of Ontario toward the publication of this volume. 


Edmonton Bird Qiib 

President, H. J. Montgoimery; Vice-President, 
Dr. V. E. Lewin; Secretary -Treasurer, Dr. W. G. 
Evans, Department of Entomology, University of 
Alberta, Edmonton, Alta.; Field Secretary, Dr. 
R. W. Turner; Librarian, D. A. Boag; Audubon 
Representative, B. Sparks. 

Mcllwraith Ornithological Onb 

President, W. R. Jarmain; Past President, Dr. 
F. S. Cook; Vice-President, Dr. G. Cummings; 
Recording Secretary, Mrs. G. A. MacDougall; 
Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. A. M. Coote, 644 
Base Line Rd., London, Ontario; Treasurer, Mrs. 
H. J. Wheaton; Migration Secretary, J. W. Leach; 
Migration Editor, W. G. Girling. 

Natural History Society of Manitoba 

President, Miss J. M. Walker; Honorary Pre- 
sident, A. H. Shortt; Honorary Vice-President, E. 
Gilbert; Past President, G. S. Cotter; Vice-Presi- 
dents, Dr. L. B. Smith, H. V. Hosford; Treasurer, 
W. D. Kyle; Assistant Treasurer, T. L Smith; 
General Secretary, Mrs. H. V. Hosford, 4116 Rob- 
lin Blvd., Charleswood 20, Manitoba; Executive 
Secretary, Mrs. G. Keith; Mailing Secretary, Miss 


Nova Scotia Bird Society 

President, Dr. L. B. Macpherson; Vice-President, 
Mrs. Victor Cardoza; Secretary -Treasurer, Miss 
Sylvia J. Fuixerton, 1051 Lucknow St., Halifax, 
N.S.; Editor, Mrs. J. W. Dobson. 


Provancher Society of Natnral History 
of Canada 

President, Ronald E. Blair; First Vice-President, 
Benoit Pelletier. Second Vice-President, James P. 
Coristine; Secretary -Treasurer, Georges A. L»- 
CLERc, 628 Eraser St., Quebec, Que. 

Province of Quebec Society for the 
Protection of Birds 

President, Mrs. G. H. Montgomery; Vice-Presi- 
dents, Miss R. B. Blanchard, A. R. Lepingwell; 
Treasurer, Miss G. E. Hibbard; Secretary, Miss R. 
S. Abbott, 164 Senneville Road, Senneville, P.Q. 

Toronto Field Naturalists' Qub 

President, Dr. D. Hoeniger; Vice-President, 
R. F. Norivian; Secretary -Treasurer, Mrs. H. Rob- 
soN, 49 Craighurst Ave., Toronto 12, Ont.; As- 
sistant Secretary, Miss Ruth Marshall; Junior 
T^JSr.C, R. J. MacLellan, 416 St. Qements Ave., 
Toronto 12, Ont. 

Vancouver Natural History Society 

Honorary President, Dr. M. Y. Williams; Past 
President, Dr. R. Stace-Smith; President Dr. J. E. 
Armstrong; Vice-President, N. F. Pxjllen; Corres- 
ponding Secretary, Mrs. D. J. Martin, 2038 Mac- 
donald St., Vancouver, B.C.; Treasurer, Mrs. E. N. 
Copping; Programme Secretaries, Miss R. Ross, 
Mrs. H. Pinder-Moss; Editor of Bulletin, C. B. W. 
Rogers; Recording Secretary, Miss K. Melroy. 


Authors are asked to share the cost of publication by paying for each 
page of an article that is in excess of the limit of twelve journal pages, 
the cost of illustrations and of setting small-sized ^e and tables. 


The Style Manual for Biological Journals is 
recommended, in general, as a guide for authors. 

Manuscripts should be typewritten on one side 
of nontransparent paper measuring 8i by 11 inches. 
Authors are requested to use at least one given 
name. All text matter, including quotations, foot- 
notes, tables, literature references, and legends for 
figures should be double-spaced. Only those words 
meant to appear in italics should be vinderlined. 
Every sheet of the manuscript should be number- 

Webster's Neiv International Dictionary is the 
authority for spelling. However, in a case of 
diflFerence in the spelling of a common name, and 
in the use of a variant name, a decision of a 
learned society is preferred. 

References are made by the author-date system. 
They should be listed alphabetically and typed at 
the end of the main body of text. All tides of 
fjeriodicals in reference matter should be written 
in full, not abbreviated. 

Tables should be titled and numbered consecu- 
tively in arable numerals. Tables and legends for 
the figures should be placed after the list of 
references. Each table and all the legends should 
be on separate pag«. 

Notes should bear the name of one author only 
and references in notes should be incorporated 
directly in the text. 


All figures, including each figure of the plates, 
should be numbered consecutively in arable 
numerals. The author's name, title of the paper, 
and figure number should be written in the lower 
left comer of the sheet on which the illustration 
appears. The legend should not be incorporated 
in the figure. 

Line drawings should be made with India ink 
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blue-lined co-ordinate paper. Co-orcfinate lines 
that are to appear in the reproduction should be 
ruled in black ink. Descriptive matter should be 
lettered, not typewritten, and all parts of the 
drawing should permit easy legibility even if a 
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Photographs should have a glossy finish and 
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The cost is given on the reprint order form which 
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3 2044 114 198 120 

Date Due 

MAY 8 1968 
MAY 2 2 1968